A NUMERICAL ALGORITHM FOR SINGULAR MULTI-POINT BVPS USING THE REPRODUCING KERNEL METHOD
A NUMERICAL ALGORITHM FOR SINGULAR MULTI-POINT BVPS USING THE REPRODUCING KERNEL METHOD
The Pure and Applied Mathematics. 2014. Feb, 21(1): 51-60
• Received : October 17, 2013
• Accepted : February 09, 2014
• Published : February 28, 2014 PDF e-PUB PubReader PPT Export by style
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YUNTAO, JIA
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, ZHUHAI CAMPUS, BEIJING INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ZHUHAI GUANG- DONG ,519085Email address:jyt-002@126.com
YINGZHEN, LIN
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, ZHUHAI CAMPUS, BEIJING INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ZHUHAI GUANG- DONG ,519085Email address:liliy5501@gmail.com

Abstract
In this paper, we construct a complex reproducing kernel space for singular multi-point BVPs, and skillfully obtain reproducing kernel expressions. Then, we transform the problem into an equivalent operator equation, and give a numerical algorithm to provide the approximate solution. The uniform convergence of this algorithm is proved, and complexity analysis is done. Lastly, we show the validity and feasibility of the numerical algorithm by two numerical examples.
Keywords
1. INTRODUCTION
Differential equations arise from various practical problems in mathematics and physics such as gas dynamics, nuclear physics, chemical reaction and geological prospecting etc. Multi-point BVPs can solve the contradictions in the process of actual research status efficiently and enhance their compatibility. Therefore, this problem has received a lot of attention of researchers. In [1 - 4] , the existence and uniqueness are investigated. In  , the author give the approximate solutions of a certain class of singular two-point (BVPs) by the Sinc-Galerkin method and homotopy-perturbation method. In  , the author solve two-point BVPs by variational iteration method. In  , the author present a method for solving a class of singular two-point BVPs based on cubic splines. For more information, please refer to [8 - 13] . Recently, in  , the author adopt differential transformation method to solve the two-point BVPs PPT Slide
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This method is able to provide an approximate solution of (1.1), while it has several disadvantages. This method is based on Taylor series which requires a high degree of smoothness. It has a local convergence region and the function f(x) are all polynomial functions.
Now, we present a new algorithm to make up the deficiencies in  . It can be extended to singular multi-point BVPs. We take the problem PPT Slide
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where p(x), q(x), f(x) are continuous complex functions on (0, 1] and x = 0 is the singular value point of p(x), c, δ are complex constants and c ∈ (0, 1), δ ≠ 1.
In this paper, we construct a complex reproducing kernel space PPT Slide
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[0, 1]. Then (1.2) can be transformed into an equivalent operator equation. Its approximate solution is provided. We also analyze the convergence and complexity of this algorithm. Finally, we give some numerical examples to verify the e®ectiveness of our algorithm.
2. SEVERAL COMPLEX REPRODUCING KERNEL SPACES
2 .1. The complex reproducing kernel space PPT Slide
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[0, 1]. We define the inner product space PPT Slide
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[0, 1] = { u(x) } u ″ is absolutely continuous complex function, u (3) L 2 [0, 1], u ′(0) = 0, u (1) = δu (c)}. PPT Slide
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Lemma 2.1. The space PPT Slide
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[0, 1] is a complex reproducing kernel space .
The proof can be found in  . Next, we give the reproducing kernel function Ry(x) of PPT Slide
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[0, 1]. For each y ∈ [0, 1] and each u(x) PPT Slide
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[0, 1], by applying (2.1), we have PPT Slide
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that is PPT Slide
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where PPT Slide
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We can obtain PPT Slide
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Now, we have PPT Slide
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Since Ry(x) C 2 , we get PPT Slide
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Similarly, if 0 ≤ y c , the function Ry(x) should satisfy the differential equation: PPT Slide
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and if c y ≤ 1, the function Ry(x) should satisfy the differential equation: PPT Slide
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If x y , (2.5) and (2.6) become PPT Slide
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Its characteristic equation is
λ6 = 0,
the characteristic roots are λ i = 0, ( i = 1, 2, ⋯, 6). So, we assume that PPT Slide
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Since PPT Slide
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we get PPT Slide
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and PPT Slide
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Combining(2.3), (2.4), (2.8) – (2.10) as well as y ∈ (0, c ) and y ∈ ( c , 1), we get 36 equations. We can find the undetermined coeffcients cij of (2.7) by solving the equations. If c = 1=2 and δ = 1 + 2 i , Ry(x) is the following expression PPT Slide
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2.2. The complex reproducing kernel space PPT Slide
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[0, 1]. PPT Slide
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[0, 1] = { u(x) | u is absolutely continuous complex function, u ′ ∈ L 2 [0, 1]}.
The inner product is given by PPT Slide
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It is easy to prove that PPT Slide
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[0, 1] is a complex reproducing kernel space and its reproducing kernel is PPT Slide
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3. A SOLUTION OF (1.2)
In this section, we investigate how to obtain approximate solutions of (1.2). First, we transform (1.2) into an equivalent operator equation (3.1). Then we give its approximate solution. Also, the convergence and complexity analysis are provided.
3.1. Equivalent operator equation. The equation (1.2) can be transformed into the following form: where α is constant and satisfy PPT Slide
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(b ≠ 0).
Define linear operator PPT Slide
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: PPT Slide
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[0,1] → PPT Slide
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[0, 1] by Obviously, operator PPT Slide
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is bounded. The equation (1.2) can be converted into an equivalent operator equation: PPT Slide
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where f1(x) = xaf(x) .
3.2. The numerical solution for operator equation (3.1). We choose a countable dense subset PPT Slide
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⊂ (0, 1] and define 𝜓 i(x) as Theorem 3.1. The function system PPT Slide
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is a complete system in the space PPT Slide
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[0, 1].
Proof . For an arbitrary i , we have,
0 = ⟨u(x), 𝜓i(x)⟩ = ⟨u(x), ( Rx(·))(xi)⟩ = (⟨u(x),Rx(·)⟩)(xi) = (u(·))(xi) = ( u)(xi).
Note that PPT Slide
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is dense in [0, 1], so ( PPT Slide
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u )( x ) = 0. By the existence of PPT Slide
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−1 , it follows that u ≡ 0. Therefore, PPT Slide
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is a complete system in PPT Slide
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[0, 1]. □
Furthermore, we obtain an orthogonal system PPT Slide
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of PPT Slide
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[0, 1] derived from Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization process from PPT Slide
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: Theorem 3.2. If PPT Slide
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is dense on [0, 1], then the solution of (1.2) is Proof . We expand u(x) into a Fourier series as follows Now, we can get the approximate solution un(x) by truncating the nth – term of the exact solution u(x) , PPT Slide
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3.3. Theoretical analysis for our algorithm.
Theorem 3.3. An approximate solution un(x) is uniform convergence to u(x) on [0, 1]. Moreover , PPT Slide
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, PPT Slide
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are both uniform convergence to u′(x) and u″(x) on [0, 1] .
Proof . Note that
un(x) = ⟨un, Rx⟩, u(x) = ⟨u,Rx,
and PPT Slide
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By applying Schwarz s inequality and the boundedness of PPT Slide
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( i = 0, 1, 2), we have PPT Slide
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So PPT Slide
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Theorem 3.4. The time complexity of the algorithm is O ( n 3 ).
Proof . There are three steps to calculate the approximate solution un(x) of (1.2) .
(1) Assume the number of multiplications required is C in one calculation of the inner product ⟨ φii ⟩, then the total number of multiplications required is n ( n + 1) C =2 in calculation of all inner products.
(2) Orthogonalization of the system PPT Slide
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needs 3 layers of nested loops, that is, the number of multiplication is (3) The number of multiplication is n 2 when calculating un(x) using (3.2). To sum up, the total number of multiplication is 4. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES
In this section, some numerical examples are studied to demonstrate the accuracy of the present algorithm. Results obtained by this algorithm are compared with the exact solution of each example and are shown to be in good agreement with the exact solution.
Example 1. Consider equation where f(x) = PPT Slide
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[(8+4 i )−(16−8 i ) PPT Slide
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−8 ie −(1−5 i ) ex +(3−2 i ) x −((2−4i) + (4 + 8 i ) PPT Slide
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− 4 e ) x 2 + PPT Slide
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. Its exact solution is PPT Slide
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Applying our algorithm and taking the number of nodes as n=50 and 100, the absolute errors of real part (a.e.Re) and the absolute errors of imaginary part (a.e.Im) are shown in Table 1 . It shows that the approximate solution is getting more and more accurate as n increases.
The absolute errors for Example 1 PPT Slide
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The absolute errors for Example 1
Example 2. Consider equation where The function f(x) is continuous at x = PPT Slide
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, but not differentiable. So the method of  is invalid for example 2. While using our algorithm, we choose 100 points in (0, 1]. The numerical results | PPT Slide
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u 100 f | are given in the following Table 2 .
Numerical results |u100−f| for Example 2 PPT Slide
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Numerical results |u100f| for Example 2
5. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we present a new numerical algorithm in complex reproducing kernel space for singular multi-point BVPs. We give the rigorous theoretical analysis, the uniform convergence of the approximate solution. The numerical examples show that by using this algorithm we obtain better solution and fix the deficiencies of  .
References