A NEW VERTEX-COLORING EDGE-WEIGHTING OF COMPLETE GRAPHS
A NEW VERTEX-COLORING EDGE-WEIGHTING OF COMPLETE GRAPHS
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Informatics. 2014. Jan, 32(1_2): 1-6
• Received : March 17, 2013
• Accepted : July 03, 2013
• Published : January 28, 2014
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Abstract
Let G = ( V ; E ) be a simple undirected graph without loops and multiple edges, the vertex and edge sets of it are represented by V = V ( G ) and E = E ( G ), respectively. A weighting w of the edges of a graph G induces a coloring of the vertices of G where the color of vertex v , denoted Sv :=Σ ev w ( e ). A k-edge-weighting of a graph G is an assignment of an integer weight, w ( e ) ∈ {1,2,..., k } to each edge e , such that two vertex-color Sv , Su be distinct for every edge uv . In this paper we determine an exact 3-edge-weighting of complete graphs k 3q+1 q ∈ ℕ. Several open questions are also included. AMS Mathematics Subject Classification : 05C15, 05C78.
Keywords
1. Introduction
Let G = ( V ; E ) be a simple undirected graph without loops and multiple edges, the vertex and edge sets of it are represented by V = V ( G ) and E = E ( G ), respectively. A weighting w of the edges of a graph G induces a coloring of the vertices of G .
A k-edge-weighting of a graph G is an assignment of an integer weight, w ( e ) ∈ {1,2,..., k } to each edge e . The edge-weighting is proper if for every edge e = uv incident a proper vertex-coloring and the colors of two vertices u , v are distinct, where the color of a vertex v is defined as the sum of the weights on the edges incident to that vertex. Clearly a graph cannot have a k-edge-weighting and vertex-coloring if it has a component which is isomorphic to K2 i.e., an edge component. Throughout this paper, we denoted the color of a vertex v by Sv :=Σ uV(G) w ( uv ), such that if vw is not in V ( G ) w ( vw ) = 0.
In particular a 3-edge-weighting of G called 1-2-3-edge weighting and vertex coloring of G .
In 2002 [9] , Karonski , Luczak and Thomason conjectured that every graph without an edge component permits a 1-2-3-edge weighting and vertex coloring and proved their conjecture for the case of 3-colorable graphs [9] . For k = 2 is not sufficient as seen for instance in complete graphs and cycles of length not divisible by 4.
In 2004, they proved a graph without an edge component permits an 213-edge-weighting and vertex coloring. In continue a constant bound of k = 30 was proved by Addario-Berry , et.al in 2007 [1] . In next year, Addario-Berry’s group improved this bound to k = 16 [2] and also in 2008, T . Wang and Q . Yu improved k to 13 [10] . Recently, its new bounds are k = 5 and k = 6 by Kalkowski, et.al [7 , 8] . In addition, for further study and more historical details, readers can see the recent papers [3 - 5] .
In this paper, we show that there is a proper 1-2-3-edge weighting and vertex coloring for the complete graphs K 3q+1 q ∈ ℕ. and obtain an exact weighting w of all edges e E ( K 3q+1 ) and alternatively a proper color of all vertices v V ( K 3q+1 ). We present these main results in the following theorem:
Theorem 1.1. For the complete graph K 3q+1 for every integer number q with the vertex set V ( K 3q+1 ) = { v 1 , v 2 ,..., v 3q+1 }, there are a 3-edge weighting w : E ( K 3q+1 ) → {1, 2, 3} and a vertex-coloring s : V ( K 3q+1 ) → {9 q , 9 q −1,..., 7 q +1, 7 q , 7 q − 2, 7 q − 5, 7 q − 9,..., 3 q + 11, 3 q + 7, 3 q + 4}.
2. Main Results and Algorithm
For a graph complete graph Kn = ( V ( Kn ); E ( Kn )), a 3-edge weighting is a function w : E ( Kn ) → {1, 2, 3} such that
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is a color for any every vertex v V ( Kn ). The edge weighting w implies that E ( Kn ) = E ( Kn ) 1 E ( Kn ) 2 E ( Kn ) 3 . Throughout this paper, we denoted the size of edge sets E ( Kn ), E ( Kn ) 2 and E ( Kn ) 3 by γn , βn and αn , respectively. Obviously
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Before proving Theorem 1.1, for a general representation of complete graph K 3q+1 q ∈ ℕ, we present a proper 3-edge weighting for all edges incident to a vertex v in 3 q + 1 following steps and obtain all summations Sv .
2.1.Algorithm for 1-2-3-edge weighting and vertex coloring of K 3q+1 ( q ≥ 5): At first, we denote all vertices of K 3q+1 by v 1 , v 2 ,..., v 3q+1 , respectively. Obviously E ( K 3q+1 ) = { vivj | i j , i , j = 1, 2,..., 3 q + 1} and this implies that
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Suppose ∀ i = 1, 2,..., 3 q + 1; w ( vivi ) = 0. So, we have
Step(1)- For the vertex v 1 label all its edges with 3 (∀ vj V ( K 3q+1 ) w ( v 1 vj ) = 3 and
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Step(2)- For v 2 label all v 2 ’s edges with 3, except an edge v 2 v 3q+1 , then ∀ j = 1, 3, 4,..., 3 q , w ( v 2 vj ) = 3 and w ( v 2 v 3q+1 ) = 2. Thus S 2 = S 1 −1 = 9 q −1.
Step(3)- For v 3 label all edges v 3 vj ( j = 1, 2, 4,..., 3 q − 1) with 3 and v 3 v 3q , v 3 v 3q+1 with 2. Thus S 3 = S 2 − 1 = 9 q − 2.
Step(4)- For v 4 label all edges v 4 vj ( j = 1, 2, 3, 5,..., 3 q − 1) with 3, v 4 v 3q with 2 and v 4 v 3q+1 with 1. Thus S 4 = S 3 − 1 = 9 q − 3.
Step(s)- ∀ s = 5, 7,..., 2 q − 1 label all edges
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with 3, label
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with 2 and all edge
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with 1. Thus
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Step(r)- ∀ r = 6, 8,..., 2 q label all edges
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with 3, label
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with 2 and all edge
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with 1. Thus
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Step(2q+1)- For v 2q+1 , all edges v 2q +1 vj ( j = 1, 2,..., 2 q ) were labeled with 3. Thus label all edge v 2q+1 vj ( j = 2 q + 2,..., 3 q + 1) with 1. Thus S 2q+1 = 3 × 2 q + 2 × 0 + 1 × ( q ) = 7 q = S 2q − 1.
Step(2q+2)- For v 2q+2 , all edges v 2q+2 vj ( j = 1, 2,..., 2 q − 2) were labeled with 3, the edge v 2q+2 v 2q−1 , v 2q+2 v 2q were labeled with 2 and v 2q+2 v 2q+1 were labeled with 1. Thus label all edges v 2q+2 vj ( j = 2 q + 3,..., 3 q + 1) with 1 and S 2q+2 = 3 × (2 q − 2) + 2 × 2 + 1 × ( q ) = 7 q − 2 = S 2q+1 − 3.
Step(t)- ∀ t = 2 q + 3,..., 3 q − 2 all edges vtvj ( j = 1,..., 6 q + 2 − 2 t ) were labeled with 3, three edges vt v 6q+2−2t+i for i = 1, 2, 3 were labeled with 2 and all edges vtvj ( j = 6 q −2 t +6,..., t −1) were labeled with 1. Thus label all edges vtvj ( j = t +1,..., 3 q +1) with 1 and St = 3×(6 q +2−2 t )+2×3+1×(2 t −3 q −5) = 15 q + 7 − 4 t = S t−1 − 4.
Step(3q-1)- v 3q−1 , v 3q−1 vj ( j = 1, 2, 3, 4) were labeled with 3 and v 3q−1 v 5 , v 3q−1 v 6 , v 3q−1 v 7 were labeled with 2 and all edge v 3q−1 vj ( j = 8,..., 3 q − 2) were labeled with 1. Thus label v 3q−1 v 3q ; v 3q−1 v 3q+1 with 1 and S 3q−1 = 3×4+2 × 3 + 1 × (3 q − 7) = 3 q + 11 = S 3q−2 − 4.
Step(3q)- For v 3q , v 3q v 1 , v 3q v 2 were labeled with 3 and v 3q v 3 , v 3q v 4 , v 3q v 5 were labeled with 2 and all edge v 3q vj ( j = 6,..., 3 q − 1) were labeled with 1. Thus label the edge v 3q+1 v 3q with 1 and S 3q = 3×2+2×3+1×(3 q −5) = 3 q +7 = S 3q−1 − 4.
Step(3q+1)- Obviously, for the vertex v 3q+1 , the edge v 3q+1 v 1 were labeled with 3 and v 3q+1 v 2 , v 3q+1 v 3 were labeled with 2 and all edge v 3q+1 vj ( j = 4,..., 3 q ) were labeled with 1. Thus S 3q+1 = 3+2×2+1×(3 q −3) = 3 q +4 = S 3q − 3
Now, we start the proof of main theorem as follow.
Proof . Let K 3q+1 be a complete graph as order 3 q +1 for every integer number q , with the vertex set V ( K 3q+1 ) = { v 1 , v 2 ,..., v 3q+1 } and the edge set E ( K 3q+1 ) = { eij = vivj | vi , vj V ( K 3q+1 )} (| V ( K 3q+1 )| = 3 q +1 and
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It is easy to see that the above edge-weighting is a nice and proper 3-edge weighting w (or 1-2-3-edge weighting and vertex coloring) of K 3q+1 ( q ≥ 1). Because
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and for every edge eij = vivj incident to vi , we have an integer weight w ( vivj ) ∈ {1, 2, 3} such that this weighting naturally induces two distinct vertex coloring
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to vertices vi , vj .
An every edge eij = vivj ( i , j = 1, 2,..., 3 q + 1, i j ) weighted in Step ( i ) of above 3-edge weighting w . Also, from above 3-edge weighting w , one can see that all vertex color belong to the color set {9 q , 9 q −1,..., 7 q +1, 7 q , 7 q −2, 7 q − 5, 7 q − 9,..., 3 q + 11, 3 q + 7, 3 q + 4} (For example, see Figure 1 , 2 and 3 ). In Figure 1 , 2 and 3 , a proper 1-2-3-edge weighting and vertex coloring of complete graphs K 4 , K 7 , K 10 , K 13 and K 16 are shown.
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The 1-2-3-edge weighting and vertex coloring of complete graphs K4, K7 and K10.
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The 1-2-3-edge weighting and vertex coloring of K13.
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The 1-2-3-edge weighting and vertex coloring of complete graph K16.
Thus, the 3-edge weighting w : E ( K 3q+1 ) → {1, 2, 3} and the vertex coloring s : V ( K 3q+1 ) → {9 q , 9 q −1,..., 7 q +1, 7 q , 7 q −2, 7 q −5, 7 q −9,..., 3 q +11, 3 q + 7, 3 q + 4} is a proper 1-2-3-edge weighting and vertex coloring of K 3q+1 q ∈ ℕ and this complete the proof of theorem.
By using the proof of Theorem 1.1 (the 3-edge weighting w and the vertex coloring s ), one can see that the number of all edge weigh 3, 2 and 1 are equal to α 3q+1 = 3 q 2 + 1 = (| E ( K 3q+1 ) 3 |), β 3q+1 = 3 q − 2 = (| E ( K 3q+1 ) 2 |) and
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For example, E ( K 3q+1 ) 2 = { v 2 v 3q+1 , v 4 v 3q , v 5 v 3q−1 , v 5 v 3q , v 6 v 3q−1 , v 7 v 3q−2 , vs v 3q−1 , v 8 v 3q−2 ,..., v 2q−1 v 2q+2 , v 2q−1 v 2q+3 , v 2q v 2q+2 , v 2q+2 v 2q−3 , v 2q+2 v 2q−2 , v 2q+2 v 2q−1 , v 2q+3 v 2q−3 , v 2q+3 v 2q−2 , v 2q+3 v 2q−1 , v 2q+4 v 2q−5 , v 2q+4 v 2q−4 , v 2q+4 v 2q−3 ,..., v 3q−2 v 6 , v 3q−2 v 7 , v 3q−2 v 8 , v 3q−1 v 5 , v 3q−1 v 6 , v 3q−1 v 7 , v 3q v 3 v 3q v 4 , v 3q v 5 , v 3q+1 v 2 , v 3q+1 v 3 }.
3. Conclusions and Conjectures
We conclude our paper with the following open questions and conjectures:
Corollary 3.1 (The 1-2-3-conjecture [6 , 9] ). Every connected graph G = ( V , E ) non-isomorph to K 2 ( with at least two edges ) has an edge labeling f : E → {1, 2, 3} and vertex coloring S : V → { n − 1,...,3 n − 3}.
Corollary 3.2 ( n vertex coloring). There are distinct numbers of Sv's , v V ( G ), of a graph G of order n , for a 1-2-3-edge labeling and vertex coloring .
Corollary 3.3 (Proper vertex coloring). For all graph G of order n , there are the χ( G ) numbers of Sv's , v V ( G ), with this 1-2-3-edge labeling and vertex Coloring . Where χ( G ) is the number colors of the vertices on the graph G .
In this parer, we show that the complete graph K 3q+1 ( q ≥ 1), recognize in three Conjecture 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3.
Acknowledgements
The authors are thankful to Dr. Mehdi Alaeiyan, Mr Ali Ramin and Mr Seied Hamid Hosseini of Department of Mathematics, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) for their precious support and suggestions.
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