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Fashion Styles and Aesthetic Values represented in Bridesmaid dresses
Fashion Styles and Aesthetic Values represented in Bridesmaid dresses
-- Focused on Movie ‘27 Dresses’ --
Fashion & Textile Research Journal. 2014. Dec, 16(6): 860-870
Copyright © 2014, The Society of Fashion and Textile Industry
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : September 09, 2014
  • Accepted : December 12, 2014
  • Published : December 31, 2014
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About the Authors
Young sam Kim
Dept. of Fashion Design, Chung-Ang University; Anseong, Korea
Jin-ah Lee
jina2829@nate.com
Abstract
This study considers style types and examines aesthetic values by analyzing images expressed through bridesmaid dresses in the movie ‘27 Dresses’. The research method used was a case study on fashion types from movie costumes. The conclusions of this study are as follows. There are three fashion style types in the movie ‘27 Dresses’ presented by diverse dress type according the bride’s dress code, dress style that reflects a country’s culture and tradition of how bridesmaids wear traditional costumes particular to each country as well as a dress style that suits the overall wedding’s atmosphere and theme. The aesthetic values of the movie ‘27 Dresses’: First, it reflects a complementarity synergy between the bridesmaid and the bride at the wedding. It plays a complementary role in creating synergy through a harmonious presentation at the wedding. Secondly, it represents traditionality. Traditional costumes of different cultures were used as bridesmaid dresses. These costumes play an important role in denoting the bride’s nationality and tradition. Third, it represents a sense of amusement using a wedding as concept. The bridesmaid dresses were unique in a way that elicited surprise and unexpected laughter as well as a feeling of pleasure and interest in the audience. The different styles of bridesmaid dresses in movie costumes can help expand more diverse wedding cultures in a modern society.
Keywords
I. Introduction
The societal tendency to pursue diversity and eclecticism has made it naturally possible to have a conversion between existed cultures and the cultures which is newly brought after the postmodernism era. Besides, these recreated cultures have led to cherish positive aspects in terms of satisfying curiosities and desire of modern individual as well as liberal personality. A culture of bridesmaid, in particularly modern society, can be mentioned wedding events which is the outstanding changed culture of diverse ones from western wedding manners. Bridesmaid implies female friends who bless the wedding with standing beside a bride and make the bride blessing and standing out. Bridesmaid's dresses can be noted as an element for important values along with the wedding dress symbolized the bride's pure beauty (Kim & Lee, 2014) .
As for recent prior researches related to this study, diverse researches has been performed focusing on wedding dresses in cultures of wedding (Kim & Jung, 2011 ; Lee, 2008 ; Lee & Chang, 2006 ; Oh & Lee, 2011) . The similar field of research examined fashion marketing of wedding industries (Lee & Lee, 2000 ; Park & Suh, 2006 ; Shin & Kwon, 2002) , and there is also a research about the changing history of the wedding dress along with historical backgrounds (Lee, 2003 ; Shin, 2011a ; Shin, 2011b) . However, specifically, academic approaches concerning the research of bridesmaid dresses still cannot be accomplished, although bridesmaid dresses can be seen popularly not only in a culture of western wedding but also in a recent culture of domestic wedding.
Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to synthetically consider a type of dress styles through analyzing images of the bridesmaid dresses on the movie of ‘27 Dresses’ which can be examined dresses specifically, and understand the implicit aesthetic values. Moreover, the study is to suggest fundamental database in order to development of designs for creative bridesmaid dresses which can accord with diverse consumer needs. The background reason of the movie, ‘27 Dresses’ which is the focused film of this study has appropriate validity in aspect of researching and analyzing regarding types of dress style and aesthetic values according to narrative of the movie plot. Specifically, the plot is developed around Jane who plays the role of bridesmaid for many friends.
Based on the prior viewpoint of this study, there is significance meaning in possibly helping the broad understanding of the bridesmaid that has appeared as one of the new wedding cultures through the influx of wedding cultures in western areas.
The contents and procedure for this study are examined through the morphological type and image characteristics in bridesmaid dresses. After considering the concept and origin of the bridesmaid dress, it analyzes the fashion by categorizing type-based style and grasps the aesthetic value in styles of bridesmaid dresses.
As for the research method and scope, theoretical research is performed focusing on prior research, internet sources and specialty publications of domestic and foreign relevant to bridesmaids and the film of ‘27 Dresses’. A case study is carried out the images of bridesmaid dresses based on 27 changes of dresses that the main character wore as the movie image.
2. Theoretical background
- 2.1. General literature review of bridesmaid
Bridesmaid is composed of ‘Bride’, which implies a woman having marriage ahead’, and ‘Maid’, which means ‘female assistant or helper’, That is, female friends or acquaintances helping a bride at a wedding (“Bridesmaid,” 2009) .
As for the beginning of history in bridesmaids, the appearance of the bridesmaid has been attributed to diverse origins. Their traditions have been typically passed down to begin protecting a bride from evil spirits. This sort of view has its original meanings from ancient Roman times. People in those days have thought that spirits of evil envy a happy bride, and on the wedding day the bride falls into misery. Therefore, a women wears clothes quite similar to the bride in order to make the demons being confused (Lee, 2010) . By another origin, it has transmissions to prevent the bride from being kidnapped, which frequently happened by a revengeful spirit of a man who was refused after proposing marriage to a bride in the middle ages (Dimoush, 2008) .
A bridesmaid, who is played a role standing by a bride's close friends, and they could be brothers and sisters, or relatives at a wedding. Their group are usually composed of 3 or 4 people. One person of them, who is the closest person of a bride, is called to a maid of honor, and given a responsible role among the bridesmaids. Similar to the bride, the groom fixes in line the same number as bridesmaids in deciding on groomsman and a best-man as a person in charge. The maid of honor and best-man come to play an important role in the wedding ceremony, as much as the groom and bride (Lefevre, 2011) . The most representative role can be taken a guide's part in wedding that groom and bride gain entry in turn, and a part of making them available for mutually exchanging by offering a ring when a groom and a bride exchange a ring beside officiant's seat during the progress of wedding after bridesmaid and groomsman make a pair to appear together according to the chairperson's introduction given being begun wedding. Then maid of honor and best-man follow to come out, and a special meaning is also given to music by singing a nuptial song or reciting a letter for a friend (Rung, 2004) .
In other words, the bridesmaid implies a young woman such as a bride's close friend or sister who joins in the ceremony in order to mainly celebrate a bride at a wedding. The bridesmaid can speech simply to play a role in making happy memories as well as giving detailed help to arrange the wedding with doubling the bride's beauty in a wedding photo or at a wedding.
- 2.2. General literature review of bridesmaid dress style
A wedding is a ceremony in which the groom and bride desire to create the most stylish and beautiful image in life. In addition, dresses can be one of the most important elements in order to create this image. Even though the bridesmaid dresses seem to be showing a woman's beauty along with the wedding dress, their dresses imply supports of a bride's pure and noble image in a wedding.
Dress styles of bridesmaid are arranged by silhouette, color and bouquet depending on a bride's wedding concept. In general, the color of bridesmaid dresses is available in all except white which is the color of the bride's wedding dress. A sort of pastel colors such as pastel pink, bright yellow and sky blue are usually preferred when bride plans a color concept of wedding in spring and summer. Dark tones such as deep brown, wine and black are mainly used in weddings during autumn and winter. A change in the mood of a wedding can be created depending on the bridesmaid's colour (Marry, 2011) . Moreover, using the same fabric as a wedding dress in a material can give a sense of unity although a bouquet needs to coordinate with the color of the bride. The bridesmaid's silhouette also needs to make a bride outstanding at a wedding (Sabatino, 2014) . A style of dress usually can be focused on a simple line as a preferred design. It can be designed diversly in a strapless style by an A-line dress from tube-top dress, or can be given a length-based difference by a long dress to a knee-length dress. In this way, the style of bridesmaid dress can be created with various version of styles by the overall theme of the wedding.
3. General review of the movie, ‘27 Dresses’
The film of ‘27 Dresses’, written by Aline Brosh McKenna of ‘The devil wears prada’, and directed by Anne Fletcher, describes a story that features sympathy on women's romance, love, and marriage through the narratives.
In ‘27 Dresses’ of Jane, who plays a role of a bridesmaid at many friends weddings, is a character who has many bridesmaid dresses in her wardrobe. Jane has to participate as a bridesmaid in two different wedding of mutual friends on the same day. She takes the same taxi as Kevin who comes as a reporter in the vortex of coming and going to two weddings, and one day Jane drops a diary with a quick temper. At that time, Kevin came to accidentally pick up the diary, and reading dozens of wedding schedules in Jane's diary. Through Jane's schedules of wedding ceremonies for her participation, Kevin is intentionally interested in her behaviors, and feeling subtle concern about her at the same time. However, there is some happenings which already unveiled her schedule and story regarding bridesmaid regardless of Kevin's intention, and Jane becomes greatly disappointed about him. While Jane is becoming more distant from Kevin, she comes to feel that the moment of having been together with him was the true love that she seeks. Jane and Kevin comes to meet again, and gets married with confirming each other's mind.
As for main characteristics of the movie ‘27 Dresses’, the story is developed around the heroin, and it makes audiences realize the fact that she is not the most outstanding bride. Through the movie and diverse dresses melting the story, the purpose of study is to analyze the type of the bridesmaid dresses, which substitutes for 27 friends in weddings and her role.
3. Bridesmaid dress style in the movie, ‘27 Dresses’
The purpose of this study is to analyse the influences on, and function of, bridesmaid dress styles by examining the elements of line, color, and material as applied in the analysis of costume design to film clothes. The bridesmaid dresses shown in the film ‘27 Dresses’ are used for the purposes of this analysis and divided into three categories. Before the heroin decides on a concept of a bridesmaid dress, the scenes show dress styles that represent the brides' preference and tradition, and consider the unique concept or mood of the whole wedding. In this way, the bridesmaid dress functions as part of one medium and thereby makes the bride's dress stand out, as well as harmonizes with the wearer's external image while forming a new image along with the mood being expressed in the wedding. First, dress style type is analyzed according to the bride's dress code. Second, dress style type is evaluated as a reflection of the culture or tradition of a country, and third, how dress style type integrates with the whole theme of the wedding is explored. These bridesmaid dress style types are analyzed through images of dresses worn by Jane, the bridesmaid at 27 weddings.
- 3.1. Dress styles that represent bride’s dress code
There are various types of dress style according to bride’s dress code, the first dress style type to be evaluated according to the bride's dress code is the tube-top black dress. Boldly revealing the shoulders, it expresses feminine sensuality by emphasizing the waist through the silhouette of the dress in addition to the partial exposure of a woman's body. A ribbon in white that matches with the hip section functions as a decoration and gives a sense of volume and rhythm to the dress, which may otherwise look a little monotonous. To complement the bride's dress color of white, the contrasting color is harmonized with a decorative element( Fig. 1 ). The off-shoulder neckline dress Fig. 2 using a jacquard fabric in the blue series expresses an aesthetic softness featuring the curve pattern of the jacquard fabric, and sensuality through exposure of the shoulders. Fig. 3 which is the A-line long dress in pale pink, emphasizes the breast and waist line through the neckline and corset silhouette of the bared top, and evokes a sense of rich volume in the dress by using tulle material layered with many folds.
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Mermaid-line black long dress decorated with white ribbon. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
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Blue off-shoulder dress with jacquard pattern. http://www.fanpop.com
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Pink bared top dress. 2008 Movie‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014)
Second, the off-shoulder neckline style emphasizes the A-line silhouette through different methods. The dress in Fig. 4 , which is a pale pink color, forms an A-line with a sense of volume by using shirring in addition to a petticoat. Fig. 5 is a tube-top long dress using taffeta material in the green series that forms an A-line naturally by pursuing a tight mermaid line from the waist to the hip. The sky-blue dress in Fig. 6 creates a different A-line form while simultaneously forming a dress in the bustle era by integrating the exaggerated ruffle into the rear end of the skirt.
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A-line pale pink long dress with partial shirring. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
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Mermaid- line khaki long dress. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
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Sky blue bustle style dress. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
Third, the following styles each express contrasting images of a form of mini dress. The tube-top dress in a sky-blue color in Fig. 7 creates a cute and bright image, although the style may look a little monotonous, by embodying a flower in the skirt section with the application of draping. Fig. 8 integrates embroidery in a butterfly shape on the taffeta material in the yellow series, and depicts a cute and feminine image by matching the object in the flower to the top section of the dress. Further, the integration of the hairpiece and mini-bag accessory evoke the effect of doubling the cheerful image. Unlike the mini dress examined above, the mini dress shown in Fig. 9 arouses a contrasting style to the bride's pureness by combining the luxury expressed in the satin material in a hot-pink color, with a silhouette revealing a line of the body. Moreover, an erotic image is aroused by the exposure of the skin through the slit.
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Light blue mini dress with ruffle. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
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Yellow tube-top mini dress with butterfly pattern and corsage. http://www.fanpop.com
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Hot-pink strapless mini dress. http://www.hotbridesonline.com
Fourth is the strap dress style, which has the characteristic design with the detail of a shoulder strap. As shown in Fig. 10 , a pale pink knee-length dress is outstanding with decorative pleats in the breast section. Through this style, the wearer expresses romantic and mannish femininity at the same time by wearing a black fedora and bow tie. The orange knee-length dress uses taffeta material and has a silhouette that adheres generally to the body, and emphasizes a feminine silhouette in the bottom section by matching a skirt in minaret and a narrowed H-line skirt. In Fig. 11 , femininity is expressed in objects integrated into costumes by utilizing flower objects in common. Fig. 12 , 13 present a see-through look style by using tulle material reflected on the inside, or forming a bell line with a sense of volume through layers with many folds. As a form of tiered skirt, it is a style that expresses more elegance by harmonizing the long-skirt length and purple color than dresses in other forms( Fig. 14 ).
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The pale-pink knee-length dress decorated with a black satin belt and buttons. http://www.fanpop.com
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Orange minaret dress. http://www.fanpop.com
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Red strap- dress decorated with blossom. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
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Light yellow dress with orange ribbon. http://www.fanpop.com
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Burgundy tired skirt dress. http://www.fanpop.com
As illustrated, the tube-top dress, mini dress, and strap dresses are shown to express common aspects of femininity highlighted through exposure of some parts of the body. Fifth, in contrast, a form that expresses a woman's beauty by not exposure the skin is also presented in Jane’s choice of bridesmaid dresses. Feminie concept is highlighted and produced alongside a tender image through the use of a lace pattern or the decoration of a ribbon matched to the waist. This dress Fig. 15 integrates a flowering lace material in a sky-blue color into a form of off-shoulder line. Fig. 16 is a halterneck dress made by utilizing satin material in a violet color, which produces a feeling of having worn the shirt by artificially matching the collar to the neckline section. Also, the bride and bridesmaids support the contrasting colors between white of brides and violet of bridesmaids with the harmony of the bouquet color; the characteristics of the dress express a decent, enchanting and equivocal femininity while emphasizing the waist and revealing the back section.
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Sky blue lace top dress. http://www.fanpop.com
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Shirt-tailoring purple long dress. 2008 Movie‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
Finally, the dress with puff sleeves has characteristics that are somewhat unique. As Fig. 17 shows, the off-shoulder neckline dress emphasizes the collarbone. This style expresses both elegant and erotic concept feminine beauty by forming pleats which create shirring naturally beneath the hip section, complemented by the jacquard pattern expressed in the material. The style in Fig. 18 has the form of a minaret silhouette, which narrows, and emphasizes an elegant form by matching the silk material in a pale pink color with the puff sleeve. Also, a bright feeling was added by integrating a knee-length tiered skirt formed with two layers into the puff sleeve( Fig. 19 ).
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Pink off–shoulder dress with puff sleeves. http://www.fanpop.com
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Light purple dress with puff sleeves. http://www.fanpop.com
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Bluish-green tiered dress. 2008 Movie‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
As demonstrated above, dress styles designed according to the bride's dress code are produced by excluding the color white—the bride's symbolic wedding dress color—and employing multidesign elements that are harmonious with the bride's dress. This style type can be said to result from the fundamental instinct of a woman who tries to pursue beauty. What styles form harmony is influenced by the complementary relationship between the bride and bridesmaid form. These styles achieve the objective of creating a mutually synergic effect by using another woman's beauty to make the bride, who is the heroin of the wedding, look outstanding.
- 3.2. Dress styles reflected by the national culture and tradition
The bridesmaid dresses in ‘27 Dresses’ also reflect the strong influence of tradition and culture in bridesmaid dress style. As a result of the influence of western civilization, aspects of the contemporary wedding are being changed by integrating the wedding culture of the west. However, the harmonized traditional wedding still strongly represents long tradition and national historicity, typically reflecting the traditional culture or identity of a nation. This influence can be seen in the style type of many bridesmaid dresses in the film which represent a traditional costume or wearing of a costume, demonstrating the possibilities associated with the culture representing a nation. The heroin Jane portrays a style type reflected in traditional costume by wearing a Sari, which is India's traditional costume, at a wedding of a friend from India. Fig. 20 expresses the beauty foreign fashion can introduce to a wedding. Examples are costumes whose material hangs down and drapes over the shoulder by wrapping the waist with long cloth in a red color over Choli decorated with gold thread, which is not shown in general costumes. A bridesmaid dress outstanding in a flower print color is the ‘Kimono’, Japan's traditional costume. The Kimono is a costume style showing that a bride comes from Japan( Fig. 21 ). A style type reflected in the cultural property of America is the western look style, which is associated with the cowboy era of the western pioneer period in America. This look can be created with a tengallon hat, western boots, and scarf( Fig. 22 ). The western look is a style that expresses an active and wild image, obtaining inspiration from a pioneers' tough life in the western pioneer period, and called classical attire. Additionally, the concept of bride’s wedding ceremony demonstrates the time period, and the direction of Jane’s bridesmaid dress style is to show an feminine image in a romantic style although this style would be in the western look. A style of costume similar to this is the tango dress( Fig. 23 ). The tango dress, which reflects the traditional Latin culture and cultural property, emanates richness through a hem layered with a flounce skirt and multi-colors. In addition, the corset top in a flower embroidery pattern shows sensual beauty. It means that the bride’s come from Latin and encounter latin culture costume of bridesmaid dress.
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Hot pink and orange Sari as a bridesmaid in an Indian wedding. http://www.fanpop.com
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Flower print Kimono style from Japanese wedding. http://www.fanpop.com
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Western look style dress. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
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Pink and yellow layered dress in Spain traditional dance clothing. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
As examined above, a style type represented by the traditional costume can be considered to have functioned like a morphological characteristic of the traditional costume at a wedding, and a symbol along with the country of origin as one traditional play culture while sticking literally to traditional culture.
- 3.3. Dress style reflected by the overall wedding concept
The wedding in modern society can be seen as an expanded wedding integrating new themes along with forms of the standardized wedding ceremony of the past. This can be said to possibly satisfy the desires of young people seeking diverse individualities who aim to pursue specificity in weddings. The bridesmaid dress style integrated into a wedding theme can be analyzed to be a theme of specificity of a place, not the existing formal place; reflecting historical change, and incorporating specific manias representing individuality.
Fig. 24 depicts a wedding theme with a nonconventional style integrated into bridesmaid dresses in the form of the black suit. Wearing a suit jacket and trousers conveys a masculine look, unlike the feminine dress typically worn by female bridesmaids in weddings. This can be considered to express mannishness in a costume replace the sexual stereotypes. Masculinity is indicated in the body image from the fashion items as wearing pants and through thematic elements (Shin & Yang, 1999) . An exotic style Fig. 25 in the bridesmaid dress is shown in the netting of a transparent skirt on a white swimsuit to apply an underwater wedding theme, escaping from the traditional wedding place. This theme is evoked in a wedding situation utilizing accessories such as a pink-color bouquet, water goggles or a swimming cap, while producing the same effect as a feminine dress. As a different wedding theme, Fig. 27 shows a progressive wedding ceremony mode in which the groom and bride adopt the wedding ceremony of the Goth Tribe. According to this theme, even the wedding guests are part of creating the generally dark mood of the wedding by imitating the Goth Tribe concept of black dress. As shown in Fig. 26 , even the costume of the bridesmaid produces the image of the Goth Tribe through its customs such as wearing chalk, adding metal studs to a velvet dress in the form of a camisole in a black shade, or even in the violet series. Another form of wedding Fig. 28 integrates a romantic era theme. A characteristic fashion of the romantic era is a style showing colorful and romantic images such as an X-shaped silhouette (Jung, 1997) revealing and emphasizing elegant shoulder curves with a deep neckline and a tight waist, in addition to large puff sleeves. As shown in Fig. 29 , the dress Jane wore produced a crinoline silhouette in the yellow color with the addition of a boat neckline, and added a historical feeling by matching accessories such as a hat and umbrella in lace material.
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Black suit of manish style. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
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Swimsuit with flare-skirt in underwater wedding. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
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Dark violet velvet dress and choker with metal stud. http://www.fanpop.com
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Goth style wedding. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
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Romantic style dresses. 2008 Movie ‘27 Dresses’ official DVD (February 20, 2014).
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Yellow dress in romantic style. http://www.fanpop.com
In this way, the style integrated into the bridesmaid dresses utilizes the wedding theme; the dress style is determined according to the theme or image the wedding portrays, rather than being produced through a free and dogmatic form. Thus, the bridesmaid dress is an important part of the effort to produce a wedding with a new image by applying originative and individual expression, and thematic elements combined with a whimsical touch to a dress.
4. The aesthetic values of bridesmaid dresses
The aesthetic value being expressed by the bridesmaid dresses in the film ‘27 Dresses’can be said to, first, show complementary characteristics between the dresses of the bride and bridesmaid. Complementarity implies the properties of the relationship that are mutually beneficial. Stieglitz and Heine(2007) mentioned that ‘Congruency’, ‘Synergy’, and ‘Fit’ can be defined as three things of super-modularity in a complementary relationship. Given fundamental Contingency theory and Configuration theory in complementarity theory, a ‘fit’ can be said to be the core theory (Whittington et al., 1999) . In other words, complementarity may have a somewhat different meaning and diverse analyses according to the design concept of diverse dresses and the dress code, but can be said to express the mutually synergic effects between the bridesmaid dress in the visual form through interaction with harmony between color and design, and essentially the bride's beauty. It means that the functional of role with bride and bridesmaids. Examining complementarity shown in the bridesmaid dress, it can be said to utilize as means of expressing sensual femininity between the dress style of bride and bridesmaid. Moreover, the intrinsic value of complementarity would be coordinated the wedding dress style or colors of dress in the wedding ceremony. Fig. 9 is a example which shows by revealing the bride's line and the detail of breast zipper in acid pink color. The bridesmaid dress plays a complementary role depending on the bride's dress code, especially shown in the color. As the bridesmaid's dresses and brides's one take a complementary roles each others according to certain dress code of brides in especially colors, the match of styles shows bride as a heroin to advantage as well as makes a wedding for quite special and integrating. Second, examining the aspects of the specific concept of the bridesmaid dress reflecting intrinsic and traditional elements, the aesthetic value called tradition is indicated. Sung and Lee(2004) mentioned that traditionality essentially represents historical background and implies expressing beauty in which it play a function role of traditional culture is immanent through the form, pattern or color of the costume. According to Kim’s(2006) explanation of the meaning of traditional expression in each country, creating new beauty based on the past can be said to be accompanied by continuity and novelty in the future. That is to say, tradition can be said to be what creates new beauty with which to embrace the past, present, and future by accepting historical and cultural properties in one region or nation and integrating them into historical sensation. The traditionality would be represented a bridesmaid dress which expresses the propensity to retain the traditional wedding by wearing authentic costumes for national identities or historical images. Therefore, it strongly conveys a traditional image by showing the traditional wedding culture as expressed costumes which it have been gradually forgotten amidst the reckless influx of western civilization in modern society. It represents the beauties of tradition as well as adheres to the essences of custom from their country. Futhermore, traditionality accompanied components of fun and pleasure which expresses by wearing costumes and stands for their own play culture. In addition, dress styles represent to remind historical aspects of images by wearing a part of fashion styles containing representative trends for a certain ages. Third, the playful characteristics of showing joy were expressed. Huizenga mentioned that the playful impulse of breaking the existing formal frame basically exists in all human cultures, and that amusement is a pleasure as this directly means a human being's life itself, and is in essence the freedom of escaping from something that is bound to anything (Ha, 1994) . Also, Schiller mentioned “That a human being's life starts from playful impulse, that the person is playful as far as being a person, and that the person is a perfect human being as far as being playful” (Shin, 1992) . This amusement is indicated as the origin or expressive method of developing newly creative design, but can be simultaneously said to be a result of reflecting the trend of the times in which the modern expression of a mental world pursues playfulness, which is also utilized as an effective means of delivering people to the masses (Ann & Kang, 2006) . In other words, playfulness can mean open and free sensitivity while pursuing the expression of diverse individuals and escaping from the existing way of thinking about the essence of fun and pleasure, rather than exaggerated and distorted behavior. The playfulness represented in the bridesmaid dresses can be said to give unique pleasure along with cultural medium through components of delight and fun in a special place dubbed the sea by escaping from a place where weddings are generally performed. Especially, for satisfying the essence of amusement, dress style usually breaks the existing formal frame. Additionally, it shows the neutral image of dismantling the element of sex which externally expresses through mannish dresses and creates amusement by switching the dress of the groom and bride. It originally expresses as a new aspect by integrating the medium for respecting their thoughts rather than absorbing social cultures. Dresses using special themes provide an opportunity to lead the expansion into a wedding culture pursuing more distinctive wit and pleasant elements among young people seeking diverse individualities. These dress styles would be found some essences of playfulness and attributes of freedom as an existed frame of wedding concept breaks from the past, and the style simultaneously pursues aesthetic values for new influence. Generally arranging the style type and aesthetic value of the bridesmaid costume, which was shown in the film ‘27 Dresses’ in this way, they are as follows( Table 1 ).
Style types and aesthetic values in bridesmaid dresses on movie ‘27 Dresses’
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Style types and aesthetic values in bridesmaid dresses on movie ‘27 Dresses’
5. Conclusion
The modern wedding culture is developed as one place created for having a happy time with guests through diverse new attempts. After the bride, the bridesmaid is considered to have an expanded role. This study considered the style type and aesthetic value of the bridesmaid dresses focusing on the film ‘27 Dresses’. The findings are as follows.
As for a style type of bridesmaid dress, as was shown in the film, first, it is a style incorporating diverse forms of dresses according to the bride's dress code. A woman's elegant and sensual image is expressed by harmonizing elements with the bride's wedding dress through various styles of dresses such as a tube-top dress with the addition of decorative elements, mini dress or strap dress. Second, it is a costume style that reflects the culture or tradition in a country. The images particular to a nation, which are immanent in the bridesmaid dress, are shown as well as the bride's country of origin by literally sticking to tradition and culture by maintaining the conventional customs, rather than adopting a wedding dress style influenced by the west. Third, it is a dress style customized to the general situation and theme of a wedding. A wedding that applies a theme evokes the effect of added pleasure on the special day. The costume even allows people to experience unusual charm by escaping from the existing standard form.
As for the aesthetic value of the bridesmaid dresses, the film showed that, first, it is complementary to creating a synergic effect through mutually harmonious design elements in the relationship between the bride and bridesmaid. The bridesmaid dress in the movie plays a role of emphasizing more the physical or sensory beauty of the bride's wedding dress, and expresses feminine beauty, which is complementary with the bride's dress, by utilizing luxury material such as silk or chiffon, color, silhouette and decorative elements such as lace or ribbon. Also, sensual femininity is indicated as a complementary aspect to the bride's wedding dress by revealing a woman's physical characteristics such as through a tube-top dress and excessive exposure to a woman's upper body, a silhouette close to the body, or a mermaid line stressing the waist line. Second, it is tradition. Tradition is accompanied by historical background. The traditional beauty in a costume can be said to be expressed through borrowing the form, color or pattern of the traditional costume. Forms are shown in which bridesmaids wear traditional costumes particular to each country such as Japans' Kimono, India's Sari, or Spain's Flamenco costume while the bride's wedding dress in the film maintains the dressy form of the West. This can be analyzed as the bridesmaid costume functioning as a symbol implicitly expressing the bride's origin and nationality amidst the wedding and is accompanied by traditionality. Third, the playfulness concept is applied to a wedding. Playfulness implies natural pleasure through fun and smiles and inspires skin-scuba diving weddings or the fearful and gloomy moods in Goth weddings. The wedding following the Goth Tribe tradition expressed playful pleasure accompanied by delight and fun, causing a viewer to feel surprise and unexpected pleasure by making a form of the bridesmaid dress that provides an escape from the range of daily wedding dresses, such as by adding water goggles or a choker matched with a black dress and studs. The findings of this study show that the bridesmaid dresses shown in the film reflect feminine beauty according to the bride’s dress code and tradition, and depict a theme. Further, these styles represent individuality, adding new elements and creating new images in the wedding design of young would-be brides. The different styles of bridesmaid dresses aim to satisfy the needs of consumers who long for weddings produced together with bridesmaids that reflect more diverse wedding cultures in modern society. The contribution of this study analyzes the limitations of the film is the bridesmaid dresses in the study. Moreover, a focus on design direction is to support the development of diverse and creative bridesmaid dress designs henceforth. This research is considered to not only support the development of bridesmaid dresses but also the creation of a new wedding culture and trends in the fashion industry.
Acknowledgements
This research was supported by the Chung-Ang University Research Scholarship Grants in 2013.
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