The Antarctica continent does not belong to any countries so that a place in the region has some different place names between countries. Korea gave Korean place names to the places around the King Sejong Station, and the names have since been used by Korean researchers on the Antarctic. However, they have yet to be registered officially at CGA(Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica) by November 2010. Therefore, to prepare for the possible disputes over territorial claims in Antarctica and to expand and specify activity areas, this research tries to analyze the present condition of advanced countries’committees on place names of Antarctica, their procedures of registering names and their registration criteria, and thereby suggest an efficient plan for registering place names of Antarctica. If the plan suggested in this research is actively reviewed and applied, it will be able to make a great contribution to advancing the place names of Antarctica and research on the Antarctic.
Place names play an important role in Antarctica, due in part to their historical and political relevance. The manners of Antarctic discovery and mapping, and the lack of a single place names authority under the Antarctic Treaty System, have resulted in numerous cases of multiple names for single features, and inconsistent practices in the recognition and use of existing names. The operational and scientific consequences are evident, with the potential for fatal misunderstandings in position reports by sea, air, and land travelers, and ambiguity in describing the location of scientific observations. The fact that place names are intrinsically related to territorial claims only makes a solution to the problem more difficult (Cervellati,
., 2000). All WG-GGI members were first asked to contribute their existing national Antarctic gazetteers in digital form, in 1994. After this event, the first edition of the Gazetteer was printed in March 1998 and contained all data received to 30 November 1997. The first edition of the Gazetteer contains 32,955 entries, sourced from 20 national Antarctic gazetteers and one international body, GEBCO (Cooper and Fretwell, 2003).
Since before 1961, seven advanced countries in researching the Antarctic, including Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK, have claimed sovereignty over the territory situated south of 60° latitude parallel. The territory was accepted only by the countries claiming the sovereignty. Most of the territory looks fan-shaped from the South Pole and includes research stations from different countries. Such territorial claims were aimed at making scientific observations and surveys at each country's own territory in the Antarctic (Wikipedia, 2013). To solve the territorial claims peacefully, twelve countries which took activities in Antarctica during International Geophysical Year (1957-1958) signed the Antarctic Treaty on Dec. 1, 1959 at Washington, which came into force in 1961. Since then, other countries have joined the Treaty. The Antarctic Treaty is based on the use of Antarctica for peaceful purposes, free scientific research, and exchanges of scientific observations and results from Antarctica (The Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty, 2011). Despite the Antarctic Treaty, however, the countries which made territorial claims try to constantly expand their activity areas and actively register Antarctic place names, in order to prepare the fundamental materials for their territorial claims and enhance their positions externally.
Korean scientists had been carried out scientific researches (land, sea, atmosphere etc.) about the entire region of Antarctica which were led by Korea Polar Research Institute from February 1998 when the King Sejong Scientific Station was built. However, in case of place name sphere, there was not any Korean Antarctic name before 2010 due to the lack of interest. In this situation, the first 17 Korean Antarctic names were registered on December 2010 based on the national support policy, public relations, the national interest about Antarctic surveying, mapping, and naming since 2008. Nevertheless, procedure and administration about Antarctic naming are not sufficient compared to other developed nations as yet.
Therefore, to prepare for the possible disputes over territorial claims in Antarctica and to expand and specify activity areas, this research tries to analyze the CGA member countries' procedures of registering Antarctic place names and thereby suggest an efficient plan for registering place names of Antarctica.
2. Overseas procedures of registering Antarctic place names
This work was intended to analyze CGA member countries' procedures of registering Antarctic place names and thereby suggest an efficient Korean plan for the registration procedure. To do that, this researcher chose four countries (Australia, New Zealand, the UK, and the US) as analysis subjects, out of 23 CGA member countries and one CGA member institute. The countries registered more than 2,000 names and systematically manage the information about Antarctic place names at their own websites.
shows present condition of the Antarctic place name (SCAR, 2013).
Present condition of the Antarctic place name
Present condition of the Antarctic place name
- 2.1 Australia
In Australia, the official authority in charge of registering Antarctic place names is the Australian Antarctic Names and Medals Committee (AANMC), which covers not only Antarctica, but also Heard Island and McDonald Islands. AANMC belongs to Australian Antarctic Division under Australian Department of the Environment. The Committee is responsible for the investigation and acceptance or rejection of all names proposals. The criteria of registering place names in AANMC are presented as follows:
The procedure of registering place names in Australia is presented as follows:
① Priority of discovery
② Consideration of circumstances of publication of any previous name(s) for the feature
③ Significance of the feature
④ Position of the feature - both absolute, and relative to other features
⑤ Suitability of the proposed name
⑥ Appropriateness of the proposed name with particular regard to euphony and elegance(what it sounds like and what it looks like)
The Australian Antarctic Names and Medals Committee playing the most critical role in naming procedures is comprised of four appointed members, one Ex Officio Member and one Mapping Officer, as shown in
(Australian Antarctic Names and Medals Committee, 2010).
① Names proposals may be made to the Committee by completing the Antarctic Name Proposal form
※ Anyone can propose a name
② Proposals should be submitted to the Mapping Officer in Australian Antarctic Division
③ Proposals researched by the Mapping Officer are submitted to the Committee for consideration
④ If recommended by Committee, proposals approved by the Minister of Department of the Environmental and then may be used on maps and charts
Membership of AANMC
- 2.2 New Zealand
In New Zealand, New Zealand Geographic Board (NZGB) is the official authority in charge of Antarctic place names. The organization assigns, approves, alters or discontinues the use of names for geographic features (eg place names), undersea features and Crown protected areas in New Zealand, its offshore islands and its continental shelf and the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. The NZGB is an independent statutory body responsible to the Minister for Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) who is similar to Korean Minister of Land, Infrastructure, and Land. Since amendment of a relevant law in 2008, its roles have been expanded. The roles of the Board are to offer official place names, approve the names used unofficially, change official names or already used names, prevent them from being used, and review the name proposals of national reserves. In this case, the places are limited to the lay of the land, submarine topography, and Antarctic places, and national reserves. Names of roads, highways, buildings, golf courses, and others are managed by another organization. An official suggestion of a name to the director of the Board in the country should meet the following requirements.
The procedure of registering place names in New Zealand is presented as follows:
① The applicable Proposal Form agreed by the Board must be used, and filled out completely. In particular, duplicated names should be listed
② Proposals submitted by the Board or Secretariat are also required to be filled out on the agreed and applicable Proposal Forms
③ Proposals made via social media weblogs or other online crowd sourcing facilities, will not be processed.
③ A map or chart (preferably from Land Information New Zealand) showing the location and if applicable, the marked up extent of the proposed name.
④ For personal names in Antarctica (which can be assigned after a living person), sufficient information/evidence must be provided to connect the person with the area or feature and the significance of their association with that place.
⑤ For new names, sufficient reason(s) must be provided to justify/warrant naming the feature or place, eg the need for a location identifier for emergency response, the need for addressing purposes, and rights of first discovery/ascent.
⑥ For dual names, sufficient information/ evidence associated with both names is required.
⑦ For all proposals, the generic geographic component should be included as applicable, and must be appropriate. Generally the English generic element is preferred.
⑧ Proposals received after the deadline for the next scheduled Board meeting will not be processed until the next meeting after that. The deadline is usually set at 8 weeks before a Board meeting to allow the Secretariat enough time to process and compile Proposal Reports, and to allow all agenda items to be forwarded to Board members for preparatory reading at least two weeks prior to the meeting.
① the person/group making the proposal undertakes research and consultation, then fills in a proposal form
② proposal received by NZGB the secretariat
③ research, investigation and validation by the secretariat, plus consultation - if required
④ the NZGB considers the proposal and weighs it against the naming rules
⑤ if supported, the NZGB makes the final determination
⑥ the official Antarctic name is published in the NZ Gazette, is publicly notified, and is entered into the New Zealand Gazetteer of Official Geographic Names
⑦ the official Antarctic the name is included in the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica (CGA).
The procedure of registering the Antarctic place names in New Zealand
NZGB playing a critical role in the above procedure is comprised of one director and nine board members. Among them, eight members, excluding the director and one LINZ official, were appointed in July 2010, having been served for three years. Each member of the Board is selected by the recommendation of government organizations and relevant associations, such as Federated Mountain Clubs, New Zealand Geographical Society, Te Rūnanga o Ng āi Tahu, Minister of M āori Affairs, Minister for Land Information, and Local Government New Zealand (New Zealand Geographic Board Ng ā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa, 2012).
Membership of NZGB
- 2.3 United Kingdom
In the UK, the official authority in charge of registering Antarctic place names is the UK Antarctic place names Committee (APC), which covers Antarctica as well as South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The APC belongs to Polar Regions Department under Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO). The APC considers proposals and makes recommendations for place names within the British Antarctic Territory (BAT).
The guideline of registering Antarctic place names in APC is presented as follows :
Based on the above guidelines the procedure of registering Antarctic place names in United Kingdom is presented as follows:
① Need for name : Each place name proposal should be accompanied by a brief case outlining the need for the name.
② Double naming : It is important to apply only one name per feature
③ Density of names : New names for minor features are only accepted if there is a standard map or chart published at a sufficiently large scale to show them. Near permanent scientific stations, where large scale maps are available, a higher density of names is often permissible but the map should not be overloaded with names; field scientists are encouraged to use a grid system for collecting-station lists and to provide a sketch map of these localities in their reports.
④ Duplication of names : It is APC policy to avoid duplication of place names
⑤ Personal names : The use of titles or the names of partners or pets is similarly not considered suitable. The APC will consider the naming of features after scientists and other personnel, who have contributed significantly to scientific understanding and/or life in the Antarctic, or who have made a major contribution to Antarctic matters.
⑥ place naming stemming from tourist operations : In certain circumstances, where visits and landings are regularly made to unnamed locations and the interests of safety, navigation and environmental monitoring call for the application of a name, the Committee may consider proposals arising from the activities of Antarctic tourism. Individuals may only be commemorated after making a significant personal contribution to Antarctic science or exploration.
⑦ Size of feature and name : Any name needs to be legible on a published map or chart and this often rules out the use of long names for small features.
⑧ Choice of generic term) : New names should be applied to distinct geographical features and the generic part of the name should be appropriate
⑨ Names with two generic terms : Names such as “Pond Bay” or “Ridge Mountain” should be avoided
⑩ Descriptive names : Names that might be mistaken for descriptions of terrain or topography should be avoided. For example names such as “Sandy Hills” or “Broad Valley”
⑪ Group names : This has the advantage of making it easier to remember the geographical position if names belonging to the same idea group are found near to each other
⑫ Coordinate Selection : The coordinates for any given feature should provide an indication of its position that clearly distinguish the feature from any other, while providing a level of precision appropriate to the size of the feature
The PAC playing the most important role in the above procedure is comprised of researchers and experts in the areas of Antarctic research and place names. It includes representatives from each of the following organizations.
① Following endorsement by the Commissioner of the BAT, names can then be used in reports, publications, maps and charts
② The APC considers proposals and makes recommendations for place names within the BAT
③ If the place names are considered acceptable the APC liaise with the place naming authorities of other countries
In addition there are up to three expert members with expertise in Antarctic toponymy and up to two ad hoc members with expertise in relevant disciplines (UK Antarctic Place-names Committee, 2013).
① Government for BAT
② British Antarctic Survey
③ Permanent Committee on Geographical Names
④ Royal Geographical Society
⑤ Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge
⑥ UK Hydrographic Office
- 2.4 U.S.A
In the US, the work of registering Antarctic place names is controlled and managed by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (ACAN), an advisory committee of the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). The committee provides guidelines about Antarctic place names and makes decisions on the names.
According to the following criteria, the ACAN takes into consideration the validity of a name proposed on the basis of importance.
Inappropriate place names are presented as follows:
① Chronological priority of discovery, naming, or other relevant action
② Actual association of the person, ship, or organization, event, etc., with the featu
③ Association of the person, ship, organization, event, etc., with other polar exploration
④ Contribution of the person to the knowledge of Antarctica
⑤ Contribution of the person to relevant fields of knowledge
⑥ Extent to which financial or material contributions have contributed to the success of an expedition or to the collection of valuable scientific data
⑦ Previous recognition through a place name in Antarctica
- It is advisable in future naming in Antarctica to apply the name of one person to only one feature.
- To avoid confusion, the names of persons having the same surname should be applied to no more than one feature of a kind.
⑧ The possibility of ambiguity or confusion with names already in use
- The duplication of names in use is undesirable.
- Since descriptive names are often ambiguous and easily duplicated, they should be avoided, unless a descriptive name is peculiarly appropriate.
- The duplication in Antarctica of names well known in other parts of the world is undesirable even though qualified by adjectives such as "new," "south," and "little"
⑨ Wideness of acceptance, as evidenced by extended use on maps and in literature. Usage considered sufficiently fixed and/or unanimous may be accepted as valid grounds for approval of a name that otherwise would not qualify.
The ACAN playing the most significant role in the above procedure is comprised of one director, six members and one secretary, as shown in the below table (United States Board on Geographic Names, 2010).
① Names suggested because of relationship or friendship
② Names of contributors of funds, equipment, and supplies, who by the nature and tone of their advertising have endeavored to capitalize or to gain some commercial advantage as a result of their donations. This would not include advantages resulting from testing of donated equipment under Antarctic conditions; in cases of doubt, the decision shall be in favor of the individual whose name has been proposed.
③ The names of products, sled dogs, or pets will ordinarily not be considered appropriate for application to natural features
Membership of ACAN
- 2.5 CGA
Registration of a place name in CGA is made in the way that a new Antarctic place name approved by each nation's committee on place names of Antarctica is sent to CGA by SCAR Geoscience Standing Scientific Group or SCAR Permanent Delegate.
3. Domestic procedure of registering Antarctic place names
By 2010, Korea had no official authority taking charge of registration of Antarctic place names. In the circumstance, much research on surveys and maps of Antarctica was actively conducted. Thanks to that, the need of registration of Antarctic place names was emerged in Korea. In the environment where there was no official authority in charge of registration of Antarctic place names, the National Committee on Place Names, launched through the 1st meeting of the National Committee on Place Names on May 24, 2010, discussed the existing place names, marine place names, and additionally place names of Antarctica. As an independent government committee under the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transportation, the National Committee on Place Names establishes and changes place names, marine place names, and deliberates and decides both critical matters related to place names and marine place names and the reports made by each local committee on place names.
As of now, the procedure of registering Antarctic place names in Korea is presented as follows:
The National Committee on Place Names which deliberates and decides Antarctic place names comprises of 18 experts on place names and marine place names in the private sector and 11 public officials in the relevant area, a total of 29, according to 『Enforcement Decree of the Act on Land Survey, Waterway Survey and Cadastral Records』(Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, 2013).
① Submit a proposal of an Antarctic place name to the National Committee on Place Names
② Deliberate and decide the registration of the name at the meeting of the National Committee on Place Names (in the case of rejection, re-deliberation after supplementation)
③ Announce the committee's decision by Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation and Minister of Oceans and Fisheries
④ Send it to CGA through SCAR Geoscience Standing Scientific Group or SCAR Permanent Delegate
4. A plan for improving registration of the place names
- 4.1 Creation of the committee on Antarctic place names and training of experts
Because of the geological and climate characteristics of Antarctica and the possible future territorial claims, seven countries that claim sovereignty over Antarctica-Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Argentina, Chile, France and Norway-and many other countries established their own committee on Antarctic place names to constantly register the names of Antarctic places. In particular, according to this research, Australia, New Zealand, the UK and the US installed their own committee on Antarctic place names or relevant committees under the direct supervision of administrative ministries to manage the Antarctic place names more thoroughly than their own territorial place names. Accordingly, to become one of advanced countries in terms of registration of Antarctic place names and research on Antarctica, Korea needs to establish a new committee on Antarctic place names which are currently managed by the National Committee on Place Names and to make the new committee manage Antarctic place names. If it is difficult to establish the new committee, it is necessary to add the provisions of experts on Antarctic topography, experts on Antarctic place names, and experts on creation of Antarctic maps into the paragraph 3 of Article 87 (Organization of the National Committee on Place Names) prescribed in 『Enforcement Decree of the Act on Land Survey, Waterway Survey and Cadastral Records』. In addition, it is necessary to raise experts to manage and develop Antarctic place names constantly and systematically in the national dimension. In so doing, such experts will be able to play a big role in securing national competitiveness in Antarctica.
- 4.2 Establishment and improvement of the procedure of registering Antarctic place names
In Korea, the current procedure of registering an Antarctic place name is performed in the way that a proposal of an Antarctic place name is submitted to the National Committee on Place Names which deliberates and decides registration of the name, and then the decision is announced by Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation and Minister of Oceans and Fisheries. However, specifically, it does not suggest detailed requirements, including the range of objects which are able to prepare a proposal of an Antarctic place name, a format of the proposal, criteria of registration of the name, matters to be considered in a proposal, and points to be reviewed by the National Committee on Place Names. In Australia, New Zealand, the UK, and the US, such requirements are opened in English in the website of a relevant government organization or of a committee on Antarctic place names. Given that, Korea also needs to establish a systematic procedure for the registration through constant research on Antarctic place names. The first Korean Antarctic place name was registered at CGA in Dec. 2010. For the first registration it took one year in various processes including on-the-spot survey. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a systematic registration procedure and make a temporal limit in the whole process ranging from the first proposal to the final CGA registration, in order to achieve a quick registration.
- 4.3 Opening of a website to register Antarctic place names
At present, Antarctic geographical information including Antarctic surveys and maps can be found by the portal service of Antarctic Geographical Information. However, the Korean Antarctic place names registered at CGA are not provided by the service. As shown in
, each official authority in Australia, New Zealand, and the UK provides their own or whole Antarctic place names in their website. Accordingly, Korea needs to open a website in which not only 17 Korean Antarctic place names registered at CGA, but proposed names in progress are provided, in order to enhance the national position in the globe.
Website of search for Antarctic place name in Australia
List website of Antarctic place name in New Zealand
List website of Antarctic place name in United Kingdom
To propose an efficient plan for registration of Antarctic place names, this work investigated each registration system that the advanced countries in Antarctic activities perform and found a plan of establishing a new committee on Antarctic place names and registering the names, which is necessary to enhance the national competitiveness in Antarctic activities. As a result, it came to the following conclusions
1. This research helped to understand each registration system Antarctic place names that the advanced countries recognizing the importance of research on Antarctica perform, and figure out committees on Antarctic place names, their roles, criteria of registration, and registration procedures.
2. To enhance Korea's activities in Antarctica, it is necessary to establish a new committee on Antarctic place names which are currently managed by the National Committee on Place Names. Also it is required to discuss amendment of a relevant law by adding the provisions of experts on Antarctic topography, experts on Antarctic place names, and experts on creation of Antarctic maps.
3. It is necessary to build a Korea's systematic registration procedure through constant research on Antarctic place names. Also it is necessary to put a temporal limit in the whole process ranging from the first proposal to the final CGA registration in order to achieve a quick registration.
4. Like the websites to register Antarctic place names in advanced countries, Korea needs to open a website in which not only 17 Korean Antarctic place names registered at CGA, but proposed names in progress are provided, in order to enhance the national position in the globe.
5. If the suggestions made in this work are accepted and if constant registration of Antarctic place names is made, it will be possible to develop research on Antarctica as well as registration of Antarctic place names.
Antarctic place names, Australian Antarctic Division, Tasmania
http://www.antarctica.gov.au/law-and-treaty/ australian-antarctic-names-and-medal-committee/ antarctic-place-names
A placename geography for Antarctica
Bulletin of the Society of Cartographers
A composite gazetteer of Antarctica
DOI : 10.1017/S0032247400016739
Enforcement Decree of the Act on Land Survey
Waterway Survey and Cadastral Records
Proposing Antarctic Feature Names, Land Information New Zealand, Wellington
Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica
SCAR Standing Committee on Antarctic Geographic Information (SCAGI)
The Antarctic Treaty
ATCM(Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting)
Guidelines for new name proposals
British Antarctic Survey
http://new.antarctica.ac.uk/apc/proposals/ guidelines-fornew- name-proposals
Policies of United States Board on Geographic Names
U.S. Geological Survey
Antarctic territorial claims