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A Privacy Preserving Vertical Handover Authentication Scheme for WiMAX-WiFi Networks
A Privacy Preserving Vertical Handover Authentication Scheme for WiMAX-WiFi Networks
KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS). 2014. Sep, 8(9): 3250-3265
Copyright © 2014, Korean Society For Internet Information
  • Received : May 12, 2014
  • Accepted : August 14, 2014
  • Published : September 28, 2014
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About the Authors
Anmin Fu
State Key Laboratory of Information Security, Institute of Information Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100093, China
Gongxuan Zhang
School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing, 210094, China
Yan Yu
School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing, 210094, China
Zhenchao Zhu
Information Security Research Center, Southeast University Nanjing, 210096, China

Abstract
Integrated WiMAX and WiFi networks is of great potential for the future due to the wider coverage of WiMAX and the high data transport capacity of WiFi. However, seamless and secure handover (HO) is one of the most challenging issues in this field. In this paper, we present a novel vertical HO authentication scheme with privacy preserving for WiMAX-WiFi heterogeneous networks. Our scheme uses ticket-based and pseudonym-based cryptographic methods to secure HO process and to achieve high efficiency. The formal verification by the AVISPA tool shows that the proposed scheme is secure against various malicious attacks and the simulation result indicates that it outperforms the existing schemes in terms of communication and computation cost.
Keywords
1. Introduction
R ecently, the interworking between the WiMAX and WiFi networks has become an important trend in wireless communications because of the fact that the WiMAX and WiFi networks exhibit characteristics such as wide coverage and high data rates that mutually complement each other [1] . In the WiMAX-WiFi heterogeneous networks, mobile users might need to switch from one wireless technology to another, in view of the service cost, quality, speed and availability [2] . For example, a moving user launches an online video conferencing application over a WiMAX network. Later, the user starts downloading a huge file from the Internet and decides to switch to an accessible WiFi for the lower cost. Due to limited WiFi coverage, the user might travel beyond the coverage area of the WiFi and opt to perform a handover (HO) to the WiMAX to continue downloading the file.
In order to maintain the continuity of all applications running on the mobile device and provide a continuous end-to-end data service within the same session, it is desirable to reduce the network access time consume to improve the experience during an HO. The major component that negatively affects the network access time consume is the authentication latency. The authentication procedure is required by wireless network providers to guarantee that only the authenticated Mobile Station (MS) is allowed to access to the networks. Typically, authentication in both the WiMAX and WiFi networks is based on the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). However, EAP has shown some drawbacks when mobility is taken into consideration. In particular, authentication based on EAP consumes a considerable time (e.g. an EAP/TLS exchange needs about 1000ms [3] ). Furthermore, this process is usually performed every time when the MS changes the point of attachment during an HO, regardless of whether it owns unexpired cryptographic material from the previous EAP authentication [4] . Therefore, it is difficult to support real-time applications, such as VoIP, video conference, and streaming multimedia, as an MS switches from one point of attachment to another.
Security issues are also important for an HO process, among which the privacy preservation is one of the most challenging issues. Since the sensitive information exchanged in the HO authentication process, the risk of the identity and location privacies is potentially visible. In particular, location privacy is relevant to the Base station (BS) or Access Point (AP) that MS has accessed, by which any adversary can trace a special MS's movement route. Therefore, privacy preservation should be paid much more attention to in the HO process [5] .
With the purpose of an efficient and secure HO process, many HO authentication protocols [6 - 11] have been proposed to reduce the HO authentication delay by avoiding the implementation of the EAP authentication. However, most of them [6 - 9] are designed to the HO within the domain of a single wireless access technology (refers to Horizontal HO, HHO) but not HO among heterogeneous wireless access network technologies (refers to Vertical HO, VHO). Since the heterogeneous networks technology is much more complex than the homogeneous technologies and the security policies are not identical in the different wireless access networks, it is a non-trivial task to design an efficient VHO authentication. Therefore, there are only individual schemes [10 , 11] focus on the VHO authentication. In [10] , Shidhani et al. proposed a fast and secure WiMAX-WLAN HO authentication scheme by an MS holding 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) credentials. This protocol achieves outstanding performance results compared to standard protocols in terms of re-authentication signaling traffic and re-authentication delay. In addition, Huang et al. [11] used the Authentication, Authorizing and Accounting (AAA) server to ensure the WiMAX-WLAN HO security with the assumption that an AAA server has robust security features. By the approaches of pre-authentication, it will not suffer a longer delay. However, both the above schemes need to interact with the AAA server during the HO process and cannot achieve privacy preservation.
Taking into account the above problems, this paper presents an efficient and secure VHO authentication scheme with privacy preserving for WiMAX-WiFi heterogeneous networks. In our scheme, MS can show its corresponding credential ticket to the target BS/AP whenever a VHO occurs, and then the MS and target BS/AP can use the credential ticket to perform one authenticated key agreement like 3-handshake/4-handshake to derive a shared session key for the future communication without interacting with the AAA server. Meanwhile, MS only provides a pseudonym instead of its real identity and changes its pseudonym in each HO authentication phase, so it can protect the MS's identity and location privacies.
The contributions of this paper are as follows. 1) We propose a new VHO authentication scheme to implement a simple authentication process without a complex key management and minimize message exchange time, which significantly reduces the HO authentication delay. (2) We achieve a robust security protection, such as the provision of mutual authentication and privacy preservation. Moreover, the proposed scheme has been validated by the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) formal verification tool to show its security against various malicious attacks. (3) We analyze the VHO authentication performance compared with Shidhani et al.'s scheme [10] and Huang et al.'s scheme [11] in terms of communication and computation cost. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that our scheme outperforms previously reported schemes while fulfilling more HO security requirements.
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the network model and adversary model. The proposed HO authentication scheme is presented in Section 3. We provide the security evaluation and efficiency analysis on the proposed scheme in Sections 4 and 5, respectively. Finally, Section 6 draws our conclusions.
2. Preliminaries
- 2.1 Network model
Fig. 1 depicts a simplified interworking architecture under discussion, where a WiMAX network is interconnected with WiFi network through the WiFi Interworking Function (WIF) defined by the WiMAX forum for roaming support [12] . In Fig. 1 , BSs in the WiMAX network are connected to an Access Service Networks Gateway (ASN-GW). A single ASN-GW controls multiple BSs and takes charge of forwarding authentication messages between the MS and the AAA server residing in the WiMAX Connectivity Service Network (CSN). In the WiFi, APs are linked to a WIF. A single WIF controls multiple APs and enables the MS connected to the WiFi access network to access the core functionality of the WiMAX CSN. For example, the WIF supports AAA Proxy which provides authentication and authorization functions using the WiMAX CSN AAA server. In order to fix on our scheme, we assume that all the entities, AAA server, ASN-GW, BS, WIF and AP maintain trusted relations and have established secure connections. Moreover, we assume that each BS and AP employ a high-quality tamper-proof device, which is secure against any compromise attempt in any circumstance. With the tamper-proof device on BS/AP, an attacker cannot extract any data stored in the BS/AP including key material and data [13] .
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The WiMAX-WiFi interworking architecture
- 2.2 Adversary model
To highlight the privacy preservation, we define a strong global adversary who can eavesdrop on the whole network to acquire full traffic information, but has no ability to decrypt the ciphertext. For example, the global adversary is able to log the whole communications between a special MS and BSs/APs, by which she/he may infer and trace the MS's movement route. Moreover, the strong global adversary can compromise some BSs/APs in the WiMAX-WiFi networks by which the adversary can monitor the inside data flows. However, the strong global adversary still cannot access the secret keys, since the secret keys are protected by tamper-proof devices. As noted in [3] , the global adversary is perhaps the most popular threat model for evaluating the anonymity.
3. Proposed VHO authentication scheme
In this section, we will elaborate the pre-deployment, WiMAX to WiFi (WMWF) HO authentication and WiFi to WiMAX (WFWM) HO authentication phases in the proposed scheme, respectively. It is noted that an MS still need to perform a full EAP authentication when it first accesses to the WiMAX network. Moreover, the MS may perform HO authentication using our proposed HHO authentication protocols [3] when it changes its network access point within the domain of the WiMAX network. After a successfully EAP authentication or HHO authentication, both the MS and the serving BS should construct security keys, including Authorization Key (AK), Transmission Encryption Keys (TEKs) and Cipher-based Message Authentication Code (CMAC) Keys, as defined in IEEE 802.16m standard [14] by performing the 3-way handshake procedure. Additional notations and acronyms in this paper are described in Table 1 .
Notations and acronyms
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Notations and acronyms
- 3.1 Pre-deployment Phase
Prior to the WiMAX-WiFi interworking networks deployment, we assume that the AAA server does the following operations:
  • 1) Properly choose a large primepand generate an elliptic curveE(Fp);
  • 2) Select aq-order subgroupGof the additive group of points over theE(Fp) and then choose an arbitrary generatorPofG;
  • 3) Choose a secure hash functionH1, whereH1:{0,1}*→Z*q;
  • 4) Preload each ASN-GW and WIF with the public system parameters {p,q,E(Fp),G,P,H1};
  • 5) Choose two random numberr1,r2∈ {0.1}*→Z*q, and computer1Pandr2P;
  • 6) Distribute the security context (r1,r2P) and (r2,r1P) to ASN-GW and WIF, respectively.
Upon receiving the ( r 1 , r 2 P ) and ( r 2 , r 1 P ) , the ASN-GW and WIF may establish a shared VHO key, VHK = r 1 . r 2 P = r 2 . r 1 P = r 1 r 2 P , which is used as the root key for creating and verifying the MS’s VHO credential ticket.
- 3.2 WiMAX to WiFi HO authentication phase
When MS wants to change its access network (i.e., from BS 1 to AP 1 as depicted in Fig. 1 ) based on service cost, quality, speed, and availability provided by the WiMAX and WiFi networks, the WMWF HO authentication is initialized by MS at this moment. As shown in Fig. 2 , the detailed descriptions of the WMWF HO authentication are as follows:
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WiMAX to WiFi HO authentication
  • 1) MS computes a VHO credential ticket requestVT_req=(IDiMS,TiMS,NMS)(CMACCK) and sends it to its current serving BSBS1, where theCKis a shared CMAC Key established by the MS andBS1during their previous key agreement, theIDiMSis a permutation of the MS’s Media Access Control (MAC) address and theTiMSis the MS’s HHO credential ticket defined in[3].
  • 2) Upon receiving theVT_req,BS1takes the following steps to verify the MS’s VHO authentication request.
  • ● Verify theNMSand CMAC value to determine whether or not theNMSis fresh and the CMAC value is valid.
  • ● ComputeTMGKias in (1) to decrypt theTiMSand obtain the Pairwise Master Key (PMK) andTexp.
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  • ● Check whether the expiration timeTexpinTiMSis expired or not. If so, simply discard it. Otherwise,BS1calculates a Temporary CMAC Key (TCK) and a new permutation of the MS’s MAC address,, for the MS’s privacy as in (2) and (3), respectively.
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where the Truncate ( x , y ) is the last y bits of x and the Dot16KDF() is a key derivation function defined in IEEE 802.16m standard [14] .
  • ● Forward the (,PMK,Texp) toASN-GW1.
  • 3) After receiving the (,PMK,Texp),ASN-GW1computes a temporary VHO keyTVHK1as formula (4) and creates a VHO credential ticketas formula (5). Then,ASN-GW1sends the VHO credential ticket messageVT_iss1=(,Texp) toBS1.
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  • 4) Once receiving theVT_iss1,BS1computes a VHO credential ticket respondVT_respas in (6) and then sends it to MS.
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  • 5) After receiving theVT_resp, MS first verifies theNBSand CMAC value to determine whether or not theNBSis fresh and the CMAC value is valid. If so, MS calculates a new permutation of the MS’s MAC address,, as in (3) and then sends a VHO authentication requestVH_reqto WIF throughAP1as in (7).
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  • 6) Upon receiving theVH_req, WIF performs the following steps to verify the MS’s VHO authentication request.
  • ● Verify theNMSto determine whether or not it is fresh.
  • ● If so, WIF computesTVHK1as in (4) and then uses it to decryptand obtains thePMKandTexp.
  • ● Check whetherTexpinis expired or not. If so, simply discard it. Otherwise WIF further computesTCKas in (2) usingPMKand then usesTCKto verify the MIC value of the received parameters.
If the MIC is valid, WIF judges MS as a legitimate user and accepts its VHO authentication request. Similar to that in the ticket pre-issuing phase, WIF then creates a new VHO credential ticket
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for the WFWM HO authentication as follows:
  • ● Calculate a new permutation of the MS’s MAC address,, by Equation (3).
  • ● Compute a new temporary VHO keyTVHK2and create a new VHO credential ticketby Equation (8) and (9), respectively.
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  • 7) WIF sends a VHO authentication respondVH_resp=(,PMK) toAP1.
Finally, AP 1 performs the 4-way handshake procedure with MS to construct security keys, including Pairwise Transient Key (PTK), Key Confirmation Key (KCK), Key Encryption Key (KEK) and Temporary Key (TK), as defined in IEEE 802.11n standard [15] . Different from the specification in [15] , the msg1 is added a VHO credential ticket
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and an MIC which is used to prevent the Denial of Service (DoS) or similar attacks.
It is note that the above ticket pre-issues procedure would not affect the total HO authentication delay since it can be performed before the MS changes its access network.
- 3.3 WiFi to WiMAX HO authentication phase
When MS decides to return to the WiMAX network, the WFWM HO authentication is initialized by MS at this moment. As shown in Fig. 3 , the detailed descriptions of the WFWM HO authentication are as follows:
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WiFi to WiMAX HO authentication
  • 1) MS calculates a new permutation of the MS’s MAC address,, by Equation (3) and then sends a VHO authentication requestVH_reqto ASN-GW1throughBS1as in (10).
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  • 2) Upon receiving theVH_req, ASN-GW1performs the following steps to verify the MS’s VHO authentication request.
  • ● Verify theNMSto determine whether or not it is fresh.
  • ● If so, ASN-GW1computesTVHK2as in (8) and then uses it to decryptand obtains thePMKandTexp.
  • ● Check whetherTexpinis expired or not. If so, simply discard it. Otherwise ASN-GW1further computesTCKas in (2) usingPMKand then usesTCKto verify the CMAC value of the received parameters.
  • ● If the CMAC is valid, ASN-GW1judges MS as a legitimate user and accepts its VHO authentication request. Then, it sends a VHO authentication respondVH_resp(PMK) toBS1.
Upon receiving the VH _ resp , BS 1 performs the 3-way handshake procedure with MS to construct security keys, including AK, TEKs and CMAC Keys, as defined in IEEE 802.16m standard [14] .
4. Security evaluation
In this section, both security analysis and formal verification by the AVISPA tool are conducted to show that the proposed scheme maintain the security requirements in HO authentication semantics.
- 4.1 Security analysis
1) Mutual authentication : Due to the existence of trust agreements between AAA server, ASN-GW, BS, WIF and AP, MS engages in mutual re-authentication with BS/AP in the proposed scheme on behalf of the target network. In our scheme, the VHO authentication credential tickets,
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and
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, are generated by ASN-GW/WIF and distributed to MS through the BS/AP. As we can see in formula (5) and (9), the secret PMK is encrypted with TVHK i which can only be computed by the ASN-GW/WIF. Although all the VHO authentication credential tickets are transmitted in plain text, an adversary cannot decrypt them and extract PMK due to the secrecy of the TVHK i . Even a legitimate MS is also incapable of forging or modifying its VHO authentication credential tickets since it is ignorant of the TVHK i . So an attacker who does not know the secret values, VHK or PMK , cannot send legitimate VHO authentication request. Thus BS/AP can authenticate MS by decrypting VHO authentication credential tickets and verifying the CMAC/MIC value of the received VHO authentication request and key agreement request message (MSG#2/msg2) during the 3-way/4-way handshake procedure. On the other hand, a rogue BS/AP has no way to decrypt VHO authentication credential tickets and obtain PMK since it does not acquire TVHK i . So the rogue BS/AP cannot personate any legitimate BS/AP to send a key agreement challenge message (MSG#1/msg1) and perform the following handshake procedure. Consequently, although both the WMWF and WFWM protocols do not run the EAP re-authentication, the MS and target BS/AP accomplish authenticating with each other in the VHO authentication phases.
2) Protection against Man-in-the-Middle attack : In this attack, a attacker at the link between two parties may read, insert, or modify the messages delivered. The attacker, as a middle-man between the MS and the BS/AP, cannot obtain the correct TCK and CK/PTK in the proposed scheme. Note that the CMAC/MIC values in the MSG#1/msg1 and MSG#2/msg2 are required to be verified by the two parties, so the attacker cannot impersonate as the MS or the BS/AP without the knowledge of the correct TCK and CK/PTK .
3) Privacy preservation : In our scheme, the MS uses its pseudo identity,
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, generated by the one-way function Dot16KDF instead of its real identity both in the WMWF and WFWM HO authentication phases. Therefore, it is difficult for the adversary and BS/AP to reveal the MS’s real identity from the
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overheard. On the other hand, the MS changes its pseudonymous during every VHO authentication process. Moreover, each
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is calculated by using the one-way function Dot16KDF with the secret key TCK . As a result, the adversary cannot reveal the relationship between these acquired pseudonymous
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without knowing the secret key TCK . That is to say, the adversary cannot utilize the acquired
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to trace the MS’s movement route. Thus, the privacy preservation is ensured in our scheme.
Table 2 shows the security properties comparison with the Shidhani et al.'s scheme [10] and Huang et al.'s scheme [11] which are the most relevant to our scheme. According to Table 2 , we can see that our scheme not only fulfills essential HO security requirements (i.e., mutual authentication and protection against Man-in-the-Middle attack) but also provides the privacy preservation.
Comparison of security properties
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Comparison of security properties
- 4.2 Formal analysis using AVISPA
To ensure the security of the proposed scheme, we make a formal verification for our scheme using the AVISPA [16] . The AVISPA is a state-of-the-art automatic security analysis and validation tool which includes backend security verification servers like On-the-fly Model-Checker (OFMC), SAT-based Model-Checker (SATMC), Constraint-Logic-based Attack Searcher (CL-AtSe), and Tree Automata based on Automatic Approximations for the Analysis of Security Protocols (TA4SP). These servers launch all possible attacks on the examined protocols to confirm their security. The AVISPA provides a language called High Level Protocol Specification Language (HLPSL) for the description of the examined protocol and formally validating its security properties. In HLPSL, the roles played by different nodes in the protocol are specified and the security goals needed to be achieved are declared.
Fig. 4 shows an excerpt from HLPSL code describing AP1 ’s role in WMWF protocol. We neglect the Ticket Pre-issues phase. Firstly, AP1 waits to receive VH _ req from MS and then sends it to WIF. At the same time, the state State of AP1 will be changed from 1 to 3. After the state State has been changed to 3, AP1 receives VH _ req from WIF. Meanwhile, the state State will be changed to 9.Then AP1 performs the 4-way handshake procedure with MS. It is noted that the statement “request (AP, MS, ms_ap_mic, Mic’)” is used by MS to authenticate AP1 . Similarly, there are corresponding codes in the role of MS and MIF to accomplish mutual authentication.
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Excerpt from HLPSL code describing AP1’s role in WMWF
Once the HLPSL specification has been debugged, it was checked automatically for attack detection using the AVISPA. We have tested the WMWF and WFWM HO authentication protocols by OFMC, CL-AtSe, SATMC and TA4SP. The whole test results are given as follows:
  • 1) OFMC reports the protocol is safe;
  • 2) CL-AtSe reports the protocol is safe;
  • 3) SATMC reports the protocol is safe;
  • 4) TA4SP reports that some rules are not supported, so TA4SP does not do the verification.
The test results show that no revealed attacks were found. Therefore, the AVISPA cannot produce any attack on our proposed protocols.
5. Performance analysis
In this section, we analyze the performance of our scheme by compared with Shidhani et al.'s scheme [10] and Huang et al.'s scheme [11] which are the most relevant to our scheme.
- 5.1 Communication and computation cost
Communication and computation cost are two important metrics on HO authentication protocols. The communication overhead represents the HO time in the authentication and key distribution procedure and the computation cost represents the processing delays of the cryptography operations at each entity. The communication and computation cost comparison with the existing schemes are illustrated in Table 3 .
Comparison with the existing schemes
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Comparison with the existing schemes
According to Table 3 , we can see that our scheme introduces the least communication overhead since the AAA server is not involved in both the WMWF and WFWM protocols whenever a VHO occurs. For computation cost, our scheme requires the least symmetric encryption/decryption operation (WMWF requires two times and WFWM requires only one time) which is much more time-consuming than the hash operation, CMAC/MIC operation and key derivation operation. Moreover, the number of the hash operation, CMAC/MIC operation and key derivation operation required in our scheme are almost same compared with the Shidhani et al.'s scheme [10] and Huang et al.'s scheme [11] . Therefore, the computation cost of our scheme is also lower than the existing HO authentication schemes [10 , 11] . Specially, like Huang et al.'s scheme [11] , our scheme only needs MS to perform a few CMAC/MIC and Dot16KDF computation (both of them are very efficient) in the VHO authentication phase. Thus it is well suited for efficient HO authentication in the resource-constrained MS.
- 5.2 Simulation
To evaluate the overall performance of our proposed VHO authenication protocols, we simulate the nine different HO authentication processes of the above three schemes on the WiMAX-WiFi topology by ns-3.9 network simulator on the 64-bit, 1.9GHz AMD (A4-3300M) processor. In our simulation, the propagation model is LOG_DISTANCE_PROPAGATION and the propagation loss model is the LOG_DISTANCE_PASS_LOSS, the loss in the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio is 5 dB, the transmission power is 30 dB, the transmission/reception gain is 0 dB, the ratio of CP time to useful time is 0.25, the FFT size is 256 and the number of hops between the ASN-GW/WIF and AAA server is 3. In addition, the connection between the BS/AP and the ASN-GW/WIF is via wired links with bandwidth of 50Mbps, the connection between two ASN-GWs is via wired links with bandwidth of 500Mbps and the connection between the ASN-GW/WIF and the AAA server is via wired links with bandwidth of 2Gbps.
Referring on the types of communication used as well as the parameters of simulation, we evaluate the simulation results according to two criteria:
Handover latency: it represents the difference of time between the change of point attachment request and the association with the new point.
Loss rate: it represents the ratio of the number of lost packets and the total number of packets emitted by an MS.
Fig. 5 shows the variation of HO delay with the number of MS. In order to distinguish these three schemes, we let blue curve denote Shidhani et al.'s scheme [10] , red curve denote Huang et al.'s scheme [11] and green curve denote our scheme. According to Fig. 5 , it can be seen that our scheme has an obvious advantage, which almost 70% of the HO delay is reduced compared with Shidhani et al.'s scheme [10] .
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The comparison of HO delay with the number of MS
Fig. 6 shows the variation of loss rate with the number of MS. We can see that the loss rate increases with the increase in the number of MS, but our proposed scheme almost always outperforms the existing schemes.
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The comparison of Loss rate with the number of MS
- 5.3 Discussion
According to the above security and performance analysis, we can see that our scheme achieves outstanding performance compared to the existing schemes while fulfilling more HO security requirements (i.e., privacy preservation). In addition, in the HO authentication phase, our scheme only requires MS to perform a few CMAC/MIC and Dot16KDF computation which are very efficient. Thus it is well suited for efficient HO authentication with resource-constrained MS. Comparing to the Shidhani et al.'s scheme [10] and Huang et al.'s scheme [11] , the cost of our proposal is increased in the pre-deployment process which establishes a shared VHO key for creating and verifying the MS's VHO credential ticket. We can see that this would increase the initial process delay. However, the delay in the initial process is less sensitive than the HO authentication process.
6. Conclusion
In this paper, we present a novel VHO authentication scheme based on credential ticket for WiMAX-WiFi heterogeneous networks. The proposed scheme provides robust security protection, such as mutual authentication and privacy preservation. Moreover, the formal verification by the AVISPA tool shows that the proposed scheme is secure against various malicious attacks. In addition, the results of efficiency analysis and simulation indicate that our scheme achieves outstanding performance compared to the existing schemes.
BIO
Anmin Fu is an associate professor of Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China. He received his B.S. degree in Communication Engineering from Lanzhou University of Technology, China, in 2005. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Cryptography and Information Security from Xidian University in 2008 and 2011, respectively. His research interests include wireless security and cryptography. He has published over 20 research papers in refereed international conferences and journals.
Gongxuan Zhang is a professor and supervisor of Ph.D. students of Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China, in 1991 and 2005, respectively. His research interests include web Service and information security.
Yan Yu is an associate professor of Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China, in 1993 and 2000, respectively. He received his Ph.D. degree in Computer Software and Theory from Nanjing University in 2007. His research interests include network and smartphone security.
Zhenchao Zhu is currently assistant professor at the Information Security Research Center of Southeast University, China. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Cryptography and Information Security from Xidian University, China, in 2008 and 2011, respectively. His research interests include network security and cryptography.
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