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Secondary Contamination is the Main Source for Spread of <italic>Nosema bombycis</italic> Resulting in Outbreak of Pebrine Disease in <italic>Bombyx mori</italic> L.
Secondary Contamination is the Main Source for Spread of Nosema bombycis Resulting in Outbreak of Pebrine Disease in Bombyx mori L.
International Journal of Industrial Entomology. 2013. Dec, 27(2): 282-288
Copyright © 2013, Korean Society of Sericultural Science
  • Received : December 12, 2013
  • Accepted : December 12, 2013
  • Published : December 31, 2013
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About the Authors
Satadal Chakrabarty
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore (W.B.), India
A.K. Saha
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore (W.B.), India
sahaatul@rediffmail.com
B. Manna
Parasitology Research Unit, Department of Zoology, The University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019, India
S. Nirmal Kumar
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore (W.B.), India
Abstract
In nature, the population of Nosema bombycis (Microsporidia) causing pebrine disease is small and their development is extremely slow and only few ultimately producing spores. Pebrine infected silkworm, Bombyx mori larvae collected from sericulture field were alive till 3 rd generation though the concentration of N.bombycis spore was very high (2.4 - 3.0 x 10 8 spores. mL -1 ). All larvae were died during 4 th generation with extremely high concentration of pebrine spores (3.0 - 4.0 x 10 9 spores. mL -1 ) and mostly contain long polar tube (LT). Alternately, all larvae were died immediately (at 3 rd stage of 1 st generation) when it was artificially inoculated with same concentration of N.bombycis spores harvested from field (2.4 - 3.0 x 10 8 spores. mL -1 ) though concentration of spores harvest was very less (3.0- 4.0 x 10 6 spores.mL -1 ) and mostly contain short polar tube (ST). Artificially pebrine infected male moth when mated with healthy female moth took six generations to develop pebrine disease and all larvae were died at the 2nd stage with very less spore harvest (3.0 - 10.0 x 10 5 spores. mL -1 ). Survival percentage was increased in all generations (~92.0% at 4 th generation) when silkworm rearing was conducted under new integrated disease management system.
Keywords
Introduction
Pebrine is a deadliest disease of mulberry silkworm, B. mori L. caused by the pathogen, N.bombycis Nageli, (Microsporidia: Nosematidae ). It is transmitted primarily through eggs i.e., transovarian transmission and through the feeding of contaminated leaf, rearing tray, rearing bed, layings, as well as cross-transmission from alternate host secondarily i.e., transovum transmission (Chakrabarty et al ., 2013a). Each oval spore measuring 3 - 4 μm × 1.5 - 2 μm includes a coiled polar filament that may be 100 μm in length. The disease is spread transovarially by environmental spore and secondarily by primary spores. Ultra-structures of the two type of spores are entirely different, primary spore contain short polar tube (ST) with thin wall (< 200 nm); whereas, the environmental spore contain long polar tube (LT) with thick wall (> 200 nm). Pasteur (1870) was the first to detect the transmission of pebrine through the eggs i.e., transovarian transmission and he advised for examination of mother moth. It is the standard method followed to control the disease throughout the country. Transovarian transmission has been reported to be sole mechanism by which transmission of the parasites occurs (Kellen et al ., 1965, Chapman et al ., 1966). It is reported that transmission of microsporidia horizontally by feeding spores produced in male larvae back to larval hosts have been unsuccessful (Kellen et al ., 1965) as the size of the spore is larger than the sperm. However, transovum transmission of spore through external surface of genital organ of heavily infected male moths can’t be rule out. However, such type of secondary source of contamination of N.bombycis is lacking in the literature. Though, some preliminary studies on veneral transmission of spore have been done by some workers (Patil, 1993). However, we identified that N.bombycis is capable to specify gender of the Bombyx mori and multiplied in male very quickly to spread the infection through transovum transmission (Chakrabarty et al ., 2013a).
Therefore, role of transovum transmission of pebrine spore through accessory sex organs / external body surface of male moths in successive generations for transmission of disease was undertaken to find out the sole mechanism of outbreak of disease.
Materials and methods
- Rearing of 1stgeneration of infected silkworm
One hundred live cocoons were collected from one farmer’s house at Barunighata village, Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. Fifty cocoons were subjected for isolation of N. bombycis , pebrine spore. Spores were isolated from live infected pupae and purified by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 10 min following new method of pebrine isolation (Chakrabarty et.al, 2013b). After isolation, spores were suspended in 0.85% NaCl and stored at 4℃. Spores were counted using a Neubauer haemocytometer under light microscope (x 600) and determined the inoculum concentration following standard method (Undeen, 1997) and used as stock solution. Fresh spores with 3.0-4.0 × 10 6 spores. mL -1 concentration were inoculated (i.e., artificial infection) to 4 th stage 1 st d larvae (Race: M Con1). Other fifty cocoons were allowed for moth emergence in ambient condition (i.e., natural infection). Whole body tissues of both male and female moths were examined under light microscope for detection of pebrine spores after coupling for male moth and oviposition for female moth. Eggs were incubated properly maintaining temperature and humidity as per standard procedure and allowed for hatching in normal condition. Rearing was conducted as per standard procedure (1 st generation). Again, eggs were prepared utilizing moths generated from 1 st rearing and rearing of 2 nd generation was conducted following previous procedure i.e., 1 st generation.
- Rearing 2nd, 3rdand 4thgenerations of infected silkworm
2 nd generation
Rearing of 2 nd generation were conducted with fifty larvae (Race: Nistari) of 1 st brushing (T1) and fifty larvae of 2 nd brushing (T2) when eggs were prepared utilizing moths recovered from natural infection of 1 st generation. Rearings of 2 nd generation were also conducted with fifty larvae of 1 st brushing (T3) and fifty larvae (Race: Nistari) of 2 nd brushing (T4) when eggs were prepared utilizing moths recovered from artificial infection of 1 st generation.
3 rd Generation
Rearing of 3 rd generation was conducted with 500 larvae when eggs were prepared utilizing moths recovered from natural infection of 2 nd generation (T2).
4 th Generation
Rearing of 4 th generation was conducted with 1000 larvae when eggs were prepared utilizing moths recovered from natural infection of 3 rd generation (T2).
- Rearing 2nd, 3rdand 4thgenerations of infected silkworm with protection
All the procedure was same as Rearing 2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th generations. However, these experiments were conducted in two separate batches, one with protection using existing disease management systems, using ‘Labex’ as bed disinfectant and ‘5% Bleaching powder’ as room disinfectant and other with new disease management system using ‘Sericillin’ as bed disinfectant and ‘fumigant chemicals’ as room disinfectant.
- Rearing 3rdgenerations of infected male with healthy female
Here, we have crossed the fully infected male moths (1.0-1.2
Comparative performances ofN.bombycisat different metamorphic stage ofB. moriL. during artificial and natural infection (data in parenthesis indicates the standard error of mean)
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Comparative performances of N.bombycis at different metamorphic stage of B. mori L. during artificial and natural infection (data in parenthesis indicates the standard error of mean)
Fitness Efficiency Performance ofB. moriL. during artificial and natural infection
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Fitness Efficiency Performance of B. mori L. during artificial and natural infection
× 10 7 spores.mL -1 ) recovered from rearing 3 rd generations with healthy female moths. We have continued the generations with recording survival percentage and intensity of infection.
Results and Discussion
Nosema could produce two spores from sporont (Ishiwara, 1969). Sporont of N.bombycis usually produced two sporoblast (Lai and Canning, 1983). The first populations of spores mainly cause the spread of the parasite in the epithelium. The second population of spore is formed later on for adapting to survive outside the host (Graaf et al ., 1994). Early spores and environmental spores are immature and variants of the same spore type, normally occurs in different tissues in the host (Larson, 1999).
In rearing of 1 st generation of infected silkworm (experiment-I) , all the larvae were died when the larvae were artificially infected with same inoculums concentration of pebrine spore harvested from the moths collected from the field (3.0-4.0 × 106 spores. mL -1 ). However, the larvae were survived harbouring the same concentration of pebrine spore harvested from the moths collected from the field (3.0-4.0 × 10 6 spores.mL -1 ) and larvae completed the life cycle though survival percentage were decreased to 62.3% where intensity of spore were remain almost same concentrations and constant (1.0 × 10 7 spores. mL -1 ) for all larval stages, pupal stage and moth ( Table 1 and 2 ). Some of the
Comparative performances at different metamorphic stage ofB. moriL. during different brushing practice at artificial and natural infection (data in parenthesis indicates the standard error of mean)
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Comparative performances at different metamorphic stage of B. mori L. during different brushing practice at artificial and natural infection (data in parenthesis indicates the standard error of mean)
new factor is responsible in the evolution of pathogens as well as variability in host specificity so that their multiplication rate and virulency are restricted in the same host and host of the same origin are only survived. Alternately, artificially infected larvae were died due to loosing the originality of host specificity.
In rearing of 2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th generation of infected silkworm ( experiment-II ), all artificially infected larvae were died in 1 st generation. But larvae were died in 4 th generation when silkworm rearing was conducted in natural condition. In this case, intensity of infection (3.0-4.0 × 10 9 spores.mL -1 ) was increased and survival percentage was decreased till 3 rd generation and at last all larvae were died in 4 th generation. Two contrasting results were observed in this experiment. Intensity of infection was more in naturally infected 1 st brushing larvae (3.0-4.0 × 10 9 spores. mL -1 ) whereas, it is more in 2 nd brushing larvae for artificial infection (1.0 × 10 8 spores.mL -1 ) before their death. Alternately, survival percentage was more in 2 nd brushing larvae (ERR~ 22.32 %) infected naturally whereas, it is more in 1 st brushing larvae infected artificially (ERR ~ 17.34 %). It was very much interesting to observe that all the larvae were survived in 2 nd generation when the larvae contain full of pebrine spore (3.0- 4.0 × 10 7 spores.mL -1 ) when larvae infected naturally and finally, all larvae were died in 3 rd generation before resume to 3 rd stage and contain full of pebrine spore (3.0-4.0 × 10 9 spores.mL -1 ) ( Table 3 ).
In rearing of 2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th generation of infected silkworm with protection ( experiment-III ), all the naturally infected larvae were died in 4 th generation when rearing was conducted in natural condition and artificially infected larvae were died in 1 st generation with existing disease management system. But the survival percentage were increased in all generations when rearing was conducted with new system of management. It was surprised that more than 98% larvae were survived during 4 th generation when rearing was conducted with new system of management and no spore was observed in moth under microscope ( Table 4 ).
In rearing of 3 rd generation of infected male with healthy male ( experiment-IV ), when artificially infected male moth were mated with healthy female then all offspring were died resume from 1 st moult at 6th generation and develop pebrine disease though very less spore harvest (3.0-10.0×105 spores.mL -1 ) was recorded. We have not recorded any spore till 5 th generation. Besides, all the pre cocoon and post cocoon parameters at 5 th generation revealed that the lot was healthy as well as robust considering Effective Rearing Rate (~75% ), single mature larval weight (~2.496 g), Shell % (~13.0), Filament Length (~271 m),
Comparative performances of management for control of pebrine disease ofB. moriL. using existing system of management and new integrated system of management.
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Comparative performances of management for control of pebrine disease of B. mori L. using existing system of management and new integrated system of management.
Secondary contamination of pebrine disease in successive generations inB.mori.
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Secondary contamination of pebrine disease in successive generations in B.mori.
Non-breakable Filament length (~261 m), Denier (1.91) Fitness Efficiency test i.e., Grainage performance ( Table 5 and 6 ) . Besides, the lot performed better in all the favourable and nonfavourable seasons.
Time taken for establishment of the pathogen for completion of its life cycle and production of spores depends on inoculum load and other environmental factors (Steinhaus and Huges, 1949). We have observed in our previous study that spore harvest was more in male moth compared to that in female moth though the inoculum concentration, source of pathogen and the rearing were conducted in the same environment (Chakrabarty et al ., 2013b). The physiological changes in the insect might have possibly influenced the developmental cycle of the parasite to switch on from a predominantly vegetative stage to sporogony, resulting in an increasing spore production. Spore production hadreached a stationary phase and yielded similar amounts of spore of N. acridiophagus and N. cuneatum in larvae of Melanoplus asnguinipes after 20 d of inoculation with 10 4 and 10 6 spores compared to lower spore yields which were continued in spore multiplication stage when inoculated with 10 2 spores (Cali, 1970). If development is allowed to proceed to the stationary phase, multiplication of the parasite is greater with lower concentrations than with higher concentrations (Kawarabata and Ishihara, 1984). But there is an apparent increase in multiplication with increased concentrations during the exponential phase and the difference between the multiplications of spore with the high and low initial spore concentration is narrow. Multiplication of pathogens depends upon the age of silkworm, time and other indirect
Intensity of infection and reeling performance of secondary contamination of pebrine disease in successive generations inB.mori. (Healthy female x Pebrine infected male from 3rdgeneration of Experiment-II)
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Intensity of infection and reeling performance of secondary contamination of pebrine disease in successive generations in B.mori. (Healthy female x Pebrine infected male from 3rd generation of Experiment-II)
factors (Loubes, 1999). A particular concentration is effective for multiplication of spore and mortality (Graaf et al ., 1994 ) and below that threshold level the concentrations do not cause any larval mortality (Larson, 1999). Therefore, the number of spores (intensity of infection) that a host can harbour and still function normally is important in determining the role of microsporidia as a parasite in nature (Graaf et al ., 1994 ). We have also found in our previous study that spore production reached the stationary phase in female during pupal stage to moth stage where as it is continued in progress in male pupa to moth stage till the dead of the moth i.e., the time of harvest. It is an interesting phenomenon of N. bombycis which needs to instigate further for detailed understanding and the findings assume importance for taxonomic classification (Chakrabarty et al ., 2013a).
Conclusion
From the study, it may be concluded that both male and female moths to be examined microscopically during hybrid laying preparation. We could observe only 4 th generation from parental generation (P3) to commercial rearing in the field. As there is no chance for 6 th generation study in the field, for that reason outbreak of pebrine disease from secondary transmission is not observed. However, we should take care where parental generation (P3, P2 and P1) is maintained to check the secondary transmission. Besides, new management system using ‘Sericillin’ as bed disinfectant with ‘fumigant chemicals’ as room disinfectant is required to be adopted, especially where parental generation is maintained i.e., seed production centre, to control the secondary transmission of pebrine disease.
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