Preparation of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> Core/Shell Nanoparticles with Ultrathin Silica Layer
Preparation of Fe3O4/SiO2 Core/Shell Nanoparticles with Ultrathin Silica Layer
Journal of the Korean Chemical Society. 2012. Aug, 56(4): 478-483
Copyright © 2012, The Korean Chemical Society
  • Received : April 30, 2012
  • Accepted : May 11, 2012
  • Published : August 20, 2012
Export by style
Cited by
About the Authors
Eue-Soon, Jang

We successfully synthesized Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles with ultrathin silica layer of 1.0±0.5 nm that was fine controlled by changing concentration of Fe 3 O 4 . Among various reaction conditions for silica coating, increasing concentration of Fe 3 O 4 was more effective approach to decrease silica thickness compared to water-to-surfactant ratio control. Moreover, we found that concentration of the 1-octanol is also important factor to produce the homogeneous Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles. The present approach could be available to apply on preparation of other core/shell nanoparticles with ultrathin silica layer.
Thanks to their high magnetic response and biocompatibility, iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 ) magnetic nanoparticles have received significant interest for biomedical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. 1 - 3 Therefore, various procedures, such as coprecipitation, 4 sol-gel, 5 and polyol methods, 6 have been developed to prepare monodispersed Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Among the methods developed, the use of an organic solvent with a high boiling temperature, like 1-octadecene (b.p.=315 ℃), has been preferred for achieving higher crystallinity and magnetic properties over those achieved by coprecipitation processes based on aqueous media. 7 - 9 However, the hydrophobic surface of the resulting Fe 3 O 4 should be modified to produce water-dispersible nanoparticles for further biomedical applications. While various methods have been reported thus far, the many advantages of silica listed below make it one of the most appropriate materials for modifying Fe 3 O 4 . 10 - 12
(1) It is biocompatible and stable in biological environments;
(2) It reduces the chemical toxicity of the core nanoparticles (e.g., by suppressing the release of toxic Fe 2+ ions from Fe 3 O 4 ); and
(3) It guarantees the chemical and physical properties of the core nanoparticles by protecting them from the external environment.
Moreover, well-known silane chemistry allows us to prepare Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 core/shell nanoparticles with various reaction active sites, with functional groups such as amines, carboxylates, and thiols, through silane coupling reactions and we can thus easily synthesize multifunctional nanoparticles. 13 Consequently, various silica-based core/shell nanostructures with multimodality have been investigated for molecular imaging and nanomedicine applications. 1 , 10 - 13 The Stöber method is the most commonly used procedure for obtaining silica-coated nanoparticles due to its simplicity in using hydrophilic ethanol solvent. 1 , 14 However, achieving thickness control below 50 nm by this method is difficult and thus the particle sizes of the core/shell nanoparticles increase up to the submicrometer scale. 15 , 16 Such large particles could lead to serious problems in renal clearance and cytotoxicity due to the long blood circulation time and their extensive accumulation into the liver, spleen, and lungs. 17 , 18 Moreover, the extent of magnetic interactions between the core Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and an external magnetic field could be reduced by the increased thickness of the SiO 2 layer due to the intrinsically diamagnetic property of the silica material. In fact, we have previously found that the 1/T(2) relaxivity of the core Fe 3 O 4 is significantly reduced by an increase in the silica thickness. 19 Therefore, technology with a thin layer of silica coating is very important for the biomedical application of silica-based core/shell nanoparticles. A reverse microemulsion procedure satisfies the purpose of preparing thin silica layer-coated Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles. 20 , 21
In this study, we demonstrate the optimal conditions for a reverse microemulsion procedure for the preparation of Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles with an ultrathin silica layer that can be controlled to a thickness of 1.0 nm. Such an ultrathin silica layer is a notable result because the average thickness of silica layers previously prepared by reverse microemulsion has been reported as 10-70 nm. 20 - 23 Moreover, we find that the SiO 2 thickness control mechanism is different from that for pure silica nanoparticles.
Oleic acid-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (13±2.5 nm in diameter) were provided by Ocean Nanotech LLC. The concentration of the supplied Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was determined by inductively coupled plasma analysis as being 22.9 Fe mg/mL. Silica coating of the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was accomplished by a modified reverse microemulsion procedure. In a typical synthesis, 5-300 μL of bare Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were suspended in 29.2 mL of cyclohexane (Aldrich) under mild stirring conditions and then 50-100 mM Triton-X100 (Aldrich) and 29.4-88.3 μM NH 4 OH (29.3 wt%, Aldrich) were added to the solution. The clear dark brown solution changed to being a turbid solution by the addition of NH 4 OH. The stable reverse microemulsion was generated by adding 0.04-0.22 M 1-octanol such that the resulting solution became optically transparent. Addition of 165 mM tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to the solution resulted in the immediate hydrolysis of the TEOS. Then, the growing of the silica layer (through condensation reaction) was continued by vigorous stirring (600 rpm) for 72 h at room temperature. The reaction was terminated by adding acetone solvent before the excess organic residents were removed through centrifugation at 15,000 rpm for 30 min. The precipitated Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 core/shell nanoparticles were redispersed into ethanol solvent by sonication.
As a template for the hydrolysis and condensation reaction of TEOS, the stable formation of reverse microemulsions plays a central role in the silica coating of the core nanoparticles that could be achieved by additional surfactants and NH 4 OH. In the present study, we used Triton-X100 (TX 100) as the main surfactant and 1-octanol as a helper surfactant. In addition, formation of the reverse microemulsion could be completed by NH 4 OH as the supplier of both the reactant (H 2 O) and catalyst (NH 3 ) for the hydrolysis of TEOS. The effects of such reactants on the formation of pure silica nanoparticles without core materials has been well established by Arriagada and Osseo-Asare. 24 , 25 More particularly, they showed that the particle size of the silica nanoparticles was sensitive to changes in the water-to-surfactant molar ratio (W/S). They considered only the surfactant associated with the reverse micelles formation, without the freely dispersed surfactant in the organic solvent. In contrast, we have used a simplified W/S molar ratio that includes the total concentration of the surfactant, such as in the following expression.
  • W/S=[H2O]/[TX100]
Although the definition of [surfactant] in the present W/S ratio is different from that reported previously, any discrepancy between the two different W/S ratios is negligible because the concentration of the free TX-100 surfactant in the oil phase is constant at the given temperature and solvent. We added no additional deionized water; therefore, the quantity of H 2 O was controlled by the concentration of NH 4 OH, i.e., we considered that 70.7 wt% of the added 29.3 wt% [NH 4 OH] was [H 2 O].
Most previous reports have investigated the influence of [TX-100] on the formation of the silica nanoparticles, but studies on helper surfactants like 1-octanol have only rarely been reported upon thus far. 24 - 27 As shown in . 1 (a), the bare Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles have a uniform size of 13 nm. . 1 (b)-(f) show the changes in the silica layer upon variation of [1-octanol], but the W/S ratio, [Fe 3 O 4 ], and [TEOS] were fixed at 3, 16.9 μM, and 16.4 mM, respectively. When [1-octanol] was altered to 0.22, 0.13, and 0.04 M, we observed a slight decrease in the average size of the Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticle products, from 121.3 nm to 101.5 nm, as shown in . 1 (b)-(d). Therefore, the distribution of the silica layer thickness was 54.2±12.0 nm, 43.5±12.8 nm, 42.3±10.8 nm, respectively. However, Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles of heterogeneous size were obtained from the reaction conditions of 0.03 M 1-octanol, as shown in . 1 (e). From the magnified image in . 1 (f), we found that small particles have a silica layer thickness of 4.7±1.5 nm. However, the solution for 0.03 M 1-octanol was turbid compared to the optically transparent solutions obtained by the other reaction conditions. This indicates that the [1-octanol] is important for forming a homogeneous silica layer but that a [1-octanol] above a certain concentration does not have a serious effect on the silica thickness. From the above results, we found that the minimum [1-octanol] is approximately 0.04 M in the present study. Therefore, the concentration of 1-octanol was fixed at 0.04 M for the remaining experiments.
According to Osseo-Asare and Arriagada, the silica particle size decreases and the size distribution narrows when the W/S ratio is increased from 0.7 to 2.3. 24 , 25 To test whether a silica layer coated onto Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles shows a similar tendency, we investigated the effect of the W/S ratio on the thickness of the silica layer and particle size distribution. . 2 (a)-(d) show the variation in the silica layer upon a decreasing W/S ratio (from 3 to 0.5) but with a maintained [Fe 3 O 4 ], [TEOS], and [1-octanol] at 33.9 μM, 165.0 mM, and 40.0 mM, respectively. When the W/S ratio was decreased from 3 to 2, the particle size distribution and silica layer thickness were reduced to 38.6±9.2 nm to 32.8±4.5 nm, as shown in . 2 (a) and (b). This is consistent with results previously reported. 24 , 25 However, the size distribution of the Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles for the W/S ratio of 1 broadened due to the cogeneration of large (148.6±12.5 nm) and small (66.9±20.4 nm) Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles, as shown in . 2 (c). When the W/S ratio was decreased to 0.5, we observed the amorphous silica-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles shown in . 2 (d). This result implies that the tendency for silica formation on the core nanoparticles is different from that for pure silica nanoparticles without the core materials. 24 , 25 , 27
PPT Slide
Lager Image
TEM images of (a) bare Fe3O4 and (b-f) Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles obtained from reactant solutions with different [1-octanol]: (b) 0.22 M, (c) 0.13 M, (d) 0.04 M, and (e and f) 0.03 M.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
TEM images of Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles obtained from reactant solutions with different W/S ratios of (a) 3, (b) 2, (c) 1, and (d) 0.5.
From the above results, we determined that a [1-octanol] and W/S ratio of 0.04 M and 2, respectively, produce Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles with a homogeneous particle size. However, further optimization of the conditions was required to prepare Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles with a silica layer of thinner thickness. As the next step, we investigated the variation of the silica layer thickness upon changes in [Fe 3 O 4 ] to prepare ultrathin layered Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles. As shown in . 3 (a)-(e), we found that the silica layer thickness dramatically decreased from 41.0±7.3 to 1.0±0.5 nm upon an increase in [Fe 3 O 4 ] from 16.9 μM to 1.02 mM. The most significant change in the silica layer thickness was observed by increasing [Fe 3 O 4 ] from 101.6 μM to 169.4 μM, as summarized in . 4 . From the above results, we believe that increasing [Fe 3 O 4 ] is a more effective approach to reduce the silica thickness than is controlling the W/S ratio. 1 demonstrates the reason behind the variation in the silica thickness upon changes in [Fe 3 O 4 ]. When [Fe 3 O 4 ] is increased, the (W/S)/[Fe 3 O 4 ] ratio is decreased at a constant W/S ratio. This fact indicates that relatively low concentrations of H 2 O and surfactants could lead to the formation of a sparse reverse microemulsion due to the insufficient amount of surfactant. The sparse reverse microemulsion template in the oil phase is relatively non-flexible compared to the dense reverse microemulsion created as a result of the high (W/S)/[Fe 3 O 4 ] ratio, resulting in shrinkage of the reverse microemulsion. Therefore, the sparse reverse microemulsion only allows a small space for silica layer formation via hydrolysis and condensation reaction of TEOS. For the large (W/S)/[Fe 3 O 4 ] ratio, the dense reverse microemulsion template is more flexible and thus swelling templates could provide sufficient space for the formation of a large silica layer. Among the two surfactants, the [1-octanol] could have more effect on the flexibility of the templates than TX-100 because the linear hydrocarbon chain of 1-octanol is more flexible than the rigid phenol group in TX-100. This therefore leads to an understanding of why mixtures of large and small Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles could be generated from 1-octanol concentrations below 0.04 M, as described above.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
TEM images of Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles obtained with different [Fe3O4]: (a) 16.9 mM, (b) 33.9 mM, (c) 101.6 mM, (d) 169.4 mM, (e) 338.7 mM, and (f) 1016.2 mM.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Variation of silica layer thickness and distribution upon changing [Fe3O4].
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Schematic representation of the formation of different reverse microemulsion templates at high and low concentrations of Fe3O4.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
ζ potential results of Fe3O4/SiO2 (F/S) nanoparticles with different silica thicknesses. The numbers 95, 79, 30, and 15 indicate the average particle size determined from TEM observations.
On the other hand, a thick silica layer coating leads to an increase in the strongly negative surface charge on the Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles through deprotonation of the silanol group (-SiOH). 28 , 29 In fact, general products of silica possess negative charges over the pH range of most natural waters. 29 Therefore, such a negative surface charge will be enhanced by an increase in the silica thickness, which could lead to severe aggregation via strong electrostatic interactions between nanoparticles. . 5 shows the ζ potential results for the surface charge of the Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 dispersed into the deionized water, which systematically changed from -73.71 to -45.03 mV by decreasing the silica thickness from 41.0±7.3 nm to 1.0±0.5 nm. For the Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles with the thick silica layer, problems related to colloidal stability could be induced by increasing the negative surface charge and particle size. In fact, even the prepared Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles with a diameter of 95 and 79 nm precipitate out after only a few hours in water, but the Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles with the ultrathin silica layer of 1.0±0.5 nm were monodispersed in solvent for a few weeks without any aggregate formation.
The silica thickness control reported in previous works was primarily achieved by changing the W/S ratio. As a result of this, the average silica thickness of the resulting core/shell nanoparticles were reported as 10-70 nm. 20 - 23 In the present study, we successfully synthesized Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles with a silica thickness of 1.0±0.5 nm from 1.02 mM Fe 3 O 4 . In addition, we found that increasing [Fe 3 O 4 ] is a more effective approach to reduce the silica thickness than is controlling the W/S ratio. Moreover, the concentration of 1-octanol is also an important factor for producing homogeneous Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoparticles. We believe that a thin layer of silica coating is preferred for biomedical applications of these magnetic nanoparticles. The procedure reported herein could also be applied to the preparation of other core/shell nanoparticles with an ultrathin silica layer.
This work was supported by research fund (2011-0024700) of the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST).
Cho Y.-S. , Yoon T.-J. , Jang E.-S. , Hong K. S. , Lee S. Y. , Kim O. R. , Park C. , Kim Y.-J. , Yi G.-C. , Chang K. 2010 Cancer Lett. 299 63 -    DOI : 10.1016/j.canlet.2010.08.004
Green J. J. , Zhou B. Y. , Mitalipova M. M. , Beard C. , Langer R. , Jaenisch R. , Anderson D. G. 2008 Nano Lett. 8 3126 -    DOI : 10.1021/nl8012665
Lee J.-H. , Jang J.-T. , Choi J.-S. , Moon S. H. , Noh S.- H. , Kim J.-W. , Kim J.-G. , Kim I.-S. , Park K. I. , Cheon J. 2011 Nature Nanotech. 6 418 -    DOI : 10.1038/nnano.2011.95
Jolivet J. P. , Chaneac C. , Tronc E. 2004 Chem. Commun. 5 481 -    DOI : 10.1039/b304532n
Xu J. , Yang H. , Fu W. , Du K. , Sui Y. , Chen J. , Zeng Y. , Li M. , Zou G. 2007 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 309 307 -    DOI : 10.1016/j.jmmm.2006.07.037
Cai W. , Wan J. 2007 J. Colloid Interface Sci. 305 366 -    DOI : 10.1016/j.jcis.2006.10.023
Sun S. , Zeng H. , Robinson D. B. , Raoux S. , Rice P. M. , Wang S. X. , Li G. 2004 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 273 -    DOI : 10.1021/ja0380852
Bao N. , Shen L. , Wang Y. , Padhan P. , Gupta A. 2007 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 12374 -    DOI : 10.1021/ja074458d
Park J. , Joo J. , Kwon S. , Jang Y. , Hyeon T. 2007 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 4630 -    DOI : 10.1002/anie.200603148
Jun B.-H. , Noh M. S. , Kim J. , Kim G. , Kang H. , Kim M.-S. , Seo Y.-T. , Baek J. , Kim J.-H. , Park J. , Kim S. , Kim Y.-K. , Hyeon T. , Cho M.-H. , Jeong D. H. , Lee Y.-S. 2010 Small 6 119 -    DOI : 10.1002/smll.200901459
Lee J.-H. , Jun Y.-W. , Yeon S.-I. , Shin J.-S. , Cheon J. 2006 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45 8160 -    DOI : 10.1002/anie.200603052
Zhang Y. , Pan S. , Teng X. , Luo Y. , Li G. 2008 J. Phys. Chem. C 112 9623 -    DOI : 10.1021/jp8015326
Louie A. 2010 Chem. Rev. 110 3146 -    DOI : 10.1021/cr9003538
Stöber W. , Fink A. , Bohn E. 1968 J. Colloid Int. Sci. 26 62 -    DOI : 10.1016/0021-9797(68)90272-5
Kobayashi Y. , Katakami H. , Mine E. , Nagao D. , Konno M. , Marzán L. M. L. 2005 J. Colloid Int. Sci. 283 392 -    DOI : 10.1016/j.jcis.2004.08.184
Rossi L. M. , Shi L. , Quina F. H. , Rosenzweig Z. 2005 Langmuir 21 4277 -    DOI : 10.1021/la0504098
Choi H. S. , Liu W. , Misra P. , Tanaka E. , Zimmer J. P. , Ipe B. I. , Bawendi M. G. , Frangioni J. V. 2007 Nature Biotech. 25 1165 -    DOI : 10.1038/nbt1340
Huang J. , Bu L. , Xie J. , Chen K. , Cheng Z. , Chen X. 2010 ACS Nano 4 7151 -    DOI : 10.1021/nn101643u
Cha E. J. , Jang E.-S. , Sun I. C. , Lee I. J. , Ko J. H. , Kim Y. I. 2011 J. Controlled Release 155 152 -    DOI : 10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.07.019
Han Y. , Jang J. , Lee S. S. , Ying J. Y. 2008 Langmuir 24 5842 -    DOI : 10.1021/la703440p
Yi D. K. , Lee S. S. , Papaefthymiou G. C. , Ying J. Y. 2006 Chem. Mater. 18 614 -    DOI : 10.1021/cm0512979
Kool R. , Schooneveld N. M. , Hilhort J. , Donega C. M. , Hart D. C. , Balaaderen A. , Vanmaekelbergh D. , Meijerink A. 2008 Chem. Mater. 20 2503 -    DOI : 10.1021/cm703348y
Kim J. , Kim H. S. , Lee N. , Kim T. , Kim H. , Yu T. , Song I. C. , Moon W. K. , Hyeon T. 2008 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47 8438 -    DOI : 10.1002/anie.200802469
O.-Asare K. , Arriagada F. J. 1990 Colloids & Surf. 50 321 -    DOI : 10.1016/0166-6622(90)80273-7
Arriagada F. J. , O.-Asare K. 1999 J. Colloid Int. Sci. 211 210 -    DOI : 10.1006/jcis.1998.5985
Chang C.-L. , Fogler H. S. 1997 Langmuir 13 3295 -    DOI : 10.1021/la961062z
Li T. , Moon J. , Morrone A. A. , Mecholsky J. J. , Talham D. R. , Adair H. 1999 Langmuir 15 4328 -    DOI : 10.1021/la970801o
Bagwe R. P. , Hilliard L. R. , Tan W. 2006 Langmuir 22 4357 -    DOI : 10.1021/la052797j
Dove P. M. , Craven C. M. 2005 Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 69 4963 -    DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2005.05.006