SOME OPIAL-TYPE INEQUALITIES APPLICABLE TO DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS INVOLVING IMPULSES

Journal of the Korean Society of Mathematical Education Series B The Pure and Applied Mathematics.
2015.
Nov,
22(4):
315-331

- Received : March 09, 2015
- Accepted : September 07, 2015
- Published : November 30, 2015

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The purpose of this paper is to obtain Opial-type inequalities that are useful to study various qualitative properties of certain differential equations involving impulses. After we obtain some Opial-type inequalities, we apply our results to certain differential equations involving impulses.
R
be the set of all real numbers. Assume that [
a
,
b
] ⊂
R
is a bounded interval. A function
f
: [
a
,
b
] →
R
is called regulated on [
a
,
b
] if both
exist for every point
s
∈ [
a
,
b
),
t
∈ (
a
,
b
], respectively. Let
G
([
a
,
b
]) be the set of all regulated functions on [
a
,
b
]. For
f
∈
G
([
a
,
b
]) we define
f
(
a
−) =
f
(
a
);
f
(
b
+) =
f
(
b
). For convenience we define
Remark 2.1.
Let
f
∈
G
([
a
,
b
]). Since both
f
(
s
+) and
f
(
s
−) exist for every
s
∈ [
a
,
b
] it is obvious that
f
is bounded on [
a
,
b
], and since
f
is the uniform limit of step functions,
f
is Borel measurable (see [3, Theorem 3.1.]).
For a closed interval
I
= [
c
,
d
], we define
f
(
I
) =
f
(
d
) −
f
(
c
).
A
tagged
interval (
τ
, [
c
,
d
]) in [
a
,
b
] consists of an interval [
c
,
d
] ⊂ [
a
,
b
] and a point
τ
⊂ [
c
,
d
].
Let
I_{i}
= [
c_{i}
,
d_{i}
] ⊂ [
a
,
b
],
i
= 1, …,
m
. We say that the intervals
I_{i}
are pairwise non-overlapping if
for
i
≠
j
where
int
(
I
) denotes the interior of an interval
I
.
A finite collection {(
τ_{i}
,
I_{i}
) :
i
= 1, 2, …,
m
} of pairwise non-overlapping tagged intervals is called a
tagged partition of
[
a
,
b
] if
. A positive function
δ
on [
a
,
b
] is called a
gauge
on [
a
,
b
].
From now on we use notation
.
Definition 2.2
(
[6
,
9]
)
.
Let
δ
be a gauge on [
a
,
b
]. A tagged partition
of [
a
,
b
] is said to be
δ
−
fine
if for every
we have
Moreover if a
δ
−fine partition
P
satisfies the implications
then it is called a
δ
*−fine partition of [
a
,
b
].
The following lemma implies that for a gauge
δ
on [
a
,
b
] there exists a
δ
*−fine partition of [
a
,
b
]. This also implies the existence of a
δ
− partition of [
a
,
b
].
Lemma 2.3
(
[6]
)
.
Let δ be a gauge on
[
a
,
b
]
and a dense subset
Ω⊂ (
a
,
b
)
be given
.
Then there exists a δ*−fine partition
of
[
a
,
b
]
such that
t_{i}
∈ Ω
for
We now give a formal definition of two types of the Kurzweil integrals.
Definition 2.4
(
[6
,
9]
)
.
Assume that
f
,
g
: [
a
,
b
] →
R
are given. We say that
f
d
g
is
Kurzweil integrable
(or shortly, K-
integrable
) on [
a
,
b
] and
v
∈
R
is its integral if for every
ε
> 0 there exists a gauge
δ
on [
a
,
b
] such that
provided
is a
δ
−fine tagged partition of [
a
,
b
]. In this case we define
(or, shortly,
).
If, in the above definition,
δ
−fine is replaced by
δ
*−fine, then we say that
f
d
g
is
Kurzweil* integrable
(or, shortly, K*-
integrable
) on [
a
,
b
] and we define
.
Remark 2.5.
By the above definition it is obvious that K-integrability implies K*-integrability.
The following results are needed in this paper. For other properties of the K-integrals, see, e.g.,
[2
,
7
,
9
,
10]
.
In this paper
BV
([
a
,
b
]) denotes the set of all functions that are of bounded variation on [
a
,
b
].
Theorem 2.6
([
11
, 2.15. Theorem])
.
Assume that f
∈
G
([
a
,
b
])
and g
∈
BV
([
a
,
b
]).
Then both
f
d
g
and
g
d
f
are K-integrable on
[
a
,
b
]
and
Remark 2.7.
In the above theorem, the sum Σ
_{t∈[a,b]}
[Δ
^{−}
f
(
t
)Δ
^{−}
g
(
t
)−Δ
^{+}
f
(
t
)Δ
+
g
(
t
)] is actually a countable sum because every regulated function has only countable dis-continuities.
Theorem 2.8
([
10
, p. 40, 4.25. Theorem])
.
Let h
∈
BV
([
a
,
b
]),
g
: [
a
,
b
] →
R
and
f
: [
a
,
b
] →
R
.
If the integral
g dh exists and f is bounded on
[
a
,
b
],
then the integral
exists if and only if the integral
exists and in this case we have
Theorem 2.9
([
10
, p. 34, 4.13. Corollary])
.
Assume that f
∈
G
([
a
,
b
])
and g
∈
BV
([
a
,
b
]).
Then we have for every t
∈ [
a
,
b
]
The following result is the Hölder’s inequality for K-integral. In this paper we frequently use this inequality.
Theorem 2.10.
(Hölder’s inequality)
Assume that
f
,
g
∈
G
([
a
,
b
])
and h is a nondecreasing function defined on
[
a
,
b
].
Let
.
Then we have
Proof
. The proof of this theorem is very similar to the proof of the classical Hölder’s inequality. So we omit the proof. ☐
f
∈
G
([
a
,
b
]) and
g
is a nondecreasing function on [
a
,
b
].
We say that the function
g
is
not locally constant
at
t
∈ (
a
,
b
) if there exists
η
> 0 such that
g
is not constant on (
t
−
ε
,
t
+
ε
) for every 0 <
ε
<
η
. We also say that the function
g
is
not locally constant
at
a
and
b
, respectively if there exist
η
,
η
* > 0 such that
g
is not constant on [
a
,
a
+
ε
), (
b
−
ε
*,
b
] respectively, for every
ε
∈ (0,
η
),
ε
*∈ (0,
η*
).
Definition 3.1
(
[4]
)
.
If
g
is not locally constant at
t
∈ (
a
,
b
), we define
provided that the limit exists.
If
g
is not locally constant at
t
=
a
and
t
=
b
respectively, we define
respectively, provided that the limits exist. Frequently we use
instead of
.
If both
f
and
g
are constant on some neighborhood of
t
, then we define
.
Remark 3.2.
It is obvious that if
g
is not continuous at
t
then
exists. Thus if
does not exist then
g
is continuous at
t
.
is called a
Stieltjes derivative
of
f
with respect to
g
.
Theorem 3.3
(
[4]
)
.
Assume that if g is not locally constant at t
∈ [
a
,
b
].
If f is continuous at t or g is not continuous at t; then we have
K*-integrals recover Stieltjes derivatives.
Theorem 3.4
(
[4]
)
.
Assume that if g is constant on some neighborhood of t then there is a neighborhood of t where both f and g are constant. Suppose that
exists at every t
∈ [
a
,
b
] − {
c
_{1}
,
c
_{2}
, …},
where f is continuous at every t
∈ {
c
_{1}
,
c
_{2}
, …}.
Then we have
Lemma 3.5
(
[4]
)
.
Assume that if g is constant on some neighborhood of t then there is a neighborhood of t such that both
f
_{1}
and
f
_{2}
are constant there. If both
and
exist and
f
_{1}
,
f
_{2}
∈
G
([
a
,
b
]), t
hen we have
Similarly to the Riemann integral we have the following integration by parts formula.
Theorem 3.6.
(Integration by Parts)
Assume that functions f, g, h
∈
G
([
a
,
b
])
are all left-continuous and h is nondecreasing. Suppose that both
and
exist for every t
∈ [
a
,
b
]
and
.
Then we have
Proof
. By Theorem 2.8 and Theorem 3.4 we have
So by Theorem 2.6 we get
This completes the proof. ☐
Let
The Heaviside function
H_{τ}
:
R
→ {0, 1} is defined by
Using the Heaviside function
H_{τ}
, we define function
ϕ
: [
a
,
b
] →
R
by
Remark 3.7.
It is obvious that the function
ϕ
is strictly increasing and of bounded variation on [
a
,
b
], and left-continuous on [
a
,
b
].
Lemma 3.8
(
[5]
)
.
Assume that f
∈
G
([
a
,
b
])
and
f'
(
t
)
exists for t
≠
t_{k}
,
Then we have
and that a function
α
: [
a
,
b
] →
R
is strictly increasing on [
a
,
b
], and continuous at
t
≠
t_{k}
, and Δ
α
(
t_{k}
) ≠ 0; for every
.
Remark 4.1.
Note that strictly increasing implies nondecreasing, and a nondecreasing function is regulated.
Let
PC
([
a
,
b
]) = {
u
∈
G
([
a
,
b
]) :
u
is continuous at every
t
≠
t_{k}
,
}.
From now on we always assume that
u
,
, and we define
The following result is an Opial-type inequality with Stieltjes derivatives.
Theorem 4.2.
Assume that u
(
a
) =
u
(
b
) = 0.
If both u and α are left-continuous on
[
a
,
b
],
then we have
where
K_{α}
= inf
_{h∈[a, b]}
max{
α
(
h
) −
α
(
a
),
α
(
b
) −
α
(
h
)}.
Proof
. Let for
t
∈[
a
,
b
],
By Theorem 2.9, the functions,
y
and
z
are left-continuous on [
a
,
b
]. Also by Theorem 3.3, we have
and we have by Theorem 3.4 and
u
(
a
) =
u
(
b
) = 0
for
t
∈ [
a
,
b
]. So by Theorem 3.4, Lemma 3.5, and using Hölder’s inequality, we get
and similarly we obtain
So we have
The proof is complete. ☐
A slightly more general result is as follows.
Theorem 4.3.
Assume that u
(
b
) = 0.
If both u and α are left-continuous on
[
a
,
b
],
then we have
Proof
. From (4.2) we have
So we get
This gives (4.3). The proof is complete. ☐
More generally we have the following result.
Theorem 4.4.
Let p
≥ 0,
q
≥ 1,
r
≥ 0,
m
≥ 1
be real numbers and let f
∈
PC
([
a
,
b
])
be a positive function on
[
a
,
b
]
with
inf
_{s∈[a, b]}
f
(
s
) > 0.
Assume that both functions u and α are left-continuous on
[
a
,
b
].
If u
(
b
) = 0,
then we have
where
,
for m
≠ 1,
and
for m
= 1.
Proof
. Let for
t
∈ [
a
,
b
],
Then by Theorem 3.4, |
u
(
t
)| ≤
z
(
t
) and by Theorem 2.9,
z
is left-continuous, and non-increasing on [
a
,
b
].
If
t
≠
t_{k}
,
, Then by Theorem 3.3,
exists, and by Theorem 2.9,
z
is continuous at
t
. Using the Mean Value Theorem and by the definition of the Stieltjes derivatives, if
z
is not locally constant at
t
, then we have,
If
z
is constant on some neighborhood of
t
, then since
, the above equality is also true. If
t
=
t_{k}
,
, since
z
is non-increasing on [
a
,
b
], and
and by the Mean Value Theorem, and by the definition of the Stieltjes derivatives, we have,
where
z
(
t_{k}
+) ≤
ω
≤
z
(
t_{k}
) = z(
t_{k}
−): Thus we have
Let
. Then by hypotheses,
β
is strictly increasing on [
a
,
b
].
Since
we have by Theorem 3.4 and (4.5), since
z
(
b
) = 0 and
,
Using Hölder’s inequality with indices
m
,
, we have
Integrating (4.6) on [
a
,
b
] and using Hölder’s inequality with indices
q
,
, and considering
by Theorem 2.8, we get
If
, then
is obviously true, otherwise, dividing both sides of (4.7) by
and then taking the
q
th power on both sides of the resulting inequality we get also (4.8).
Using the Hölder’s inequality with indice
,
, we have, by (4.8),
Using Hölder’s inequality with indices
,
, we get by (4.9)
If
, then the inequality
is obviously true, otherwise, dividing both sides of (4.10) by
and then taking the
power on both sides of the resulting inequality we get also (4.11). Since |
u
| ≤
z
and
we have
This gives (4.4). The proof is complete. ☐
u
and
u'
are left- continuous on [
a
,
b
], and that
α
=
ϕ
(see (3.2)). Consider the following impulsive differential equation: for
,
where
q
_{1}
∈
PC
([
a
,
b
]): Now we define
Since by Lemma 3.8 for
the equation (5.1) implies the following equation:
where
We need the following result.
Lemma 5.1.
If the function u satisfies the equation (5.1) and c
∈ [
a
,
b
],
then we have
Proof
. In the proof, we frequently use Lemma 3.8,
.
, and
,
.
This gives (5.4). And
This gives (5.5). And
This gives (5.6). Also
This gives (5.7). The proof is complete. ☐
Theorem 5.2.
Assume that u satisfies the equation (5.1) and
u'
(
a
) = 0,
u
(
a
) ≠ 0.
If we have
where
,
then u
(
t
) ≠ 0
for every t
∈ [
a
,
b
].
Proof
. Assume that there is a number
c
∈ (
a
,
b
] with
u
(
c
) = 0. Then multiplying both sides of (5.2) by
u
and integrating we have
Using Theorem 3.3, Lemma 3.5 and Theorem 3.6, and
u
(
c
) =
Q
(
a
) = 0, we get, since, by Theorem 2.9 and Remark 3.7,
Q
is left-continuous on [
a
,
b
]; and Δ
α
(
t_{k}
) = Δ
^{+}
α
(
t_{k}
) = 1,
q
(
t_{k}
) = 0,
,
Since both
u
and
u'
are left-continuous
By Lemma 3.8 and Lemma 5.1, we get, since
u
(
c
) =
u'
(
a
) = 0,
By (5.9), (5.10) and (5.11), we have
Hence by Theorem 4.3 and Lemma 5.1, we get
If
then, since
,
and
u' _{α}
(
t_{k}
) =
u
(
t_{k}
+) −
u
(
t_{k}
) = 0. This implies that
u
is a constant on [
a
,
c
]. So
u
(
c
) =
u
(
a
) ≠0. But this is a contradiction to
u
(
c
) = 0. Hence we conclude that
.
In (5.12), canceling
, we get a contradiction to (5.8). This completes the proof. ☐
In the following result we apply Theorem 4.4.
Theorem 5.3.
Let q
∈
PC
([
a
,
b
])
and let α
=
ϕ
(see (3.2)). If
u
∈
PC
([
a
,
b
]) is left-continuous and a nontrivial solution of the following equation:
then we have
Proof
. Substituting
f
≡ 1,
p
= 0,
q
= 1,
r
= 0 into Theorem 4.4, then we have
So we have
Canceling
, we get (5.13). ☐

1. INTRODUCTION

Opial-type inequalities are very useful to study various qualitative properties of differential equations. For a good reference of the work on such inequalities together with various applications, we recommend the monograph
[1]
. In this paper we obtain some Opial-type inequalities that involve Stieltjes derivatives which are applicable to differential equations with impulses. Differential equations involving impulses arise in various real world phenomena, we refer to the monograph
[8]
.
2. PRELIMINARIES

To obtain our results in this paper we need some preliminaries.
Let
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3. STIELTJES DERIVATIVES

In this section we state the results in
[4
,
5]
that are essential to obtain our main results.
Throughout this section, we assume that
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4. OPIAL-TYPE INTEGRAL INEQUALITIES INVOLVING STIELTJES DERIVATIVES

In this section we obtain some Opial-type integral inequalities involving Stieltjes derivatives. The Opial-type inequalities have many interesting applications in the theory of differential equations(see, e.g.,
[1]
).
Throughout this paper we always assume that
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5. SOME APPLICATIONS TO CERTAIN DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS INVOLVING IMPULSES

In this section we always assume that both functions
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Citing 'SOME OPIAL-TYPE INEQUALITIES APPLICABLE TO DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS INVOLVING IMPULSES
'

@article{ SHGHCX_2015_v22n4_315}
,title={SOME OPIAL-TYPE INEQUALITIES APPLICABLE TO DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS INVOLVING IMPULSES}
,volume={4}
, url={http://dx.doi.org/10.7468/jksmeb.2015.22.4.315}, DOI={10.7468/jksmeb.2015.22.4.315}
, number= {4}
, journal={Journal of the Korean Society of Mathematical Education Series B The Pure and Applied Mathematics}
, publisher={Korean Society of Mathematical Education}
, author={KIM, YOUNG JIN}
, year={2015}
, month={Nov}