Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of seed oil plants of North-East India: A review
Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of seed oil plants of North-East India: A review
CellMed. 2015. Aug, 5(3): 17-17
Copyright © 2015, Association of Humanitas Medicine
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license. (
  • Received : May 08, 2015
  • Accepted : August 17, 2015
  • Published : August 31, 2015
Export by style
Cited by
About the Authors
Priyanka, Saha
Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar 788011, India
Anupam Das, Talukdar
Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar 788011, India
Sanjoy Singh, Ningthoujam
Department of Botany, Ghanapriya Women’s College, Imphal, Manipur, India
Manabendra Dutta, Choudhury
Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar 788011, India
Deepa, Nath1
Department of Botany and Biotechnology, Karimganj College, Karimganj-788710. Assam India
Lutfun, Nahar
Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research Group, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
Satyajit Dey, Sarker
Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research Group, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
Norazah, Basar
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

Apart from being used as food, seed oils have also been used traditionally as medicinal products by several communities. However, the full medicinal potential of many seed oil plants is yet to be properly reviewed, particularly for their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. North-East India has rich resources of seed oil plants. The availability of detailed information on these plants is quite limited. This review aims to explore and evaluate these seed oil plants of the North-East India with particular emphasis on their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities as well as chemical compositions. A comprehensive literature search on seed oil plants of this region has been performed. Seed oil yielding plants of this region can be categorized into two categories: plants that are used traditionally as sources of edible or medicinal oils and plants that are used for purposes other than as sources of oils. Many seed oil plants of this region have been reported to possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and to produce various types of compounds. This review also highlights the importance of these plants in contributing to the local as well as the national economy of India.
The beneficial uses of seed oil plants have been known since time immemorial. Apart from their uses as food items, oils extracted from seeds are also used for different purposes ranging from medicinal to biofuels. Their chemical compositions, physical and chemical properties generally determine their applications for different purposes.
Many microbial diseases worldwide have become a serious threat to human health because of the emergence of drug-resistant or multi-drug resistant (MDR) microbial strains ( Tabassum et al., 2013 ). Emergence of resistance to the existing drugs ( Rio s and Recio, 2005 ) led the scientists to search for the new alternatives including seed oil producing plants and their oil (Aktar et al., 2014), which are known for their antimicrobial properties. Several in vitro studies have been published confirming the effect of seed oils and their major compounds on pathogenic microbes ( Burt, 2004 ). However, there are only limited data available on the antifungal activity of these seed oils against fungal pathogens.
Determination of antioxidant properties of seed oils is also significant in view of maintaining food quality and preventing many physiological problems such as oxidative stress related complications, liver cirrhosis, and cancer. Food deterioration may occur due to the presence of oxidation-prone ingredients in food items ( Shukla et al., 1997 ). One of the current approaches to prevent this oxidative degradation is addition of natural antioxidants in food items. It is also believed that natural antioxidants can stabilize or deactivate the free-radicals. In living cells, free-radicals may incorporate highly reactive oxygen and attack healthy cells through a range of biochemical reactions ( Aluyor and Ori-Jesu, 2008 ). These free-radical initiated reactions may subsequently lead to cancer initiation and accelerated ageing process. Plant seed oils are reported to possess antioxidant properties that can prevent oxidative stress. The antioxidant property of seed oil is generally attributed to the presence of triglycerides and various natural antioxidant components in them. Formerly, very little or no attention was given to seed oil producing plants as a source of antioxidants ( Schmidt et al., 2005 ). However, in recent years, renewed focus on seed oils as sources of novel antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds has been observed ( Jarret et al., 2011 ).
The region of North-East India is endowed with two biodiversity hotspots of Indo-Burma and Eastern Himalayas. This region consists of eight states of India-Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Tripura. Many oil-rich seed bearing plants grow in this region in wild or in cultivated conditions. People residing in this region are using these plants for wide-ranging purposes including consumption as food items and also for medicinal applications. Enumeration of traditionally used seed oils in this region may help in highlighting the associated biochemical properties. Moreover, exploring those plants, which are not traditionally used by the people, could open up a new vista for production of seed oils having antioxidant properties. To the best of our knowledge, there is no up-to-date review published on the seed-oil plants of North-East India focusing particularly on their antimicrobial and antioxidant potential as well as their chemical compositions. Therefore, this mini review aims to review and document traditionally used and unused seed oil plants of North-East India and also to look into their chemical compositions with special emphasis on antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.
A shortlist of the seed oil yielding plants from the region of North-East India has been prepared from published literature, both from printed and electronic resources. Scientific names reported in the form of synonyms were standardized by cross checking with the Plant List ( ). A comprehensive survey of literature was performed using the electronic databases, viz., PubMed ( ), Science Direct ( ) and Google Scholar ( ) as well as various printed sources. Only experimentally verified chemicals were considered and their antioxidant properties were compared with records from PubChem ( ) and CHEMBL ( ) databases.
Seed oil yielding plants reported from North-East India have been categorized into (i) seed oils traditionally used by the ethnic communities for their oils, and (ii) seed oils not traditionally used by the ethnic communities, but used for other plant parts.
- Seed oil plants traditionally used in North-East India
A total of 26 seed-bearing plants from North-East India have been reported for their traditional and commercial uses in this region ( Table 1 ). Vegetable oils, predominantly seed oils, are generally procured from seeds, nuts or fruits by means of traditional processing techniques, such as the net variety system, the steam distillation, hydrodistillation technique and so on.
List of plants with oil yielding seeds traditionally used in North-east India with their antioxidant compound
PPT Slide
Lager Image
ASM – Assamese; BEN- Bengali; BOD – Bodo; ENG – English; HIN – Hindi; KHA – Khashi; MNI – Manipuri; NEP – Nepali; MIS – Mishmi.
- Seed oils not traditionally used in North-East India
There are further 38 seed oil yielding plants that grow in North-East India, but their oils are not traditionally used by the indigenous people ( Table 2 ). In certain cases, other plant parts are used by the people of the region. Scientific extraction and utilization of oil from these could enrich the seed oil resources of the region.
List of NorthEast Plants with oil yielding seeds which are not traditionally used
PPT Slide
Lager Image
AFR – African; ASM – Assamese; BEN- Bengali; ENG – English; HIN – Hindi; KAN – Kannada; MAR = Marathi; MNI – Manipuri; TAM – Tamil; URD – Urdu; LAD – Ladhaki.
Among these plants, Nigella sativa seed oil, popularly called as ‘Black seed oil’ ( Islam et al., 2009 ), is composed mainly of oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids, phytosterol, stigmasterol, and stearic acid. Neem plant ( Azadirachta indica ), generally found in various parts of the North-East India, is not used for its oil, but for other purposes. The seed oil of this plant has been studied extensively for the presence of triterpenoids and especially azadirachtin ( Copping, 1995 ). Other bioactive compounds present in this oil include campesterol, α-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Canola oil is another distinctive variety of rapeseed oil, which contains erucic acid, can be used as edible oil for use in salad dressing and other allied purposes.
- Usage categories of seed oils in North-East India
Seed oil producing plants reported from North-East India are used for wide-ranging purposes including uses as edible oils, various industrial items and as an alternative source of energy. Traditional uses of seed oil plants can be categorized into biofuel, cosmetics, fish poison, medicinal, food, food supplement and industrial uses. Most of the uses of the seed oil are for medicinal purposes, followed by use as food. Main consumption pattern of these seed oil plants have been highlighted in the following sections.
- Edible oils
Consumption as edible oils is one of the most important and popular uses of plant-seed oil. The commonly used plant seeds oils from North-East India include mustard, sunflower, safflower, and coconut oil. Mustard oil is cultivated from different species of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), such as Brassica juncea, Brassica nigra, Brassica rapa , etc.
Sunflower oil is a mixture of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids extracted from sunflower. Although not used by the people of North-East India in the past, the plant is now cultivated in many parts of this region for seed oil.
Another important seed oil bearing plant is Safflower, which produces two types of oil - one containing high monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid) and the other having high polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid). Oil containing monounsaturated fatty acids is mainly used for edible purposes, while the linoleic acid rich oil is used for painting and industrial purposes. Coconut oil is also used for edible purposes in this region.
Rice bran oil is the bi-product of milling and it is emerging as important edible oil in this region. Although it was not used in the past, nowadays its popularity has increased considerably because of its health benefits.
- Food supplements
The food supplements are generally the substances that give full source of carbohydrate and protein, and provide resistance against microbial attack and improve the immune system. Only three species of seed oil yielding plants in North-East India ( Abelmoschus esculentus, Carthamus tinctorius , and Linum usitatissimum ) are used as food supplements. Abelmoschusesculentus, because of its oil and protein content, is recognized as a source of nutritional supplement. Due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, this oil is good for human consumption ( Adelakun et al., 2009 ).
However, there are many other plants available in North-East India, which can be used as food supplements. For example, evening primrose seeds, which are generally used for the extraction of oil, are crucial for dietetic purposes ( Tabassum and Singha, 2013 ). Extracted meal is rich in phenolics. Soybean or peanut grits, flours, pastes are regularly used in many other parts of the world as food stabilizers. In certain cases, walnuts, poppy seeds, which are rich in edible oil, are occasionally consumed as food ingredients, flavourings, salad-dressing and addictive.
- Medicinal
In North-East India, 15 different plant seed oils are used as medicinal materials. Rapeseed oil obtained from Brassica rapa is used as laxative. In the traditional medicine, this oil is used as antiscorbutic, embrocation, and to treat muscular rheumatism, stiff neck, dengue, fever, bronchitis, etc (Tenore, 2011).
Cocos nucifera is used in various parts of this region for treating cholera and as a nutritional supplement ( Deorani and Shama, 2007 ). In other parts of the world, it is also used as an aphrodisiac, diuretic, and to treat loss of hair and debilitating diseases, fever and urinary disorders (Chopra et al., 1996). Croton tiglium is recognized as fish poison in North-East India as well as in other parts of India ( Amarowicz et al., 2000 ). However, jayphala oil obtained from this plant is used as a purgative, irritant, cathartic and in snake-bites in other parts of India (Chopra et al., 1996).
Trachyspermum ammi is found in North-East India, but not traditionally used. However, ajwain oil obtained from this plant is used for the treatment of abdominal pain, bronchial problem, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, and hemorrhoids ( Jeet et al., 2007 ). Likewise, Ocimum americanum, Syn Ocimum canum (tulsi) is a ubiquitous plant in North-East India, (Burt, 2007), particularly in Assam and Manipur, but tulsi oil is not used widely in this region. However, its usage has been reported in other parts of India for its anti-stress, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-radiation properties. This oil appears to have the potential for prevention and treatment of cancer (Burt, 2007).
Methi seed oil, obtained from Trigonella foenumgracecum , is used as carminative, tonic, aphrodisiac, dysentery and to treat smallpox ( Parekh and Chanda, 2008 ). Medicinal properties of the plant seed oils are generally attributed to the presence of various constituents of polyphenols, carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, ascorbic acid, and thiols.
- Biofuel
There are some instances of using plant seed oils as biofuel by the traditional people in the North-East India (Yuan-Chuen and Huang, 2008). Oils extracted from mustard seeds, coconut and castor are used for religious and ritual purposes (Tenore et al, 2011). Whilt large scale extraction of seed oils for their uses as biofuel is still in its infancy, seed oil plants are slowly emerging as an important sources of biofuel and starting to pave the way towards new sources of non-renewable energy. To meet the ever-increasing demands for energy, attempts have been made to produce biodiesel from variety of plants, mainly non-edible plants found in North-East India. Calophyllum inophyllum, Hevea brasiliensis, Jatropha curcas, Madhuca indica , and Pongamia pinnata are just a few examples ( Gogoi et al., 2011 ).
- Cosmetics
A variety of plant seed oils have been providing the essential ingredients for various cosmetics since time immemorial. In spite of the presence of many plants in North-East India, traditional use of seed oil for cosmetics is rather rare. However, oil from Brassica juncea is mixed with the extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Curcuma longa to produce skin care products and cosmetics in some parts of Assam ( Saikia et al., 2006 ). Considering the abundance of seed oil plants in this region, one might foresee an emerging trend in using these seed oil producing plants as a source of essential components of cosmetics in industrial scale. Seed oils from grape, papaya and mulberry may also be considered for use in cosmetic industries
- Industrial uses
There are no reported traditional industrial applications of seed oils in the region. Despite that, seed oil growing in this region, can be utilized for industrial purposes, from painting to lubricant industries. Camellia sp., growing abundantly in Assam, has its future in oil industry ( Kaplowitz and Tsukamoto, 1996 ). Vegetable oils obtained from soyabean and castor, can be used as transformer coolant oils ( Schmidt and Pokorný, 2005 ). Palm oil can be used in isolation as a fluxing dip in the tin plating in steel industries, while olive oil can be used as a yarn lubricant ( Kaplowitz and Tsukamoto, 1996 ).
- Chemical properties and characteristics of seed oils
Chemical characteristics of seed oils generally depend on the fatty acid composition. Presence of other compounds provide unique characteristics of seed oil. Mustard oil is characterized by the pungent odor owing to the presence of allyl isothiocyanate, which serves as defence against herbivores. This compound is stored inside the compartment of the plant cells in the form of glucosinolate ( Ratzka et al., 2002 ). Mustard oil contains generally high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids, such as erucic acid and oleic acid, and lower amounts of polyun satu rated fatty acids comprising omega-3 α-linolenic acid and omega-6 linoleic acid. This oil also contains a little amount of saturated fats, sinapines and esters of phenolic acids ( Schimdt and Pokorny, 2005 ).
Main components of sunflower oil are linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids ( Gunstone, 2011 ). Sunflower oil can be categorized by the amount of oleic acid present, high oleic acid sunflower oil (containing more than 70% of the total fatty acids) and mild oleic acid sunflower oil (containing less than 70% of the total fatty acids. Other important components are chlorogenic, caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids ( Amarowicz et al., 2000 ). In other parts of the world, sunflower oil is used in manufacturing solid sunflower butter. Nowadays people prefer refined product of this oil for edible purposes. Though linolenic acid and linoleic acids are important for human nutrition, they may cause oxidative instability in the oil ( Wang, 2002 ).
Coconut oil exists as solid in room temperature because of its relatively high proportion of saturated fatty acids (92%) particularly lauric acid ( Adelakun et al., 2009 ). Important fatty acid generally includes capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, linoleic acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid ( Chowdhury et al., 2007 ). Palm, olive, cottonseed, peanut, and sunflower oils are classed as oleic-linoleic acid oils contain high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, such as the monounsaturated oleic acid and the polyunsaturated linoleic acid ( Dunn, 2005 ). Other oils are categorized as the erucic acid oils, which are similar to oleic linoleic acid oils except their unsaturated fatty acid. Rapeseed and mustard seed oils are important oils of this class.
A brief summary of various compositions of fatty acids in the seed oils is given in Table 4 . Castor oil (a hydroxy-acid oil), another important oil of this class contains glycerides of ricinoleic acid. Melting point of the specific chemical ingredient plays an important role in maintaining the particular bioactivity expression among the seed oil plants. Mustard oil, proved to be more effective than corn oil, because of the presence of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid in it and also experimentally found effective in preventing color tumor in animals (Dwivedi and Ram, 2003).
Fatty acid constituents of some major seed oil found in North-east India
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Fatty acid constituents of some major seed oil found in North-east India
Rice bran oil has high content of free fatty acids, wax, and unsaponifiable matter ( Shin and Kang, 2001 ). Its beneficial effects in the health improvement are due to the presence of compounds such as oryzanol, tocotrienols and squalene ( Kochhar, 2002 ). Rice bran oil has high stability in their structure, probably due to the combined effect of oryzanol, phytosterols, squalene, tocopherols, and tocotrineols ( Kochhar, 2002 ).
- Antimicrobial properties of the seed oil plants of North-East India
A fair amount of data on the antimicrobial activity of many seed oil producing plants of North-East India is available ( Avancini et al., 2000 ). The phenolic component of the seed oil plants are generally known for their antimicrobial activity. The possible mechanisms of action of natural compounds present in these seed oil plant involves disintegration of cytoplasmic membrane of the bacterial cell, destabilization of the proton motive force (PMF), electron flow, active transport, and coagulation of the cell content ( Burt, 2004 ). The structure of these seed oil compounds disintegrates the external membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, releasing lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and increasing the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane to ATP. Analysis in the antimicrobial activity of black pepper, clove, garlic, ginger, and green chilli on the human pathogenic bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. typhi , and Shiguella flexneri revealed that, aqueous garlic extract was sensitive against all the bacterial pathogens. Many plants are reported to possess not only the antimicrobial activity but also the resistance modifying ability ( Shrestha and Tiwari, 2009 ).
The terpene content of the oil plays crucial role in the antifungal activity. These seed oil plants exhibit cytotoxic and phototoxic activity leading to fungicidal or fungistatic property ( Rios and Recio, 2005 ). Similarly, inhibitory effect of clove extracts have been studied by Sakagami and Kajimura (2000) on the production of verotoxin by E. coli . However, in that study, couple of other plants were also found active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.
Mycotoxins mediated diseases, chronic, subchronic, and acute can be treated by seed oils, but their effectiveness depends on the frequency and route of administration and dose of the oils. The other factors include the age, sex the time, and the climatic condition of the plants producing the fixed oils ( Table 4 ).
Studies on C. albicans revealed that the seed oil of F. capillaries not only could inhibit the fungal growth but also could initiate morphological transformations thereby provoking depolarizeation of the mitochondria with the reduction of the membrane potential affecting Ca 2+ cycle (Tenore et al., 2011). As a result, the proton pump and the ATP pool was affected and the cell death occurred by apoptosis or necrosis. In the yeast cell, the ergosterol constitutes the most abundant sterol which is responsible for maintaining the cell function and integrity ( Rodrigouez et al., 1985 ). The component of the oil of F. capillaries could act on the sterol biosynthesis pathway thereby inhibiting the cell growth by inhibiting the ergosterol biosynthetic enzyme, lanosterol 14α-demethylase. Thus, seed inhibiting the cell growth by inhibiting the ergosterol biosynthetic enzyme, lanosterol 14α-demethylase. Thus, seed fixed oil proved to be potent antifungal agents treating candidiasis, cryptococcosis, and ringw orm diseases and is effective against superficial infection too.
Light induced activation of photosensitive components of seed oil produces conjugated cytotoxic adducts of DNA ( Averback et al., 1990 ).The process resulted cell lysis and leakage of many integral proteins of target cell (Bakkali et al., 2004). Microbial population like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp. can be inhibited by blocking synthesis of intracellular and extracellular enzymes synthesis. Application of Croton campestris seed oil in fungal cell resulted parietal thickness and plasma emma disruption ( Raad et al., 2013 ). Aspergillus flavus show ultra-structure deteoration characterized by leakage of various vital ions ( Shankaranarayan et al., 2008 ). Fungal growth inhibition is also associated with nonfunctional fungal hyphae after treatment with Sesamum indicum L. seed oil ( Anilakumar et al., 2010 )
- Antioxidant properties of oil yielding plants from North-east India
Antioxidants protect the biological systems against the potentially harmful effects of several biochemical reactions causing excessive oxidation ( Arnao et al., 2001 ), thereby preventing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is often results in cancer, artheros clerosis, cardiovascular disorder and many other ( Valko et al., 2007 ). Antioxidant activity is attributed by the changes in the metabolizing key enzymes and thereby controlling the unnecessary quick ageing process in the living systems ( Finley et al., 2011 ; Nzaramba et al., 2009 ). Living cells possess antioxidant defense system mainly comprising of glutathione, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase to protect themselves against harmful oxidative stress ( Kaplowitz and Tsukamoto, 1996 ).
Oxidative reactions lead to formation of free-radicals. The most common compounds which are attacked by oxidation are unsaturated fats, which generally turn rancid as a consequence. These reactions are often enhanced with ferrus or copper ions. Degradation due to oxidative reactions can cause adverse effects on all biomolecules. The oils like okra seed oil, ground nut oil, linseed oil, olive oil, and sesamum oil ( Tables 1 and 2 ), which are native to North-East India, possess antioxidant activity. These oils are capable of preventing oxidative stress by detoxifying various harmful chemical agents entering the human body. Antioxidants present in the seed oils include mainly tocopherols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and bioactive plant phenols ( Table 5 ) ( Dimitrios, 2006 ; Shukla et al., 1997 ). Oil producing seeds contain various types of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, lignans, lignins, phenolic acids, and tannins. Flavonoids can exert their antioxidant activity via a series of mechanisms, e.g., by chelating metal ions, by scavenging or quenching free-radicals or by inhibiting enzymetic systems responsible for free-radical generation ( Dias et al., 2005 ; Islam, 2009 ). Flavonoids are the most widely present polyphenolic compounds in many oil seeds ( Saikia et al., 2006 ).
Antimicrobial Activity of the Seed Oil Plants of Northeast India
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Antimicrobial Activity of the Seed Oil Plants of Northeast India
Antioxidant components in seed-oil bearing plants of North-east India
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Antioxidant components in seed-oil bearing plants of North-east India
Lignans are dimeric phenyl propanoids and often possess one or more phenol (Ar-OH) functionality. These compounds are considered to be protective against colon, breast, and prostate cancers ( Kocchar, 2002 ). Tocopherols are another important antioxidant present in seed oils. α-Tocopherol exhibits vitamin E activity and prevents oxidation of lipids. The antioxidant activity of tocopherol is based on the tocopheroltocopheryl quinone redox system ( Shukla et al., 1997 ). Tocopherol acts as free radical scavenger and thus can be used in the presservation of animal products. Sunflower oil contains high γ-tocopherol making this plant resistant to autoxidation ( Arnao et al., 2001 ). The flax plant Linum usitatissimum possesses various tocopherols and carotenoids and some sterols, thus making its oil high in antioxidants. Rapeseed oil and soyabean oil contain high percentage of tocopherols that render antioxidant activities. Coconut oil contains low amount of tocol (tocopherols and toc otrienols) ( Valko et al., 2007 ).
Sterols are steroidal alcohols present in the oil which serve as an important antioxidant. Rapeseed oil contains sterol in free form as well as in esterified form ( Raad et al., 2013 ; Kareru et al., 2010 ). A group of derivatives of hydroxytyrosol is present in olive and castor oils ( Horn et al., 1999 ). Carotenoids have also been reported to possess high antioxidant activity, especially in the exposure to the light. Phenols present in the seed oils contribute to the antioxidant properties. Common phenolic antioxidants include butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), propyl gallate (PG) and tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) ( Dutta and Sharma, 2011 ; Leung et al., 1999). Lipophilic antioxidants are more active in emulsions, while polar antioxidants are more active in bulk fats and oils.
Characteristics of edible oils can be compared through the smoke point because it reflects the molecular structure of the oil ( Hunt, 1953 ). The smoke point of a fat or oil is the point of the temperature at which the lipid begins to disintegrate into fatty acids and glycerol to produce bluish smoke ( Table 3 ). It marks the point from where flavour and nutrition degradation begins, and thus is an important consideration for characterizing the quality of edible oils. Oils having high smoke point are used for deep frying. Antioxidants can have influence on the features of smoke points of oils. It has been observed that the smoke point of soybean oil and lard was increased BHA, BHT or TBHQ and removing cholesterol ( Yen et al., 1997 ). Various biofunction and probable mechanism of action of other notable seed oil plants are summarized in table 7 given below.
Smoke points of some plant seed oils used in North-east India
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Smoke points of some plant seed oils used in North-east India
Application of various seed-oil Plants of North east India
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Application of various seed-oil Plants of North east India
Seed oil yielding plants may provide an avenue for developing a new set of drugs for controlling wide range of ailments associated with oxidative stress, as well as several types of contagionus and pathogenic diseases. The northeastern states of India, being one of the largest repositories of the plant kingdom, offers various seed oil yielding plants, which could be explored further for their antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties. Seed oils can be used to increase the self-life of the industrial food products. Thus antioxidant property present in the seed oils can be explored for wide range of applications ranging from preservation of food products to prevention of the oxidative stress related diseases, e.g. cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The antimicrobial property of the seed oil producing plants and various bioactive compounds isolated from them may lead to the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds to fight against MDR microbial strains and various forms of infections in general.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Authors would like to thank Bioinformatics Centre (BIF), DBT Govt of India. Assam University, Silchar, Assam for providing facilities in literature search. First author acknowledge the UGC-BSR fellowship.
Abano EE , Amoah KK 2011 Effect of moisture content on the phys ical properties of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) Asian J Agric Sci 5 56 - 66
Adelakun OE , Oyelade OJ , Ade-Omowaye BIO , Adeyemi IA , Van de Venter M 2009 Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Mo ench) Flour Food Chem Toxicol 47 1123 - 1126    DOI : 10.1016/j.fct.2009.01.036
Afolabi IS , Marcus GD , Olanrewaju TO , Chizea V 2011 Biochemic al effect of some food processing methods on the health promo ting properties of under-utilized Carica papaya seed J Nat Prod 4 17 - 24
Ahmad A , Abdin MZ 2002 Interactive Effect of Sulphur and Nitrogen on the Oil and Protein Contents and on the Fatty Acid Profiles of Oil in the Seeds of Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) and Mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. and Coss.) J Agron Crop Sci 185 49 - 54
Al-Khalifa A , Maddaford TG , Chahine MN 2007 Effect of dietary hempseed intake on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292 1198 - 1203
Aluyor EO , Ori-Jesu M 2008 The use of antioxidants in vegetable oils - A review Afr J Biotechnol 7 4836 - 4842
Amaral JS , Casal S , Pereira JA , Seabra RM , Oliveira BP 2003 Determination of Sterol and Fatty Acid Compositions, Oxidative Stability, and Nutritional Value of Six Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Cultivars Grown in Portugal J Agric Food Chem 51 7698 - 7702    DOI : 10.1021/jf030451d
Amarowicz R , Naczk M , Shahidi F 2000 Antioxidant activity of crude tannins of canola and rapeseed hulls J Am Oil Chem Soc 77 957 - 961    DOI : 10.1007/s11746-000-0151-0
Amarowicz R , Wanasundara P , Shahidi F 1994 Chromatographic separation of flaxseed phenolics Die Nahrung 38 520 - 526    DOI : 10.1002/food.19940380508
Amarowicz R , Wanasundara UN , Karamać M , Shahidi F 1996 Antio xidant activity of ethanolic extract of mustard seed Nahrung 40 261 - 263    DOI : 10.1002/food.19960400506
Anand P , Murali YK , Tandon V , Murthy PS , Chandra R 2009 Insulinotropic effect of aqueous extract of Brassica nigra improves glucose homeostasis in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 117 251 - 256    DOI : 10.1055/s-2008-1080917
Anilakumar RK , Pal A 2010 Nutritional, Medicinal and Industrial Uses of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Seeds-An Overview Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 75 159 - 168
Anjum F , Shahid M , Bukhari S 2013 Study of Quality Characteristic s and Efficacy of Extraction Solvent/ Technique on the Antiox idant Activity of Bitter Gourd Seed J Food Process Technol 4 132 - 138
Annan K , Houghton PJ 2008 Antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of aqueous extracts of Ficus asperifolia Miq. and Gossypium arboreum L., wound-healing plants of Ghana J Ethnopharmacol 119 141 - 144    DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2008.06.017
Applewhite TH , Grayson M 1978 Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology John Wiley and Sons Inc New York, USA Fats and Fatty Oils 123 - 129
Arafat S , Gaafar A , Basuny A , Nassef L 2009 Chufa Tubers (Cyperus esculentus L.): As a New Source of Food World Appl Sci J 7 151 - 156
Ardabili G , Farhoosh R , Khodaparast H 2011 Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. styriaka) grown in Iran J Agric Sci Tech 13 1053 - 1063
Aremu MO , Olaofe O , Akintayo TE 2006 A comparative study on the chemical and amino acid composition of some Nigerian under utilized legume flours Pak J Nutr 5 34 - 38    DOI : 10.3923/pjn.2006.34.38
Armstrong JS 2006 Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization: the sine qua non for cell death Bioessays 28 253 - 260    DOI : 10.1002/bies.20370
Arnao MB , Cano A , Acosta M 2001 The hydrophilic and lipophilic contribution to total antioxidant activity Food Chem 73 239 - 244    DOI : 10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00324-1
Asgarpanah J , Kazemivash N 2013 Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Carthamus tinctorius L Chin J Integr Med 19 153 - 159    DOI : 10.1007/s11655-013-1354-5
Avancini CAM , Wiest JM , Mundstock EA 2000 Compositae decocto, as disinfectant or antiseptic Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 52 230 - 234    DOI : 10.1590/S0102-09352000000300011
Averbeck D , Averbeck S , Dubertret L , Young AR , Morlie`re P 1990 Genotoxicity of bergapten and bergamot oil in Saccharomyces cerevisiae J Photochem Photobiol B 7 209 - 229    DOI : 10.1016/1011-1344(90)85158-S
Ávila-Blanco ME , Rodríguez MG , Moreno Duque JL , Muñoz-Ortega M , Ventura-Juárez J 2014 Amoebicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants in an Amoebic Liver Abscess Hamster Model Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 930208 -
Ayoola GA , Lawore FM , Adelowotan T , Aibinu IE , Adenipekun E , Coker HAB , Odugbemi TO 2008 Chemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzigium aromaticum (clove) Afr J Microbiol Res 2 162 - 166
Bakkali F , Averbeck S , Averbeck D , Idaomar M 2008 Biological effects of essential oils--a review Food Chem Toxicol 2 446 - 475
Bankar GR , Nayak PG , Bansal P , Paul P , Pai KS , Singla RK , Bhat VG 2011 Vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effect of Cocos nucifera Linn. endocarp on isolated rat thoracic aorta and DOCA salt induced hypertensive rats J Ethnopharmacol 134 50 - 54    DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.047
Baranwal VK , Irchhaiya R , Singh S 2012 Anisomeles indica: An overview Int Res J Pharm 3 84 - 86
Barros L , Pereira E , Dueñas M , Carvalho AM , Santos-Buelga C , Ferreira ICFR 2013 Bioactivity of Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: antioxidant and antitumour potential and detailed characterization in bioactive compounds 1st Symposium on Medicinal Chemistry Braga Available at:
Bekker NP , UI’chenko NT , Glushenkova AI 2002 Lipids of the aerial part of Capsella bursa-pastoris Chem Nat Compd 38 610 - 611    DOI : 10.1023/A:1022615627431
Bennion M 1995 Introductory Foods 10th Edition Prentice-Hall Inc New Jersey, USA
Bhuvaneshwar U , Singh KP , Ashwani K 2010 Ethno-Medicinal, Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Studies of Euphorbia tirucalli L J Phytol 2 65 - 77
Bisignano C , Saija A , Dugo P , Cross KL , Parker ML , Waldron KW , Wickham MS J 2010 Characterization of polyphenols, lipids and dietary fibre from almond skins (Amygdalus communis L.) J Food Compos Anal 23 166 - 174    DOI : 10.1016/j.jfca.2009.08.015
Boutkhila S , Idrissib ME , Amechrouqb A , Chbichebc A , Chakira S , Badaoui KE 2009 Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of crude, aqueous, ethanol extracts and essential oil s of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Acta Botanica Gallica: Botany Letters 156 201 - 209    DOI : 10.1080/12538078.2009.10516151
Braca A , Siciliano T , Arrigo M 2008 Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia seed essential oil Fitoterapia 79 123 - 125    DOI : 10.1016/j.fitote.2007.11.002
Burkill IH 1996 A Dictionary of Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Ministry of Agriculture & Co-operatives Kuala Lampur, Malaysia
Burt S 2004 Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods - a review Int J Food Microbiol 94 233 - 253
Burton W , Salisbury P , Potts D , Edwards J 2008 The Potential of canola quality Brassica juncea as an oilseed crop for Australia Tamworth, NSW 13th Australian Research Assembly on Brassicas - Conference Proceedings Perth Available at : 84 - 87
Canella M , Castriotta G 1980 Protein composition and solubility of tomato seed meal Lebensm Wiss Technol 13 342 - 358
Cartea ME , Francisco M , Soengas P , Velasco P 2011 Phenolic compounds in Brassica vegetables Molecules 16 251 - 280
Carvalho CC , Cruz PA , Fonseca MMR , Filho LX 2011 Antibacterial properties of the extract of Abelmoschus esculentus Biotechnol Bioprocess Engineer 16 971 - 977    DOI : 10.1007/s12257-011-0050-6
Carvalho M , Ferreira PJ , Mendes VS , Silva R , Pereira JA , Jerónimo C , Silva BM 2010 Human cancer cell antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of Juglans regia L Food Chem Toxicol 48 441 - 447    DOI : 10.1016/j.fct.2009.10.043
Chahar MK , Kumar S , Geetha L , Lokesh T , Manohara KP 2013 Mesua ferrea L.: A review of the medical evidence for its phytochemistry and pharmacological actions Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 7 211 - 219    DOI : 10.5897/AJPP12.895
Chopra RN , Nayar SL , Chopra IC 2002 Glossary of Indian medicinal plants National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources New Delhi, India
Choudhury S , Riyazuddin A , André Barthel , Plet A 1998 Volatile Oils of Mesua ferrea (L.) from Assam, India J Essent Oil Res 10 497 - 501    DOI : 10.1080/10412905.1998.9700955
Chowdhury K , Banu LA , Khan S , Latif A 2007 Studies on the fatty acid composition of edible oil Bangladesh J Sci Ind Res 42 311 - 316
Clara KW , Sze-Tao M , Shridhar KS 2000 Walnuts (Juglans regia L): proximate composition, protein solubility, protein amino acid composition and protein in vitro digestibility J Sci Food Agr 80 1393 - 1401    DOI : 10.1002/1097-0010(200007)80:9<1393::AID-JSFA653>3.0.CO;2-F
Concha J , Soto C , Chamy R , Zúñiga ME 2006 Effect of rosehip extraction process on oil and defatted meal physicochemical properties J Am Oil Chem Soc 83 771 - 775    DOI : 10.1007/s11746-006-5013-2
Copping LG , Schmutterer H 1995 The neem tree: source of unique natural products for integrated pest management, medicine, industry and other purposes Wiley VCH Weinheim, Germany
Craker LE 2004 A proceedings of the XXVI international horticultural congress: The future for medicinal and aromatic plants Acta Hortic 629 135 - 137
Dahanukar SA , Thatte UM 1989 Therapeutic approaches in ayur veda revisited Popular Prakashan Mumbai, India
Decorde K , Teissèdre PL , Sutra T , Ventura E , Cristol JP , Rouanet JM 2009 Chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract supplementation prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers Mol Nutr Food Res 53 659 - 666    DOI : 10.1002/mnfr.200800165
Deka DC , Basumatary S 2011 High quality biodiesel from yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seed oil Biomass Bioenerg 35 1797 - 1803    DOI : 10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.01.007
Deorani SC , Sharma GD 2007 Medicinal Plants of Nagaland Mahendra Pal Singh Dehra Dun, India
Dias AS , Porawski M , Alonso M , Marroni N , Collado PS , González-Gallego J 2005 Quercetin decreases oxidative stress, NFkappaB activation, and iNOS overexpression in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats J Nutr 135 2299 - 2304
Dimitrios B 2006 Sources of natural phenolic antioxidants Trends Food Sci Technol 17 505 - 512    DOI : 10.1016/j.tifs.2006.04.004
Dunn RO 2005 Effect of Antioxidants on the Oxidative Stability of Methyl Soyate (Biodiesel) Fuel Proc Technol 86 1071 - 1085    DOI : 10.1016/j.fuproc.2004.11.003
Dutta U , Sarma GC 2011 Koch-Rajbansi’s and Their Traditional Phyto-therapy, A Case Study in the Chirang District Of Western Assam Int J Sci Adv Technol 1 139 - 141
Dwivedi A , Sharma GN 2014 A Review on Heliotropism Plant: Helianthus annuus L Phytopharmacology 3 149 - 155
Dwivedi C , Muller LA , Goetz-Parten DE , Kasperson K , Mistry VV 2003 Chemopreventive effects of dietary mustard oil on colon tumor development Cancer Lett 196 29 - 34    DOI : 10.1016/S0304-3835(03)00211-8
Dwivedi D , Ram R 2008 Chemical Composition of bitter apricot kernals form Ladakh, India Acta Hort 765 335 - 338
Edgar B , Cahoon K , Ripp G , Sarah EH , Brian MG 2002 Transgenic Production of Epoxy Fatty Acids by Expression of a Cytochro me P450 Enzyme from Euphorbia lagascae Seed Plant Physiol 128 615 - 624    DOI : 10.1104/pp.010768
Eka HD , Tajul Aris Y , WanNadiah WA 2010 Potential use of Malaysian rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed as food, feed and biofuel Int Food Res J 17 527 - 534
Elmatbaea E 2006 Effect of Pumpkin Seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) Diets on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Chemical and Morphometric Evaluation in Rats World J Chem 1 33 - 40
Eromosele CO , Paschal NH 2002 Characterization and viscosity parameters of seed oil from wild plants Bioresource Technol 86 203 - 205
Faiza I , Wahiba K , Nassira G , Chahrazed B , Fawzia BA 2011 Antibacterial and antifungal activities of olive (Olea europaea L.) from Algeria J Microbiol Biotechn Res 1 69 - 73
2009 Project document for a regional standard for Pomegranate FAO Rome Available at:
2006 Protein quality evaluation. Reports of a joint FAO/WHO expert Consultation Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome Available at:
Fennema OR 1985 Food Chemistry Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, USA
Figueira CN , Santos RM , Campesatto EA , Lúcio IML , Araújo EC , Bastos MLA 2013 Biological activity of the Cocos nucifera L.. and its profile in the treatment of diseases: A review J of Chem and Pharmaceutical Res 5 297 - 302
Finley JW , Kong AN , Hintze KJ , Jeffery EH , Ji LL , Lei XG 2011 Antioxidants in foods: state of the science important to the food industry J Agric Food Chem 59 6837 - 6846    DOI : 10.1021/jf2013875
Fokou E , Achu MB , Kansci G , Ponka R , Fotso M , Tchiégang C , Tchouanguep FM 2009 Chemical properties of some cucurbitaceae oils from Cameroon Pak J Nutr 8 1325 - 1334    DOI : 10.3923/pjn.2009.1325.1334
Frega N , Bocci F , Conte L , Testa F 1991 Chemical composition of Tobacco Seeds (Nicotiana tabacum L.) J Am Oil Chem Soc 68 29 - 33    DOI : 10.1007/BF02660305
Fukuda Y , Nagata M , Osawa T , Namiki M 1986 Chemical aspects of the antioxidative activity of roasted sesame seed oil, and the effect of using the oil for frying Agric Biol Chem 50 857 - 862    DOI : 10.1271/bbb1961.50.857
Fukuda Y , Nagata M , Osawa T , Namiki M 1986 Contribution of lig nan analogues to antioxidative activity of refined unroasted sesame seed oil J Am Oil Chem Soc 63 1027 - 1031    DOI : 10.1007/BF02673792
Gardner G , Craker LE 2006 Acta Hort ISHS Acta Horticulturae 765: XXVII International Horticultural Congress - IHC International Symposium on Plants as Food and Medicine Seoul Available at:
Gogoi TK , Talukdar S , Baruah DC 2011 Comparative analysis of performance and combustion of koroch seed oil and jatropha methyl ester blends in a diesel engine Linköping University Electronic Press Linköping, Sweden 3533 - 3540
Gopala Krishna AG , Hemakumar KH , Khatoon S 2006 Study on the composition of rice bran oil and its higher free fatty acids value J Am Oil Chem Soc 83 117 - 120    DOI : 10.1007/s11746-006-1183-1
Goun EA , Petrichenko VM , Solodnikov SU , Suhinina TV , Kline MA , Cunningham G , Nguyen C , Miles H 2002 Anticancer and antithrombin activity of Russian plants J Ethnopharmacol 81 337 - 342    DOI : 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00116-2
Grimm DT , Sanders TH , Pattee HE , Williams DE , Sanchez-Dominguez S 1996 Chemical Composition of Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hirsuta Peanuts Pean Sci 23 111 - 116    DOI : 10.3146/i0095-3679-23-2-9
Gunstone FD 2011 Vegetable Oils in Food Technology: Composition, Properties and Uses 2nd ed Wiley-Blackwell West Sussex, UK 137 - 167
Gross NR , Guzman CA 1995 Chemical Composition of Aboriginal Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seeds from Peru J Agric Food Chem 43 102 - 105    DOI : 10.1021/jf00049a019
Hashempur MH , Homayouni K , Ashraf A , Salehi A , Taghizadeh M , Heydari M 2014 Effect of Linum usitatissimum L. (linseed) oil on mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial Daru 22 43 -    DOI : 10.1186/2008-2231-22-43
Hiramatsu M , Takahashi T , Komatsu T , Kido T , Kasahara Y 2009 Antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of mogami-benibana (Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius Linne) Neurochem Res 34 795 - 805    DOI : 10.1007/s11064-008-9884-5
Honary LAT 2004 Biodegradable/Biobased Lubricants and Greases. Machinery Lubrication, Issue No. 200109 (Noria Corporation)
Hopkins CY , Chisholm MJ 1959 Fatty acids of kenaf seed oil J Am Oil Chem Soc 36 95 - 96    DOI : 10.1007/BF02639975
Hoppe MB , Jha HC , Egge H 1997 Structure of an antioxidant from fermented soybeans (tempeh) J Am Oil Chem Soc 74 477 - 479    DOI : 10.1007/s11746-997-0110-4
Howell S 2007 Promising Industrial Applications for Soybean Oil in the US American Soybean Assosiation St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Hron Sr RJ , Kim HL , Calhoun MC , Fisher GS 1999 Determination of (+)-, (−)-, and total gossypol in cottonseed by high-perform ance liquid chromatography J Am Oil Chem Soc 76 1351 - 1355    DOI : 10.1007/s11746-999-0149-5
Huda SN , Grantham-McGregor SM , Tomkins A 2001 Cognitive and motor functions of iodine-deficient but euthyroid children in Bangladesh do not benefit from iodized poppy seed oil (Lipiodol) J Nutr 131 72 - 77
Hunt RA 1953 Relation of Smoke Point to Molecular Structure Ind Eng Chem 45 602 - 606    DOI : 10.1021/ie50519a039
Ingale S , Shrivastava SK 2011 Chemical studies of new varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) LSF-11 and LSF-8 seeds Agri Biol J N Am 2 1171 - 1181
Islam M 2009 Medicinal Plants of North-East India Avishkar Publishers Jaipur, India
Islam SN , Ferdous AJ , Ahsan M , Faroque AB 1990 Antibacterial activity of clove extracts against pathogenic strains including clinically resistant isolates of Shigella and Vibrio cholera Pak J Pharm Sci 3 1 - 5
Jafarian-Dehkordi A , Zolfaghari B , Mirdamadi M 2013 The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice Res Pharm Sci 8 159 - 165
Jarret RL , Wang ML , Levy IJ 2011 Seed oil and fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species J Agric Food Chem 59 4019 - 4024    DOI : 10.1021/jf104590u
Jeet K , Devi N , Narender T , Sunil T , Lalit S , Raneev T 2007 Trachy spermum ammi (Ajwain): A Comprehensive Review Int Res J Pharm 3 133 - 138
Jenkins DJ1 , Kendall CW , Marchie A , Parker TL , Connelly PW , Qian W , Haight JS , Faulkner D , Vidgen E , Lapsley KG , Spiller GA 2002 Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: blood lipids, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and pulmonary nitric oxide: a randomize ed, controlled, crossover trial Circulation 106 1327 - 1332    DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000028421.91733.20
Johnson LA , Lusas EW 1983 Comparison of alternative solvents for oils extraction J Am Oil Chem Soc 60 229 - 242    DOI : 10.1007/BF02543490
Jun MS , Ha YM , Kim HS , Jang HJ , Kim YM , Lee YS , Kim HJ , Seo HG , Lee JH , Lee SH , Chang KC 2011 Anti-inflammatory action of methanol extract of Carthamus tinctorius involves in hemeoxygenase-1 induction J Ethnopharmacol 133 524 - 530    DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2010.10.029
Kaithwas G , Majumdar DK 2013 Effect of L. usitatissimum (Flaxseed/Linseed) Fixed Oil against Distinct Phases of Inflammation ISRN Inflamm 735158 -
Kaithwas G , Majumdar DK 2010 Evaluation of antiulcer and ant isecretory potential of Linum usitatissimum fixed oil and possible mechanism of action Inflammopharmacology 18 137 - 145    DOI : 10.1007/s10787-010-0037-5
Kaithwas G , Mukherjee A , Chaurasia AK , Majumdar DK 2011 Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Linum usitatissimum L. (flaxseed/linseed) fixed oil Indian J Exp Biol 49 932 - 938
Kalaivani M , Jegadeesan M 2013 Antimicrobial Activity of Alcoh olic Extract Extract of Leaves and Flowers of Madhuca longifolia Int J Sci Res Publ 3 1 - 3
Kamatou GP , Vermaak I , Viljoen AM 2012 Eugenol-From the Remote Maluku Islands to the International Market Place: A Review of a Remarkable and Versatile Molecule Molecules 17 6953 - 6981    DOI : 10.3390/molecules17066953
Kaplowitz N , Tsukamoto H 1996 Oxidative stress and liver disease Prog Liver Dis 14 131 - 159
Kareru PG , Keriko JM , Kenji GM , Gachanja AN 2010 Anti-termite and antimicrobial properties of paint made from Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Schum. oil extract Afr J Pharmacy Pharmacol 4 87 - 89
Kaushik N , Agnihotri A 2000 GLC analysis of Indian rapeseedmustard to study the variability of fatty acid composition Biochem Soc Trans 28 581 - 583    DOI : 10.1042/bst0280581
Kazeem MI , Abimbola SG , Ashafa AOT 2013 Inhibitory potential of Gossypium arboreum leaf extracts on diabetes key enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase Bangladesh J Pharmacol 8 149 - 155
Khanka MS , Tewari L , Kumar S , Singh L , Nailwal TK 2009 Extraction Of High Quality Dna From Diploknema butyracea Food Chem 1 33 - 35
Kim JY , Kim DN , Lee SH , Yoo SH , Lee SY 2010 Correlation of fat ty acid composition of vegetable oils with rheological behavior and oil uptake Food Chem 118 398 - 402    DOI : 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.05.011
Kochert G , Stalker HT , Gimenes M , Galgaro L , Romero Lopes C 1996 RFLP and cytogenetic evidence on the origin and evolution of allotetraploid domesticated peanut, Arachis hypogaea (Leguminosae) Am J of Bot 83 1282 - 1291    DOI : 10.2307/2446112
Kochhar SP , Gunstone FD 2002 Vegetable oils in Food Technology: Composition, Properties and uses CRC Press United Kingdom, Oxford Sesame, rice-brans and flaxseed oils 308 - 315
Kundu A , Saha S , Walia S , Kour C 2013 Antioxidant and antifungal properties of the essential oil of Anisomeles indica from India J of Med Plants Res 7 1774 - 1779
Kwon KH , Kim KI , Jun WJ , Shinn DH , Cho HY , Hong BS 2002 In vitro and in vivo effects of macrophage - stimulatory polysaccharide from leaves of Perilla frutescens var. crispa Biol Pharm Bull 25 367 - 371    DOI : 10.1248/bpb.25.367
Kyralan M , Golukcu M , Tokgoz H 2009 Oil and conjugated linole nic acid contents of seeds from important pomegranate cultivars (Punica granatum L.) grown in Turkey J Am Oil Chem Soc 86 985 - 990    DOI : 10.1007/s11746-009-1436-x
Lampi A , Hopia A , Piironen V 1997 Antioxidant activity of minor amounts of tocopherol in natural triacylglycerols J Am Oil Chem Soc 74 549 - 555    DOI : 10.1007/s11746-997-0179-9
Lazzeri L , Errani M , Leoni O , Venturi G 2004 Eruca sativa spp. Oleifera: A new non-food crop Ind Crop Prod 20 67 - 73    DOI : 10.1016/j.indcrop.2002.06.001
Lee JW , Lee KW , Lee SW , Kim IH , Rhee C 2004 Selective increase in pinolenic acid (all-cis-5,9,12-18:3) in Korean pine nut oil by crystallization and its effect on LDL-receptor activity Lipids 39 383 - 387    DOI : 10.1007/s11745-004-1242-2
Leung J , Fenton T , Clandinin D 1981 Phenolic components of sunflower flour J Food Sci 46 1386 - 1388    DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1981.tb04180.x
Li L , Tsao R , Yang R , Kramer JK , Hernandez M 2007 Fatty Acid Profiles, Tocopherol Contents, and Antioxidant Activities of Heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia Var. cordiformis) and Persian Walnut (Juglans regia L.) J Agric Food Chem 55 1164 - 1169    DOI : 10.1021/jf062322d
Liny P , Divya TK , Barasa M , Nagaraj B , Krishnamurty N , Dinesh R 2012 Preparation Of Gold Nanoparticles From Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) Flowers and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activities Int J Pharma Bio Sci 3 440 - 446
Liu WR , Qiao WL , Liu ZZ , Wang XH , Jiang R , Li SY , Shi RB , She GM 2013 Gaultheria: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Characteristics Molecules 18 12071 - 12108    DOI : 10.3390/molecules181012071
Luitel DR , Maan B , Timsina B , Münzbergová Z 2014 Medicinal plants used by the Tamang community in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 10 1 - 11    DOI : 10.1186/1746-4269-10-1
Mabaleha MB , Mitei YC , Yeboah SO 2007 A comparative study of the properties of selected melon seed oils as potential candidates for development into commercial edible vegetable oils J Am Oil Chem Soc 84 31 - 36    DOI : 10.1007/s11746-006-1003-7
Mahale SM , Goswami AS 2011 Composition and Characterization of Refined Oil Compared with Its Crude Oil from Waste Obtained from Mangifera indica Asian J Res Chem 4 1415 - 1419
Majumdar K , Datta B , Shankar U 2012 Establishing continuity in distribution of Diploknema butyracea (Roxb.) H J Lam in Indian subcontinent J Res Biol 2 660 - 666
Marikkar JM , Ghazali HM , Long K 2010 Composition and thermal characteristics of Madhuca longifolia seed fat and its solid and liquid fractions J Oleo Sci 59 7 - 14    DOI : 10.5650/jos.59.7
Milovanović M , Jovanović K 2005 Characterization and composite on of melon seed oil Journal of Agricultural Sciences 50 41 - 47
Mishra A , Dash P , Murthy P , Siddique HH , Kushwaha P 2012 A Classical Review on Rajika (Brassica juncea) J Bot Sci 1 18 - 23
Miyazawa M , Nishiguchi T , Yamafuji C 2005 Volatile components of the leaves of Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis Bailey Flavour Frag J 20 158 - 160    DOI : 10.1002/ffj.1335
Moghaddam MN 2011 In vitro Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by Some Spices and Medicinal Plants Used in Iran Glob J Pharmacol 5 176 - 180
Mohamed A , Bhardwaj H , Hamama A , Webber C 1995 Chemical composition of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil Ind Crop Prod 4 157 - 165    DOI : 10.1016/0926-6690(95)00027-A
Mujić I , Šertović E , Jokić S , Sarić Z , Alibabić V , Vidović S , Živković J 2011 Isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of soybean seeds Croat. J. Food Sci. Technol. 3 16 - 20
Murakami H , Asakawa A , Terao J , Matsushita S 1984 Antioxidative stability of tempeh and liberation of isoflavones by fermentation Agric Biol Chem 48 2971 - 2975    DOI : 10.1271/bbb1961.48.2971
Nash DT 2004 Cardiovascular risk beyond LDL-C levels: Other lipids are performers in cholesterol story Postgrad Med 116 11 - 15    DOI : 10.3810/pgm.12.2004.suppl37.214
Nath R , Roy S , De B , Choudhury MD 2013 Anticancer and antioxidant activity of croton: A Review Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 5 63 - 70
Naz R , Bano A 2012 Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis L. leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2 944 - 947    DOI : 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60004-0
Nuzhat T , Vidyasagar GM 2013 Antifungal Investigation on Plant Essential Oils. A Review Int J Pharma Pharm Sci 5 19 - 28
Nzaramba MN , Reddivari L , Bamberg JB , Miller Jr JC 2009 Antiproliferative activity and cytotoxicity of Solanum jamesii tuber extracts on human colon and prostate cancer cells in vitro J Agric Food Chem 57 8308 - 8315    DOI : 10.1021/jf901567k
Oh K , Hu FB , Manson JE , Stampfer MJ , Willett WC 2005 Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up of the nurses' health study Am J Epidemiol 161 672 - 679    DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwi085
Oliveira I , Sousa A , Ferreira IC , Bento A , Estevinho L , Pereira JA 2008 Total phenols, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks Food Chem Toxi col 46 2326 - 2331    DOI : 10.1016/j.fct.2008.03.017
Olorunnipa TA , Igbokwe CC , Lawal TO , Adeniyi BA , Mahady GB 2013 Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (okra): An in vitro study Clin Microbiol 2 132 -
Özcan MM 2009 Some Nutritional Characteristics of Fruit and Oil of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Growing in Turkey Iran J Chem Chem Eng 28 322 - 341
Padmavathy S , Nair DN , Shanthi T 2014 GC-MS analysis of bioactive componen in Gautheria Fragratissima WALL Asian J Pharm Clin Res 7 83 - 85
Paiva-Martins F , Rodrigues V , Calheiros R , Marques MP 2011 Characterization of antioxidant olive oil biophenols by spectroscopic methods J Sci Food Agric 91 309 - 314    DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.4186
Pandey DP , Rather MA 2012 Isolation and Identification of Phytoc hemicals from Xanthium strumarium Int J Chemtech Res 4 266 - 271
Pantzaris TP , Basiron Y , Gunstone F 2002 Vegetable Oils in Food Technology: Composition, Properties and uses 2nd ed. CRC Press Oxford, UK The lauric (coconut and palmkernel) oils 412 - 420
Parekh J , Chanda SV 2008 Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of 34 Indian Medicinal Plants against Some Staphylococcus Species Turk J Biol 32 63 - 71
Pereira AP , Isabel CFR , Ferreira A , Marcelino F , Valentão P , Andrade PB , Seabra R , Estevinho L , Bento A , Pereira JA 2007 Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Activity of Olive (Olea europaea L. C. Cobrançosa) Leaves Molecules 12 1153 - 1162    DOI : 10.3390/12051153
Pereira JA , Oliveira I , Sousa A , Valentão P , Andrade PB , Ferreira IC , Ferreres F , Bento A , Seabra R , Estevinho L 2007 Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: Phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars Food Chem Toxicol 45 2287 - 2295    DOI : 10.1016/j.fct.2007.06.004
Phippen Winthrop B , Isbell Terry A , Phippen Mary E 2006 Total seed oil and fatty acid methyl ester contents of Cuphea access ions Ind Crop Prod 24 52 - 59    DOI : 10.1016/j.indcrop.2006.02.001
Pholen J , Pohtee F , Lee PJ , Ichikawa Y , Menard RR , Gioia AJD 2011 Automating calculation for rapid seed oil quality control and authentication Waters Milford, United States The chemical composition of Tea seed oil variety 345 - 351
Ponnusha BS , Subramaniyam S , Pasupathi P , Subramaniyam B , Virumandy R 2011 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial properties of Glycine Max-A review Int J Curr Biomed Sci 1 49 - 62
Qayum M , Nisar M , Shah MR , Zia-ul-Haq M , Kaleem AW , Marwat IK 2012 Biological Screening of oils from Impatiens bicolor Royle Pak J Bot 44 355 - 359
Raad NH , Mun’im RA , Sinna MS , Anfal MK , Moayad SH , Yasamin AK , Ali M , Ahmaed AA 2013 Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Capsella Bursa against Selected Pathogenic Bacteria Am J BioSci. 1 6 - 10    DOI : 10.11648/j.ajbio.20130101.12
Rabia N , Asghari B 2012 Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2 944 - 947    DOI : 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60004-0
Rajakannu S , Veezhinathan M , Anandan K , Balasubramaniam G , Sritharan UR 2013 Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected three herbal plants extract with digital image processing technique EJBI 9 14 - 26
Ramadhas AS , Jayaraj S , Muraleedharan C 2005 Biodiesel production from high FFA rubber seed oil Fuel 84 335 - 340    DOI : 10.1016/j.fuel.2004.09.016
Rana M , Dhamija H , Prashar B , Sharma S 2012 Ricinus communis L. - A Review Int J PharmTech Res 4 1706 - 1711
Rao YK , Lien HM , Lin YH , Hsu YM , Yeh CT , Chen CC , Lai CH , Tzeng YM 2012 Antibacterial activities of Anisomeles indica constituents and their inhibition effect on Helicobacter pyloriinduced inflammation in human gastric epithelial cells Food Chem 132 780 - 787    DOI : 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.11.037
Ratzka A , Vogel H , Kliebenstein DJ , Mitchell-Olds T , Kroymann J 2002 Disarming the mustard oil bomb Proc Natl Acad Sci 99 11223 - 11228    DOI : 10.1073/pnas.172112899
Reni ML 2013 The Chemical Composition of Tender Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Water and Coconut Meat and Their Biological Effect in Human Body Int J Green Herb Chem 2 723 - 729
Rios JL , Recio MC 2005 Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity J Ethnopharmacol 100 80 - 84    DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.025
Rodriguez RJ , Low C , Bottema CD , Parks LW 1985 Multiple functions for sterols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biochim Biophys Acta 837 336 - 343    DOI : 10.1016/0005-2760(85)90057-8
Sabitha V , Ramachandran S , Naveen KR , Panneerselvam K 2011 Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats J Pharm Bioallied Sci 3 397 - 402    DOI : 10.4103/0975-7406.84447
Saidu TB , Abdullahi M 2011 Phytochemical Determination and Antibacterial Activities of The Leaf Extracts of Combretum molle And Gossypium arboreum Bayero J Pure Appl Sci 4 132 - 136
Saikia AP , Ryakala VK , Sharma P , Goswami P , Bora U 2006 Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics J Ethnopharmacol 106 149 - 157    DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2005.11.033
Sakagami Y , Kajimura K 2002 Bactericidal activities of disinfectants against vancomycin-resistant enterococci J Hosp Infect 50 140 - 144    DOI : 10.1053/jhin.2001.1150
Sankaranarayanan S , Bama P , Deccaraman M , Vijayalakshimi M , Murugesan K , Kalaichelvan PT , Arumugam P 2008 Isolation and characterization of bioactive and antibacterial compound from Helianthus annuus linn Indian J Exp Biol 46 831 - 835
Sarma SK , Reddy SK , Akhil MCH , Sankar S 2013 Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Activty of whole plant of Madhuca indica Int J Res Pharma Chem 3 15 - 19
Sayeed M , Sohel G , Khan A 2004 Physico-chemical characteristics of Mesua ferrea seed oil and nutritional composition of its seed and leaves B Chem Soc Ethiopia 18 157 - 166
Scherer R , Godoy HT 2009 Antioxidant activity index (AAI) by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method Food Chem 112 654 - 658    DOI : 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.026
Schmidt S , Pokorný J 2005 Potential application of oilseeds as sources of antioxidants for food lipids-a review Czech J Food Sci 23 93 - 102
Schubert SY , Lansky EP , Neeman I 1999 Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and ferm ented juice flavonoids J Ethnopharmacol 66 11 - 17    DOI : 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00222-0
Scott PT , Pregelj L , Chen N , Hadler JS , Djordjevic MA , Gresshoff PM 2008 Pongamia pinnata: An Untapped Resource for the Biofuels Industry of the Future Bioenerg Res 1 21 - 29
Shin SW , Kang CA 2001 Studies on compositions and antifungal activities of essential oils from cultivars of Brassica juncea L Kor J Pharmacogn 32 140 - 144
Shobolev V , Khan SI , Tabanca N , Wedge DE , Manly SP , Cutler SJ , Coy MR , Becnel JJ , Neff SA , Gloer JB 2012 Biological Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Phytoalexins and Selected Natural and Synthetic Stilbenoids J Agric Food Chem 59 1673 - 1682
Shrestha KA , Tiwari RD 2009 Antifungal activity of the crude extracts of some medicinal plants against Fusarium solani (MART.) SACC Ecoprint 16 75 - 78
Shukla V , Wanasundara P , Shahidi F , Shahidi F. 1997 Natural Antioxidants, Chemistry, Health Effects, and Applications Champaign The American Oil Chemists Society Illinois 34 14 - 19
Silva Riveriro Rafaela , Silva Davi Oliveira , Fontes Humberto Rollemberg , Alviano Celuta Sales , Fernandes Patricia Dias , Alviano Daniela Sales 2013 Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Cocos nucifera var. typica BMC Complement Altern Med 13 107 -    DOI : 10.1186/1472-6882-13-107
Singla RK 2012 Review on the Pharmacological Properties of Cocos Nucifera Endocarp Webmed Central Pharmaceutical Sciences WMC003413 3
Sobolev VS , Khan SI , Tabanca N 2011 Biological Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Phytoalexins and Selected Natural and Syn thetic Stilbenoids J Agric Food Chem 59 1673 - 1682    DOI : 10.1021/jf104742n
Soleimanpour S , Sedighinia FS , Afshar AS , Zarif R , Asili J , Ghazvini K 2013 Synergistic antibacterial activity of Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens Jundi shapur J Microbiol 6 e7262 -
Sowemimo AA , Fakoya FA , Awopetu I , Omobuwajo OR , Adesanya SA 2007 Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants J Ethnopharmacol 113 427 - 432    DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2007.06.024
Spino C , Dodier M , Sotheeswaran S 1998 Anti-HIV coumarins from Calophyllum seed oil Bioorg Med Chem Lett 8 3475 - 3478    DOI : 10.1016/S0960-894X(98)00628-3
Tabassum W , Kullu AR , Sinha MP 2013 Effects of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera on regulation of hypothyroidism and lipid profile The Bioscan 8 665 - 669
Tambe Y , Tsujiuchi H , Honda G , Ikeshiro Y , Tanaka S 1996 Gastric cytoprotection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene, beta-caryophyllene Planta Med 62 469 - 470    DOI : 10.1055/s-2006-957942
Tambekar DH , Dahikar SB 2010 Exploring antibacterial potential of some Ayurvedic preparations to control bacterial enteric infections J Chem Pharm Res 2 494 - 501
Tannin-Spitz T , Bergman M , Grossman S 2007 Cucurbitacin glucosides: Antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities Biochem Biophys Res Commun 364 181 - 186    DOI : 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.09.075
Taveira M , Fernandes F , Pinho P Guedes de , Andrade PB , Pereira JA , Valentão P 2009 Evolution of Brassica rapa var. rapa L. volatile composition by HS-SPME and GC/IT-MS Microchem J 93 140 - 146    DOI : 10.1016/j.microc.2009.05.011
Tawfiq N , Heaney RK , Plumb JA 1995 Dietary glucosinolates as blocking agents against carcinogenesis-Breakdown products assessed by induction quinine reductase activity in murine heap cell Carcinogenesis 16 1191 - 1196    DOI : 10.1093/carcin/16.5.1191
Tenore GC , Troisi J , Di Fiore R , Basile A , Novellinno E 2012 Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Rapa Catozza Napoletana (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa DC.) seed meal, a promising protein source of Campania region (southern Italy) horticultural germplasm J Sci Food Agric 92 1716 - 1724    DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.5537
Thakur AK , Chatterjee SS , Kumar V 2014 Antidepressent like effect of Brassica juncea L. leaves in diabetic rodents Indian J Exp Biol 52 613 - 622
Thapa LB , Dhakal TM , Chaudhary R , Thapa H 2013 Medicinal Plants Used by Raji Ethnic Tribe of Nepal in Treatment of Gas trointestinal Disorders Our Nat 11 177 - 186
Teh SS , Ee GC , Mah SH , Yong YK , Lim YM , Rahmani M , Ahmad Z 2013 In vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Mesua beccariana (Baill.) Kosterm., Mesua ferrea Linn., and Mesua congestiflora extracts BioMed Research International 2013 1 - 9
Upadhyay B , Singh KP , Kumar A 2010 Ethnomedicinal , phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of Euphorbia tirucalli L. J Phytol. 2 65 - 77
Usta N 2005 Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine Biomass Bionerg 28 77 - 86    DOI : 10.1016/j.biombioe.2004.06.004
Valko M , Leibfritz D , Moncol J , Cronin MT , Mazur M , Telser J 2007 Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39 44 - 84    DOI : 10.1016/j.biocel.2006.07.001
Vosoughkia M , Ghareaghag LH , Ghavami M , Gharachorloo M , Delkhosh B 2011 Evaluation of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Seeds of Different Genotypes of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Int J Agric Sci Res 2 59 - 66
Walia A , Malan R , Saini S , Saini V , Gupta S 2011 Hepatoprotective effects from the leaf extracts of Brassica juncea in CCl4 induced rat model Der Pharma Sinica 2 274 - 285
Wang CY , Liu Q , Huang QX , Liu JT , He YH , Lu JJ , Bai XY 2013 Activation of PPARγ is required for hydroxysafflor yellow A of Carthamus tinctorius to attenuate hepatic fibrosis induced by oxidative stress Phytomedicine 20 592 - 599    DOI : 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.02.001
Wang YC , Huang TL 2005 Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 43 295 - 300    DOI : 10.1016/j.femsim.2004.09.008
Wang T , Gunstone F 2002 In Vegetable oils in Food Technology: Composition, Properties and uses Blackwell Publishing West Sussex, UK Soybean Oil 312 - 326
Willcox ML , Graz B , Falquet J , Sidib´e Oumar , Forsterd Mathieu , Diallo Drissa 2007 Argemone mexicana Decoction for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum malaria T Roy Soc Trop Med H. 101 1190 - 1198    DOI : 10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.05.017
Yen GC , Shao CH , Chen CJ , Duh PD 1997 Effects of Antioxidant and Cholesterol on Smoke Point of Oils LWT - Food Sci Technol 30 648 - 652    DOI : 10.1006/fstl.1996.0236
Yu JC , Jiang ZT , Li R , Chan SM 2003 Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Brassica juncea (L.) Coss. Grown in Different Regions, Hebei, Shaanxi and Shandong, of China J Food Drug Analysis 11 22 - 26
Yogesh C , Kumar EP , Manisha B , Hardik RM , Vamshikrishna BA 2011 An Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Abelmoschus esculentus on Clinically Isolated Infectious Disease Causing Bacterial Pathogen from Hospital Int J Pharm Phytopharmacol Res 1 107 - 111
Yong JW , Ge L , Ng YF , Tan SN 2009 The Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Water Molecules 14 5144 - 5164    DOI : 10.3390/molecules14125144
Yue S , Tang Y , Li S , Duan JA 2013 Chemical and Biological Properties of Quinochalcone C-Glycosides from the Florets of Carthamus tinctorius Molecules 18 15220 - 15254    DOI : 10.3390/molecules181215220
Zhang YB , Guo J , Dong HY , Zhao XM , Zhou L , Li XY , Liu JC , Niu YC 2011 Hydroxysafflor yellow A protects against chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis Eur J Pharmacol 660 438 - 444    DOI : 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.04.015