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Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of L-Threonine-derived α-Bromo Esters for Asymmetric Synthesis of α-Amino Esters
Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of L-Threonine-derived α-Bromo Esters for Asymmetric Synthesis of α-Amino Esters
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society. 2014. Jan, 35(1): 265-268
Copyright © 2014, Korea Chemical Society
  • Received : August 30, 2013
  • Accepted : October 08, 2013
  • Published : January 20, 2014
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Yelim Kim
Kon Ji Park
Myung-Su Lee
Hyejin Ryu
Yong Sun Park

Abstract
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Experimental
General Procedure for the Asymmetric Nucleophilic Substitution via Dynamic Kinetic Resolution. To a solution of L-threonine-derived α-bromo ester ( 1-7 ) in CH 2 Cl 2 ( ca . 0.1 M) at rt were added DIEA (1.0 equiv), TBAI (1.0 equiv) and an amine nucleophile (1.2 equiv). After the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12-24 h, the solvent was evaporated and the crude material was purified by column chromatography to give a α-amino ester. The drs of 8a-u were determined by 1 H NMR integration of hydrogens of two diastereomers and the ers of 9 and 10 were determined by CSP-HPLC.
N-Acetyl-O-(α-(p-methoxyanilino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8a). 63% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) δ 7.44-7.30 (m, 5H), 6.72 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.54 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.20 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (m, 1H), 4.98 (s, 1H), 4.94 (m, 1H), 4.77 (m, 1H), 3.69 (s, 3H), 2.01 (s, 1H), 1.22 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 1.06 (m, 6H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 170.9, 170.4, 169.2, 152.7, 140.2, 137.4, 128.9, 128.5, 127.3, 127.2, 114.8, 72.2, 70.0, 61.8, 55.7, 55.4, 23.1, 21.7, 21.5, 16.4.
N-Pivaloyl-O-(α-(p-methoxyanilino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8b). 64% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) δ 7.45-7.26 (m, 5H), 6.71 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.54 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.15 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (m, 1H), 4.99 (m, 1H), 4.94 (s, 1H), 4.72 (m, 1H), 3.69 (s, 3H), 1.25 (m, 3H), 1.19 (s, 9H), 1.12 (m, 3H), 1.02 (m, 3H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 178.7, 170.8, 169.2, 152.7, 140.1, 137.6, 128.9, 128.4, 127.2, 121.9, 114.8, 72.7, 69.8, 61.8, 55.6, 55.2, 38.8, 27.4, 21.7, 21.5, 16.2.
N-Boc-O-(α-(p-methoxyanilino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8c). 58% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) δ 7.44-7.30 (m, 5H), 6.72 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.52 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 5.42 (m, 1H), 5.15 (d, J = 9.6 Hz, 1H), 4.93 (m, 2H), 4.50 (m, 1H), 4.38 (m, 1H), 3.69 (s, 3H), 1.50 (s, 9H), 1.24 (m, 3H), 1.08 (m, 6H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 170.9, 169.3, 155.8, 152.6, 140.2, 137.3, 128.9, 128.4, 127.2, 114.8, 80.2, 72.5, 69.8, 61.7, 57.2, 55.7, 28.8, 21.7, 21.5, 16.3.
N-Benzoyl-O-(α-(p-methoxyanilino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8d). 62% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) δ 7.55-7.26 (m, 10H), 6.70 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.53 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 5.49 (m, 1H), 5.02-4.95 (m, 3H), 4.57 (m, 1H), 3.68 (s, 3H), 1.25 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 1.15 (m, 6H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 171.0, 169.1, 167.6, 152.7, 140.2, 137.6, 133.7, 132.0, 128.9, 128.7, 128.4, 127.3, 127.2, 114.9, 114.7, 72.7, 70.1, 61.9, 55.9, 55.7, 21.8, 21.6, 16.6.
N-(p-Methoxybenzoyl)-O-(α-(p-methoxyanilino)phenyl acetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8e). 86% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) δ 7.69 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.48-7.26 (m, 5H), 6.93 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.71 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.53 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 5.47 (m, 1H), 5.02-4.94 (m, 3H), 4.59 (br, 1H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 3.68 (s, 3H), 1.25 (m, 3H), 1.15 (m, 6H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 178.7, 170.8, 169.2, 152.7, 140.1, 137.6, 129.9, 128.9, 128.4, 127.8, 127.2, 121.9, 114.8, 114.7, 72.7, 69.8, 61.8, 55.6, 55.2, 21.7, 21.5, 16.2.
N-(2-pyridinylcarbonyl)-O-(α-(p-methoxyanilino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8f). 62% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) δ 8.67 (m, 2H), 8.18 (m, 1H), 7.86 (m, 1H), 7.50-7.26 (m, 5H), 6.70 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.53 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 5.54 (m, 1H), 5.05-4.92 (m, 3H), 4.57 (m, 1H), 3.69 (s, 3H), 1.24 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 1.10 (m, 6H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 170.9, 168.8, 164.7, 152.6, 148.4, 140.2, 140.0, 139.9, 137.4, 128.8, 128.3, 127.2, 126.6, 122.5, 116.4, 114.9, 72.3, 70.0, 61.8, 55.7, 55.6, 21.7, 21.5, 16.5.
N,N-Dibenzyl-O-(α-(p-methoxyanilino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8g). 66% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) δ 7.38-7.21 (m, 15H), 6.71 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.50 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 5.43 (m, 1H), 5.10 (m, 1H), 4.98 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.69 (s, 3H), 3.59 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.36 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 1.22 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 0.93 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 171.1, 169.3, 152.5, 140.3, 139.3, 137.8, 129.0, 128.8, 128.4, 128.1, 127.2, 114.9, 114.7, 70.2, 68.5, 64.7, 61.9, 55.7, 55.4, 22.3, 22.0, 17.0.
N,N-Dibenzyl-O-(α-(o-methoxyanilino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8m). 67% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) 7.40-7.23 (m, 15H), 6.78- 6.32 (m, 4H), 5.55 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.45 (m, 1H), 5.11 (m, 1H), 5.04 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 3.61 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.36 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 1.20 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.95 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 170.9, 169.3, 147.1, 139.5, 139.3, 137.7, 136.1, 129.1, 128.9, 128.8, 128.7, 128.3, 128.1, 127.6, 127.2, 127.0, 121.0, 117.2, 110.7, 109.5, 70.3, 68.4, 64.7, 61.0, 55.4, 55.3, 22.3, 22.0, 17.0.
N,N-Dibenzyl-O-(α-(diphenylmethylamino)phenyl acetyl)-L-threonine isopropyl ester (8n). 67% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) 7.49-7.17 (m, 25H), 5.60 (s, 1H), 5.45 (m, 1H), 5.11 (m, 1H), 4.81 (s, 1H), 3.95 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.51 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.26 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 1.33 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 1.24 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 172.4, 169.3, 143.3, 139.3, 129.2, 128.8, 128.7, 128.6, 128.3, 127.8, 127.7, 127.6, 127.5, 127.2, 69.4, 68.4, 64.8, 64.2, 63.0, 55.4, 22.4, 22.1, 17.1.
N,N-Dibenzyl-O-(α-((R)-phenethylamino)phenyl acetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8o). 54% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) 7.31-7.15 (m, 20H), 5.38 (m, 1H), 5.08 (m, 1H), 4.19 (s, 1H), 3.93 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.57 (m, 1H), 3.49 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.22 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 1.36 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 1.30 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 1.21 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.90 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 171.9, 169.2, 139.3, 129.0, 128.7, 128.5, 128.2, 127.9, 127.7, 127.2, 127.0, 126.8, 69.1, 68.2, 64.7, 62.6, 55.2, 54.3, 24.7, 22.2, 22.0, 17.0.
N,N-Dibenzyl-O-(α-(benzylamino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8p). 71% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) 7.24-7.14 (m, 20H), 5.36 (m, 1H), 5.01 (m, 1H), 4.28 (s, 1H), 3.92 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.69 (m, 2H), 3.48 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.22 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 2.32 (br, 1H), 1.30 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 1.15 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.92 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) 172.2, 169.4, 139.7, 139.4, 138.1, 129.1, 128.7, 128.6, 128.3, 128.0, 127.6, 127.2, 127.1, 69.7, 68.4, 64.7, 64.6, 55.5, 51.3, 22.3, 22.1, 17.2.
N,N-Dibenzyl-O-(α-(3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-isoquinolinyl)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8q). 66% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) 7.28-6.88 (m, 19H), 5.44 (m, 1H), 5.06 (m, 1H), 4.14 (s, 1H), 4.08 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.75-3.62 (m, 4H), 3.34 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 2.84-2.79 (m, 4H), 1.32 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 1.22 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.98 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) 170.7, 169.5, 139.4, 136.0, 134.4, 134.3, 129.0, 128.8, 128.7, 128.6, 128.3, 128.2, 127.1, 126.7, 126.2, 125.6, 73.8, 69.9, 68.3, 64.6, 55.5, 53.4, 48.5, 28.9, 22.2, 22.0, 17.0.
N,N-Dibenzyl-O-(α-(dibenzylamino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8r). 73% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) δ 7.28-7.16 (m, 25H), 5.58 (m, 1H), 5.11 (m, 1H), 4.59 (s, 1H), 3.95 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.88 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.66 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.58 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.30 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 1.32 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 1.24 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 1.14 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 171.5, 169.6, 139.6, 139.4, 139.3, 136.2, 129.1, 128.9, 128.3, 128.2, 127.0, 69.8, 68.3, 66.1, 64.5, 55.7, 54.0, 22.3, 22.0, 17.5.
N,N-Dibenzyl-O-(α-(benzylmethylamino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8s). 67% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) δ 7.42-7.20 (m, 20H), 5.45 (m, 1H), 4.98 (m, 1H), 4.23 (s, 1H), 4.10 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.67 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.60 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 1H), 3.51 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 1H), 3.34 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.28 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H), 1.13 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 1.06 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) 171.0, 169.5, 139.5, 139.0, 136.5, 129.0, 128.9, 128.8, 128.5, 128.3, 128.1, 127.1, 127.0, 73.1, 70.1, 68.2, 64.5, 58.7, 55.5, 39.4, 22.2, 21.9, 17.1.
N,N-Dibenzyl-O-(α-(dibutylamino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8t). 64% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) 7.34-7.18 (m, 15H), 5.49 (m, 1H), 5.04 (m, 1H), 4.52 (s, 1H), 4.07 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.68 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.35 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 2.25 (m, 4H), 1.40- 1.10 (m, 17H), 0.80 (m, 6H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 171.7, 169.6, 139.5, 137.4, 129.0, 128.3, 128.2, 127.7, 127.1, 70.0, 69.5, 68.2, 64.6, 55.6, 50.5, 29.8, 22.2, 22.0, 20.4, 17.3, 14.1.
N,N-Dibenzyl-O-(α-(o-aminoanilino)phenylacetyl)-L-threonine Isopropyl Ester (8u). 93% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz, major epimer) 7.34-7.21 (m, 15H), 6.71-6.44 (m, 4H), 5.44 (m, 1H), 5.09 (m, 1H), 5.02 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 1H), 4.63 (br, 1H), 4.03 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.61 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H), 3.40 (br, 2H), 3.36 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.32 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 1.19 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H), 0.95 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 , 100 MHz, major epimer) δ 171.2, 169.3, 139.3, 129.2, 129.0, 128.7, 128.6, 128.3, 127.2, 127.1, 120.5, 119.6, 116.9, 113.5, 70.4, 68.4, 64.6, 61.5, 55.4, 22.2, 22.0, 17.0.
N-(p-Methoxphenyl)phenylglycine Methyl Ester (9). 71% yield from 8d ; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.48-7.25 (m, 5H), 6.69 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 2H), 6.52 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 2H), 5.00 (s, 1H), 4.67 (br, 1H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 3.67 (s, 3H). 1c Chiral HPLC: 87:13 er, t R ( S )-major enantiomer, 76.2 min; t R ( R )-minor enantiomer, 66.3 min (Chiralcel OJ-H column; 20% 2-propanol in hexane; 0.5 mL/min).
3-Phenyl-3,4-dihydro-1,4-quinoxalin-2-one (10). 83% yield; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.95 (br, 1H), 7.43- 6.70 (m, 9H), 5.08 (s, 1H), 4.28 (br, 1H). 1e Chiral HPLC: 92:8 er, t R ( S )-major enantiomer, 45.0 min; t R ( R )-minor enantiomer, 40.1 min (Chiralcel OJ-H column; 20% 2-propanol in hexane; 0.5 mL/min).
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by Konkuk University in 2012.
References
Park Y. S. 2009 Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 43 8253 -