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Improved Bridgeless Interleaved Boost PFC Rectifier with Optimized Magnetic Utilization and Reduced Sensing Noise
Improved Bridgeless Interleaved Boost PFC Rectifier with Optimized Magnetic Utilization and Reduced Sensing Noise
Journal of Power Electronics. 2014. Sep, 14(5): 815-826
Copyright © 2014, The Korean Institute Of Power Electronics
  • Received : April 16, 2014
  • Accepted : July 17, 2014
  • Published : September 28, 2014
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About the Authors
Guoen Cao
Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Korea
Hee-Jun Kim
Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Korea
hjkim@hanyang.ac.kr

Abstract
An improved bridgeless interleaved boost power factor correction (PFC) rectifier to improve power efficiency and component utilization is proposed in this study. With combined conventional bridgeless PFC circuit and interleaved technology, the proposed rectifier consists of two interleaved and magnetic inter-coupling boost bridgeless converter cells. Each cell operates alternatively in the critical conduction mode, which can achieve the soft-switching characteristics of the switches and increase power capacity. Auxiliary blocking diodes are employed to eliminate undesired circulating loops and reduce current-sensing noise, which are among the serious drawbacks of a dual-boost PFC rectifier. Magnetic component utilization is improved by symmetrically coupling two inductors on a unique core, which can achieve independence from each other based on the auxiliary diodes. Through the interleaved approach, each switch can operate in the whole line cycle. A simple control scheme is employed in the circuit by using a conventional interleaved controller. The operation principle and theoretical analysis of the converter are presented. A 600 W experimental prototype is built to verify the theoretical analysis and feasibility of the proposed rectifier. System efficiency reaches 97.3% with low total harmonic distortion at full load.
Keywords
I. INTRODUCTION
Active power factor (PF) correction (APFC) techniques are commonly employed in many types of electronic equipment to increase the PF and decrease the total harmonic distortion (THD) factor.
The conventional APFC regulator generally comprises a bridge rectifier and a high-frequency single-ended DC–DC converter such as a boost circuit [1] , as shown in Fig. 1 .
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Conventional boost PFC rectifier.
However, for the boost PF correction (PFC) circuit, current flows through two rectifier diodes and one switching semiconductor (MOSFET or fast-recovery diode) during one operation cycle [2] - [5] . For low line input and high output-power applications, the high conduction loss caused by the forward voltage drop of bridge diodes dramatically degrades overall system efficiency [6] - [9] . The heat generated within the bridge diode caused by high conduction losses can also destroy power devices [10] .
To maximize system efficiency and optimize thermal performance, significant research efforts have been devoted to developing bridgeless PFC topologies [11] - [14] . In a bridgeless PFC circuit, the front-end diode bridge is removed to decrease the number of semiconductor switches in the current flowing path. Therefore, conduction losses are significantly reduced, which results in high system efficiency. A number of topologies to produce bridgeless PFC circuits have been developed [15] - [18] . One of the representative implementations is the dual-boost PFC rectifier based on the topology shown in Fig. 2 [19] , [20] . In this circuit, the boost converter is combined with the input bridge diode and operates similarly to the conventional boost PFC converter.
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Basic dual-boost bridgeless PFC rectifier.
For the dual-boost PFC circuit shown in Fig. 2 , two boost converters are employed for each half line cycle. The operation of this circuit is symmetrical in two half line cycles of the input voltage [21] . Consequently, the line current simultaneously flows through only two semiconductors, which reduces conduction losses. The two inductors in this topology also lead to better thermal performance and improved space utilization compared with a single inductor in conventional boost topology [22] . Therefore, this converter increases system efficiency, particularly in high-power applications.
However, the dual-boost bridgeless PFC rectifier has several essential practical drawbacks [23] . As shown in Fig. 3 , the undesired circulating loop marked by thicker lines can cause a large circulating current that leads to measurement errors through current-sensing resistor Rs . This problem can also cause a large electromagnetic noise and poor system control performance, particularly in average current mode control. These drawbacks make the dual-boost circuit unsuitable for practical applications. Another major drawback of this topology is the low utilization of switches and magnetic components [24] . Fig. 4 indicates that for the two boost cells, namely, L1 S1 D1 and L2 S2 D2 , each cell operates for a half line cycle, with one cell operating while the other one remains idle. As a result, the utilization of switches and magnetic components is only 50% that of the conventional boost PFC converter, which always utilizes all the components during the whole line cycle. Low component utilization can be a serious limitation in terms of system weight and power density.
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Undesired circulating current loop in the dual-boost PFC rectifier.
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Operating stages of the dual-boost bridgeless PFC rectifier during. (a) Positive half line period. (b) Negative half line period.
To overcome these drawbacks of the dual-boost PFC, an improved interleaved boost bridgeless PFC rectifier was proposed in our previous report [25] . The proposed rectifier, which consists of two interleaved boost bridgeless PFC cells, is developed by combining the conventional dual-boost PFC rectifier with interleaved technology. In this study, a detailed analysis of the principle of improved component utilization, design consideration, comparison study of conventional PFC circuits, and control strategy is discussed. Auxiliary blocking diodes are used to eliminate the undesired circulating current loop and improve sensing signal quality. To increase the utilization of magnetic components, the two inductors in the conventional dual-boost PFC circuit are symmetrically coupled in a single ferrite core. Hence, circuit size and cost can be reduced. The interleaved technique is also introduced to the conventional topology. Thus, the switches can operate during the whole line cycle, which increases MOSFET utilization. When operating in critical conduction mode (CrM), the switches can achieve soft switching to reduce switching loss and enhance conversion efficiency without any auxiliary circuit. Through the interleaved operation, the current waveform can exhibit lower ripple and smaller harmonic content than those of conventional topologies under the same power condition. Therefore, the sizes and losses of the boost inductors and filtering stages can be reduced and switching losses can be decreased. The design considerations on inductance value and component current stresses of conventional continuous conduction mode (CCM) boost PFC, CrM dual-boost PFC, and the proposed PFC rectifier are discussed and compared in detail. A simple and effective control scheme is employed and explained.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II elucidates the circuit configuration and operation principle of the proposed PFC rectifier. Section III explains the design consideration of the power stage and control strategy, as well as the comparison study of conventional PFC topologies. Section IV presents the simulation and experimental results. Finally, Section V concludes the paper.
II. CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION AND OPERATION PRINCIPLE
- A. Circuit Configuration
The proposed rectifier is formed by combining interleaved converters with a bridgeless PFC topology as shown in Fig.5 . SA and SB are the main switches. D1 D4 are the boost diodes, while D5 ~ D8 , DN , and DL are slow diodes. L1 ~ L4 are equivalent boost inductors. Co is the output capacitor, RL is the equivalent resistive load, and VAC is the input. Rs is the current sensing resistor used for the system current control loop. In its configuration, the circuit has the same number of MOSFETs as the dual-boost PFC rectifier. The proposed rectifier requires four additional slow diodes in series with the MOSFETs to block the undesired current loop as well as two fast diodes parallel with the boosting diodes that are being operated out of phase to increase system power capacity.
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Proposed interleaved boost bridgeless PFC rectifier.
The equivalent circuit of the proposed rectifier is shown in Fig. 6 . The circuit consists of two interleaved boost converter cells. Each cell comprises two parallel boost phases. The interleaved cell A is composed of L1 D6 SA D1 as phase A1 and L2 D8 SB D2 as phase A2 , while cell B is composed of L4 D5 SA D4 as phase B1 and L3 D5 SB D4 as phase B2 . Therefore, switch SA is shared by the first phase of each interleaved cell A1 and B1 , while switch SB is shared by each second phase A2 and B2 . Because of the interleaved structure, SA and SB can operate in the entire line cycle of the input voltage.
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Equivalent circuit of the proposed PFC rectifier.
- B. Coupled Inductors with Optimized Magnetic Utilization
In Fig. 6 , coupled inductors LA and LB are represented by four decoupled inductors L1 L4 . L1 and L4 are coupled closely in the same ferrite core to comprise coupled inductor LA , whereas L2 and L3 are coupled as LB . Although two additional inductors are indicated, the magnetic core size can be smaller, with competitive component cost, through the interleaved operation compared with conventional PFC topologies in the same power level applications. In addition, core utilization can be improved significantly and thermal performance can be enhanced.
Fig. 7 shows the implementation structure of the coupled inductors L1 and L4 with reference polarity and magnetic flux. The two windings are wound on the two legs of the EE-type core in the same direction. As can be seen from Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 , current iL1 generates magnetic flux Φ1 in the core leg during the on-state of SA . The change of flux Φ1 induces the electromotive force in winding L4 . Given that the current is blocked by diodes D5 and DN , no circulating path exists for winding L4 . Thus, current iL4 is zero. Similarly, current iL1 is also zero when iL4 , which causes change of Φ4 , flows through winding L4 .
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Structure of the coupled inductor and current-sensing winding.
Given that the winding structure is symmetric, that is, L1 = L4 = L and L2 = L3 = L , the turn numbers are obtained as N1 = N4 = N and N2 = N3 = N , respectively. According to Fig. 7 , the flux linkages of the outer legs and the center leg can be described as follows:
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According to the operation indicates that L1 and L4 work as coupled inductors with small leakage inductance. Consequently, inductors L1 and L4 are magnetically independent of each other and can be used as two inductors. The same conclusion can be drawn for coupled inductors L2 and L3 .
By referring to Fig. 7 , Lsen1 and Lsen4 are the auxiliary current-sensing winding, which are coupled in the same legs with boost inductors L1 and L4 , respectively. isen1 and isen4 are the sensing signals of each current that can be used for peak current mode control.
- C. Principle for Eliminating Undesired Circulating Loop
As illustrated in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 , the current of each phase is blocked by employing D5 ~ D8 . Thus, no circulating current loop exists among the boost phases. The current measurement error across sensing resistor Rs is accordingly eliminated, and sensing noise is reduced significantly. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) performance of the system can be improved significantly.
It should be noted that although the proposed circuit employs more diodes than the dual-boost PFC rectifier, its power capacity is higher because of interleaved operation. Considering that the forward voltage of the diode increases with rising passing current, lower conduction losses can be achieved from the proposed circuit than from the conventional signal phase boost PFC rectifier because of its lower current stresses.
Moreover, given that the input line frequency is sufficiently low (50 Hz or 60 Hz), slow-recovery diodes can be used for D5 ~ D8 . To guarantee common-mode EMI performance, DN conducts in the positive half line cycle, whereas DL conducts in the negative half line cycle to connect the input to the system ground directly.
- D. Circuit Operation Principle with Improved Component Utilization
The equivalent operating circuits during the positive and negative half line periods are shown in Fig. 8 (a) and Fig. 8 (b), respectively. The operations of each half line cycle are explained below.
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Operating stages of the proposed converter in Fig. 5: (a) during the positive half line period and (b) during the negative half line period.
Fig. 8 (a) shows that during the positive half line period, boost phases L1 D5 SA D1 and L2 D8 SB D2 operate alternatively. When SA is turned on, current flows through L1 , D5 , SA , and DN , and energy is stored in L1 . When SA is turned off, current flows through L1 , D1 , and DN , delivering the energy to the output. Similarly, L2 D8 SB D2 operates under the same principle with interleaved mode. During this half line period, boost phases L4 D6 SA D4 and L3 D7 SB D4 are in idle state. Inductors L1 and L4 are coupled in one ferrite core, whereas L2 and L3 are coupled in another ferrite core. Although L3 and L4 are idle, the magnetic cores are fully utilized.
Similar results can be obtained during the negative half line period. Fig. 8 (b) shows that when SB is turned on, energy is stored in L3 through D7 , SB , and DL . When SB is turned off, energy is released through L3 , D3 , and DL . Because of the interleaved operation, L4 D6 SA D4 operates out of phase in the same mode.
The operation analysis reveals that the switch SA operates in phase A1 , L1 D5 SA D1 during the positive half line cycle and in phase B1 , L4 D6 SA D4 during the negative half line cycle. Switch SB operates in phase A2 , L2 D8 SB D2 during the positive half line cycle and in phase B2 , L3 D7 SB D4 , during the negative half line cycle. Consequently, SA and SB can operate in the whole line cycle of the input voltage, and component utilization is improved.
- E. Operation Analysis of the Proposed Circuit
From the operation principle illustrated in Fig. 8 (a) and Fig. 8 (b), it can be observed that each boost phase has two slow diodes, that is, one MOSFET in the current flowing path during the on-state of the switch, as well as one slow diode and one fast diode in the current path during the off-state of the switch. This operation principle can reduce the number of conduction devices when compared with conventional boost PFC rectifiers. Hence, the conduction losses and the thermal stresses on the semiconductor devices can be reduced. In addition, high integration and utilization of magnetic cores improve power density and reduce the overall weight of the PFC circuit.
The two power switches SA and SB are driven by out-phase control signals and follow the same operation principle as conventional interleaved boost topologies. This operation significantly simplifies the control scheme and can be easily implemented by using several industry standard interleaved controller ICs in the market.
According to the circuit analysis, there is no limitation in the system operation mode. However, several advantages can be obtained when the circuit is operated in CrM. Under CrM, the proposed rectifier can achieve zero current switching (ZCS) during the turn-on transition of the main switches and the reverse recovery period of the boost diodes. Compared with other operation modes, soft-switching and low current ripples increase system efficiency and reduce conducted EMI noise.
Another advantage of the proposed converter is current stress reduction for the power switch compared with conventional boost and dual-boost PFC rectifiers because of the interleaved operation.
III. DESIGN CONSIDERATION OF THE PROPOSED CIRCUIT
- A. Power Stage Design and Comparison Study
This section discusses the design consideration of the proposed rectifier. To design practical circuits of the proposed PFC, the key parameters of the power stage must be calculated, and the current and voltage stresses of the main power components must be carried out. During analysis and evaluation, all calculations are based on the assumptions that unity PF is realized in the proposed circuit. The reverse recovery issue of blocking diodes is neglected.
Considering that the parallel-operated boost phases are identical, the boost inductor is determined based on the inductance ripple current under low line-input conditions in CrM. Therefore, the inductor can be selected by
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where
  • Vi_mininput low line root mean square (RMS) voltage,
  • Pirating input power,
  • Vooutput voltage,
  • fs_minminimum switching frequency at low line input.
When operating in CrM, the average inductor current is 50% that of the peak value. Therefore, the RMS inductor current with one interleaved phase can be obtained as follows:
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Semiconductor devices should be determined mainly based on the power capacity requirements. For the proposed rectifier, the switches are selected according to the peak voltage stresses and RMS currents flowing through them. The RMS current of the boost diodes can be expressed as follows:
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Given that the rectifier operates in CrM, no reverse recovery issue exists for the boost diodes. Therefore, only conduction losses should be considered.
The RMS current flowing through the MOSFET of each phase is given by
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Considering that each boost phase operates only for the half line cycle, the RMS currents of blocking slow diodes are calculated in the same manner as the inductor current as follows:
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With a forward voltage drop VF across the slow diode, the power loss of the diode can be calculated by
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Assuming a resistive load, the ripple current in the output capacitor is the combination of the twice-line-frequency ripple current and high-switching-frequency ripple current, which are typically used to select high-voltage electrolytic output capacitors. The RMS current that flows through the output capacitor is given by
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where Po is the rating output power and Io is the rating output current.
The comparison study among the conventional CCM PFC, dual-boost PFC in CrM, and the proposed PFC rectifier are summarized in Table. I . Since the proposed converter is constructed by connecting two converters, in which each converter operates as an interleaved boost circuit in CrM, the current stresses of each inductance winding and semiconductor devices are reduced significantly compared with those of the conventional single-phase boost PFC and bridgeless dual-boost PFC rectifiers.
COMPARISON BETWEEN THE CONVENTIONAL AND PROPOSED PFC RECTIFIER IN CRM
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* ρ is the required output current ripple in CCM.
The switching performance of the proposed circuit remains as the advantages of bridgeless topologies and interleaved converters, which results in low switching and condition losses. The input current in the proposed PFC circuit flows through fewer power devices compared with that in conventional boost converters. Moreover, the peak inductor current is reduced to 50% of that of conventional bridgeless converters.
Although more power components are needed in the proposed circuit than in the other topologies, the power capacity requirements for these components are lower than those for the other two topologies under the same output power level. Consequently, the quantities and costs of the components in the proposed circuit are competitive among the compared topologies.
- B. Control Strategy Consideration
Current mode control has been widely used and provides many advantages such as improved load regulation and fast current protection. To control the proposed rectifier, a control scheme based on peak current mode control is employed. The simplified scheme of the power stage and controller is shown in Fig. 9 .
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Control part block diagram of the proposed circuit.
The control block includes the current control loop, voltage control loop, pulse-width modulation (PWM) control, and interleaved phase management. Similar to the conventional peak current mode control, the controller exhibits the function of regulating output voltage in CrM, and operation frequency varies constantly with time.
As shown in Fig. 9 , with a current loop inside the voltage control loop, the controller enables active correction of the input current waveforms by working properly in high frequencies, which causes the inductor current to follow the shape of the input voltage waveform. The current-control loop and voltage-control loop operate together to sample system total current iS and output voltage Vo , respectively.
The multiplier operates as a gain modulator. One input of the modulator is the current signal that is proportional to the input full-wave-rectified voltage VAC . Another input comes from the voltage error amplifier, which takes in Vo and compares it with reference voltage Vref . These two signals are considered and compared to determine the gain that is applied to the input of the current control.
The current amplifier and comparator use information from the multiplier and compares it with a sample of output current iS to adjust the duty cycle of the PWM control. Output current iS is used as a fast feed-forward of the inside loop and functions as the ramp to the current PWM comparator.
The zero current detection (ZCD) blocks (ZCDA and ZCDB) sense the multiphase inductor currents iL1 to iL4 and use the information as the reset signal to the PWM outputs. For CrM operation, the MOSFET is turned on when the valley of the inductor current is detected.
For each interleaved cell, two boost phases operate independently in an interactive phase approach, with each phase properly operating in CrM. Since two interleaved cells operate for each half line cycle, along with the inductors of one cell cross coupling with that of another cell, the ZCD of the multiphase inductors is significant. An effective and simple circuit is proposed to implement ZCD of the two phases from different interleaved cells. Fig. 10 shows the proposed ZCD circuit.
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Simplified ZCD circuit of the proposed circuit.
In this circuit, two current-sensing circuits of two legs from one coupled inductor are connected in parallel. During the positive half line period, Lsen1 senses the inductor current of L1 . iLsen1 is taken to the ZCDA port of the controller through DS1 . As the current of L4 is blocked, iLsen4 becomes zero and is segregated from ZCDA by DS3 . Similarly, during the negative half line period, iLsen4 is taken to the ZCDA port through DS3 , whereas iLsen1 is segregated by DS1 . Thus, we can obtain the voltage of ZCDA port v ZCDA as follows:
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The same results are obtained from the ZCDB circuit of another cell. Therefore, although four inductor channels exist in the power stage with two ZCD ports in the interleaved controller, the proposed circuit can effectively detect the inductor current valley of each channel. Thus, the interleaved boost bridgeless PFC circuit can be controlled by using the commercial interleaved PFC controller.
IV. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
- A. Simulation Results
A PSpice simulation model is developed to verify the analysis of the proposed PFC rectifier. The interleaving CrM PFC controller from Texas Instruments, Inc. (Texas, USA), UCC28063, is used as the system controller in the simulation. The simulation model is designed with the specifications shown in Table II .
PARAMETERS OF THE SIMULATED POWER STAGE
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PARAMETERS OF THE SIMULATED POWER STAGE
Fig. 11 illustrates the simulated switching waveforms of switches SA and SB . SA and SB are turned on under ZCS, whereas boost diodes D1 to D4 are turned off. Hence, minimal reverse recovery noise and significantly low switching losses can be achieved from the CrM principle.
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Waveforms of driver signal VGS, drain-to-source voltage VDS, and drain-to-source current IDS of SA and SB.
The simulated interleaved inductor and output currents are shown in Fig. 12 . The figure indicates that CrM operation is an efficient and cost-effective technique that does not require low reverse-recovery time diodes. Given that the two stages are operated out of phase, the current ripple is also significantly reduced. In particular, the RMS current within the bulk capacitor is dramatically reduced.
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Simulation results for the current waveforms of L1 and L2 with the driver signals of SA and SB.
Fig. 13 presents the current waveforms of L1 and L2 of the conventional dual-boost bridgeless PFC rectifier shown in Fig. 2 . The voltage waveforms across current-sensing resistor Rs are also measured. Based on inductor current waveforms, the undesired circulating current is significantly large, which causes considerable noise. Distortion of the current-sensing waveform is also serious in the conventional circuit. Furthermore, one of the magnetic cores becomes idle after a half line period, which leads to low component utilization.
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Simulation waveforms of the dual-boost PFC circuit. IL1, IL2: inductor current of L1 and L2, respectively; VRs: current sensing signal.
For comparison, the current waveforms of switches SA and SB , as well as the current-sensing signal across Rs of the proposed circuit, under full-load conditions at 220 V line voltage are shown in Fig. 14 . The input and output currents are also shown in this figure. As illustrated, SA and SB operate in the whole line cycle. Compared with Fig. 13 , Fig. 14 shows no measurement error in the current-sensing signal, and the sensing noise is also reduced significantly.
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Simulation waveforms of the input and output currents, switch current, and total current sensing signal of the proposed circuit.
The inductor current waveforms of the proposed circuit in whole line cycles are shown in Fig. 15 . After a half line operation period, the inductor current becomes zero without a circulating loop.
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Simulation inductor current waveforms of L1 to L4 in the proposed circuit
The simulated waveforms of the input voltage, input current, and output voltage are shown in Fig. 16 . The input current is in phase with the input voltage. The output voltage remains constant during the whole line period.
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Simulation waveforms of input voltage, input current, and output voltage
- B. Experimental Results
A 600 W experimental prototype circuit as shown in Fig. 17 , is built and tested to verify the operation of the proposed circuit. The design specifications are the same as those for the simulation described in Table. II . The commercial interleaved PFC controller, UCC28063, from Texas Instruments, Inc. (Texas, USA) is employed.
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Photograph of the prototype rectifier.
The experimental results of the proposed circuit are shown and analyzed as follows. The drain-to-source voltage waveforms of SA and SB are shown in Fig. 18 . The switches operate in the whole line cycle, thereby improving component utilization. The voltage waveforms through D5 and D6 to the ground are shown in Fig. 19 . The voltage waveforms of D6 and D8 , which are in two phases of one interleaved cell, are shown in Fig. 20 . Each diode operates in a half line period and blocks the current from other phases. Consequently, no undesired loop occurs during idle period. In addition, when operating in a half line period, the RMS current stresses of the diodes D5 ~ D8 are low, and thus, less ideal devices can be used.
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Drain-to-source voltage waveforms of the switches.
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Voltage waveforms across diodes D5 and D6.
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Voltage waveforms across diodes D6 and D8.
The current waveforms of L1 and L4 under full load and 220 V input voltage conditions are shown in Fig. 21 . Although two inductors are coupled in a single magnetic core, the inductors are magnetically independent of each other, with L1 working in a positive half line cycle and L4 operating in a negative half line cycle. The sensing signal of system total current VRs is also shown in the figure. Given the auxiliary blocking diodes, no undesired circulating current occurs in the inductor current loop. Therefore, the current-sensing signal can be more exact and stable than in the conventional circuit.
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Inductor current waveforms of L1 and L4 and the current-sensing signal.
Fig. 22 shows the current waveforms of L1 and L2 . The two inductors operate in the same half line period in CrM. During the half line cycle, the two switches operate in interleaved mode, which is the same operation when using the conventional interleaved topology. However, the number of components in the current path is reduced by the bridgeless topology.
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Inductor current waveforms of L1 and L2 and the current-sensing signal.
The sum inductor current and individual currents of L1 and L2 are shown in Fig. 23 . Effective ripple frequency is increased twice, and peak-to-peak value input ripple current is significantly reduced compared with the two inductor current ripples because of the interleaved operation. Consequently, input filter size can be decreased. The boost phases also operate in CrM without reverse-recovery problems.
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Experimental current waveforms of L1 and L2.
Fig. 24 shows the input current versus the input voltage at full load, as well as the output voltage. The input current is in phase with the input voltage and practically sinusoidal with low THD and high PF. The output voltage is constant with low ripple.
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Experimental results for the input voltage, input current, and output voltage at full load with 220 V input voltage.
The measured PFs of the proposed circuit under 85 V and 265 V input voltages are shown in Fig. 25 . The proposed rectifier achieves high PF under 85 V, which is always higher than 99% from a 10% load to the full load. Under 265 V input voltage, the PF is higher than 99.6% under the rated load.
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Measured system power factor under different input voltages.
The measured THD of the proposed PFC under 220 V input voltage and full load is shown in Fig. 26 . The proposed rectifier achieves low THD, which can satisfy the IEC61000-3-2 Class D specifications.
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Measured system THD under 220 V input voltage and full load conditions.
Fig. 27 shows the measured efficiency curves of the proposed PFC converter. The efficiency at full load under 85 V is over 93%, and the maximum efficiency is 97.3%, which is achieved at full load and 265 Vac. Efficiency is improved at heavy load because the component number in the current flowing path is reduced.
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Measured system efficiency under different input voltages.
V. CONCLUSIONS
A novel bridgeless interleaved boost topology to overcome the serious drawbacks of conventional bridgeless PFC rectifiers is proposed in this study. The proposed circuit is compared with the conventional interleaved boost converter and bridgeless PFC topology that operate in CrM with soft switching. The proposed converter provides higher output power and lower current ripple than the other topologies. To verify the feasibility of the proposed converter, a 600 W prototype is designed and tested. The performance of the converter is also demonstrated by the simulation and experimental results. Nearly unity PF and low THD are achieved. Power efficiencies of 94.2% and 97.3% are obtained under 85 V and 265 V input voltages, respectively. Therefore, this implementation is a competitive candidate for high-power applications.
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20132020101530).
BIO
Guoen Cao received his B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, China in 2009 and his M.S. in Electrical Engineering from Beihang University, Beijing, China in 2012. He is currently working toward his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering at Hanyang University, Ansan, Korea. His research interests are DC/DC converters and soft-switching techniques.
Hee-Jun Kim received his B.S. and M.S.in Electronics Engineering from Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea in 1976 and 1978, respectively. He received his Ph.D. in Electronics Engineering from Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan in 1986. Since 1987, he has been with the Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Korea, where he is currently a professor. His current interests include switching power converters, electronic ballasts, soft-switching techniques, and analog signal processing. Dr. Kim is the president-elect of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers and a senior member of the IEEE.
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