A New Record of Juvenile Chromis mirationis (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) from Korea, Revealed by Molecular Analysis, with a Comparison to Juvenile Chromis notata
A New Record of Juvenile Chromis mirationis (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) from Korea, Revealed by Molecular Analysis, with a Comparison to Juvenile Chromis notata
Fisheries and aquatic sciences. 2014. Jun, 17(2): 263-267
2014 © The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Licens ( permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : May 02, 2014
  • Accepted : May 10, 2014
  • Published : June 30, 2014
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About the Authors
Young Sun, Song
Department of Marine Biology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737Korea
Hyuck Joon, Kwun
Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, Seocheon 325-902Korea
Jin-Koo, Kim
Department of Marine Biology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737Korea
Hiroshi, Senou
Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History, Kanagawa 250-0031Japan

A single juvenile pomacentrid specimen (5.9 mm standard length) was collected from the Korea Strait in October 2010. The specimen is characterized by punctate-stellate melanophores scattered on the operculum and dorso-ventral region in front of the caudal peduncle, the lack of melanophores on the posterior end of the anal fin base, the presence of 14 spines and 14 soft rays on the dorsal fin, and the presence of 2 spines and 12 soft rays on the anal fin. A molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA sequences showed that this specimen is closely related to adult Chromis mirationis ( d = 0.002), but that it differs from Chromis notata ( d = 0.017). Juvenile C. mirationis differ from juvenile C. notata in having no melanophores on the posterior end of the anal fin base. We propose a new Korean name, “tti-ja-ri-dom” for C. mirationis .
The family Pomacentridae (Perciformes) is one of the most diverse groups of reef fishes, and is distributed mainly in the tropical and temperate seas of the Indo-Pacific (Allen, 1991 ;Nelson, 2006 ;Allen and Erdmann, 2012 ). The Pomacentridae is comprised of approximately 350 species worldwide (Nelson, 2006 ), including 105 species in Japan (Aonuma et al., 2013 ), but only 17 species in Korea (Kim et al., 2005 ;Kim, 2011 ;Song et al., 2013 ). Although numerous studies have been conducted on the early life histories of pomacentrid species (Okiyama, 1988 ;Leis and Carson-Ewart, 2000 ;Kim et al., 2001 ;Richards, 2006 ;Murphy et al., 2007 ), identification of congeneric species remains difficult because of the extreme color variations that exist at all life stages (Neal, 1993 ;Song et al., 2013 ), and because research on only 15% of species has been conducted (Murphy et al., 2007 ). Because external morphological traits of larval and adult stages are very different, the characters used for adult stages cannot be used for larval stages (Blaxter, 1984 ;Miller and Kendall, 2009 ). Thus, molecular methods have been used widely in recent taxonomic studies of this group (Kim et al., 2008 ;Vandersea et al., 2008 ;Victor et al., 2009 ;Kwun and Kim, 2010 ;Ji et al., 2012 ;Kwun et al., 2012 ;Ko et al., 2013 ;Kwun et al., 2013 ;Lee and Kim, 2013 ).
In October 2010, a single juvenile pomacentrid specimen was collected from the Korea Strait (south of Tong-young), and based on molecular analyses, we identified it as a juvenile Chromis mirationis . Our study is the first to report the morphology of juvenile C. mirationis , and the first to report an occurrence of this species in Korean waters. We also compared the characteristics of juvenile C . mirationis with those ofjuvenile Chromis notata , because the two species were found to be closely related by molecular analyses.
Materials and Methods
A single juvenile pomacentrid specimen was collected from the Korea Strait (south of Tong-young) at a depth of 100 m by an RN80 net (Sanga, Busan, Korea) on 29 October 2010. The specimen was fixed in 99% ethanol immediately following collection. Counts and measurements were performed under an Olympus SZX-16 stereomicroscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) following Leis and Carson-Ewart (Lee and Kim, 2000 ). Measurements were recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm using an Active Measure image analyzer (Shinhan Scientific Optics, Seoul. Korea). Sketches of the external shape of the juvenile were created using a Olympus SZX-DA camera lucida (Olympus) attached to a microscope. Analyses of melanophore shapes and distributions followed Russell (Lee and Kim, 1976 ). The specimen was deposited in the National Institute of Biological Resources (Voucher number, NIBR-P22498; GenBank accession number, JQ178234), Korea; other specimens are registered in Pukyong National University (PKU and PKUI), and were deposited in the collections of the Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History (KPM-NI).
Genomic DNA extraction and PCR analyses for molecular identification were performed according to Kwun and Kim (Lee and Kim, 2010 ) and Kwun et al. (Lee and Kim, 2012 ). The nucleotide sequences were deposited in the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ), in the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), and in GenBank. Sequences were aligned using ClustalW (Thompson et al., 1994 ) in BioEdit version 7 (Hall, 1999 ). Sequence data were obtained for an adult C. mirationis (KPM-NI 30479, KF957467; Voucher number, NCBI registration number, respectively), and a juvenile C. notata (PKUI 96, KF957468) specimen. Sequence data for C. albicauda (PKU 5802, KF957469) and three Chromis species which were C. ana lis (no voucher number, FJ616423), C. fumea (PKU 5535, KC767733), and C. notata (PKU 5566, KC767732) were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and were used for molecular comparisons. A Thalassoma lunare specimen (PKU 6501, JQ178236) was selected as an outgroup. Genetic distances were calculated using the Kimura two-parameter method (Kimura, 1980 ) in MEGA 5 (Tamura et al., 2011 ). A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed using the Kimura two-parameter method (Kimura, 1980 ) and 10,000 bootstrap replications in MEGA 5 (Tamura et al., 2011 ).
Results and Discussion
- Chromis mirationisTanaka, 1917
(New Korean name: Tti-ja-ri-dom; Fig. 1 A and 1 B)
Chromis mirationis Tanaka, 1917: 8 (type locality: Off Goto Island, Japan); Randall et al., 1981: 230 (Japan); Masuda et al., 1984: 192 (Japan); Allen, 1991: 75 (Japan); Yamada et al., 2009: 512 (Japan); Aonuma et al., 2013: 1037 (Japan and Taiwan).
Chromis sp.: Kim et al., 2011: 200 (Korea).
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Photo (A) and illustration (B) of Chromis mirationis, NIBR-P22498, 5.9 mm standard length (SL); photo (C) and illustration (D) of Chromis notata, PKUI 96, 5.1 mm SL. Scale Bars = 2 mm.
- Material examined
NIBR P-22498, 5.9 mm standard length (SL), Korea Strait (south of Tong-young, 34˚20ʹ N, 128˚21ʹ E), 29 October 2010 (Fig. 1 A and 1 B).
- Comparative material examined
Chromis notata : PKUI 96, 5.1 mm SL, Jeju Island, August 2012 (Fig. 1 C and 1 D). Chromis mirationis : KPM-NI 30479, 52.8 mm SL, Sagami Bay, Japan, 15 March 2012; KPM-NI 23617, 24.7 mm SL, Shizuoka Bay, Japan, 23 March 2009; KPM-NI 18916, 100.1 mm SL, Shizuoka Bay, Japan, 30 April 2007 (Fig. 2 ).
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Comparative specimens of Chromis mirationisexamined. (A) 24.7 mm standard length (SL), KPM-NI 23617, (B) 52.8 mm SL, KPM-NI 30479, and (C) 100.1 mm SL, KPM-NI 18916.
- Description
Counts are shown in Table 1 . The following body measurements are expressed in terms of percent standard length (% SL): body depth, 44.2; head length, 46.6; snout length, 14.5; eye diameter, 16.9; upper jaw length, 26.0; predorsal length, 53.6; preanal length, 65.0; caudal peduncle depth, 16.0; caudal peduncle length, 11.7; dorsal fin base length, 49.2; anal fin base length, 33.7; pelvic fin length, 16.9; second anal fin spine length, 11.0.
The body is short and slightly deep; the head and eyes are large, the snout is slightly pointed; the anterior margin of the head is slightly concave; the mouth is terminal, the posterior tip of the maxilla is located beyond the anterior margin of the eye; the teeth are small and conical on both jaws; the posterior margin of the preopercle is weekly serrated; the origin of the dorsal fin is located above the posterior margin of the opercle; the caudal peduncle is short; the anus is located behind the middle of the body; and the posterior tip of the pelvic fin reaches the anus.
Comparison of meristic characters betweenChromis mirationisand four species of genusChromis
Chromis mirationis C. notata C. fumea C. albicauda C. analis
Present study Tanaka (Tamura et al., 1917) Koh et al. (Tamura et al., 1997) Allen and Erdmann (Tamura et al., 2012)
Juvenile Adult
Number of specimens 1 3 - - - - -
Standard length (mm) 5.9 24.7-100.1 - - - - -
Dorsal fin rays XIV, 14 XIV, 14 XIV, 14 XIII-XIV, 12-14 XIII-XIV, 10-12 XIII, 12 XIII, 11-13
Anal fin rays II, 12 II, 12 II, 11 II, 10-12 II, 9-10 II, 12 II, 12-13
Pectoral fin rays - 18-20 19 18-20 18-20 19 17-18
‘-’ represents no data.
- Pigmentation
Stellate melanophores are densely distributed on the occipital; punctate and punctate-stellate melanophores are scattered on the operculum, shoulder, abdomen, and pectoral fin base; rod-like stellate melanophores are sparsely distributed on the mediolateral; small punctate-stellate melanophores are scattered on the dorso- and ventro-laterals. Stellate melanophores are also densely distributed on the peritoneum. No melanophores exit on the snout, the middle region of the body, the dorsal and ventral contours, the caudal peduncle, the posterior end of the anal fin base, or the fin membranes (Fig. 1 ).
- Distribution
Chromis mirationis is reported from Japan (Randall et al., 1981 ;Yamada et al., 2009 ;Aonuma et al., 2013 ), Taiwan (Aonuma et al., 2013 ), and Korea (Korea Strait, present study).
- Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis
Analysis of 566 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA sequences shows that our juvenile specimen is closely related to adult C. mirationis ( d = 0.002; d is genetic distance), but that it differs from C. notata ( d = 0.017), C. fumea ( d = 0.032), C. analis ( d = 0.063), and C. albicauda ( d = 0.077). In the NJ tree, the juvenile specimen clusters closely to adult C. mirationis , supported by a 98% bootstrap value (Fig. 3 ).
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Neighbor-joining tree constructed by the mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA sequences for juvenile Pomacentridae sp. and five Chromisspecies, with one outgroup ( Thalassoma lunare). Numbers at branches indicate bootstrap probabilities in 10,000 bootstrap replications. Bar indicates genetic distance of 0.02. Parenthesis and superscripts indicate the NCBI registratioin number and voucher number, respectively.
- Remarks
The present juvenile specimen can be classified into the genus Chromis , based on the following morphological traits: short and deep body, large head, and similar fin counts (Okiyama, 1988 ;Leis and Carson-Ewart, 2000 ). Among Chromis species, our juvenile specimen is most similar to C. notata in that it has a dorsal fin with 14 spines (Table 1 ). However, it differs from C. notata because it has melanophores distributed on the operculum (numerous melanophores on juvenile C. mirationis vs. a few melanophores on juvenile C. notata ) and on the posterior end of the anal fin base (absent vs. present). Morphologically, our juvenile C. mirationis specimen matches the original description of the species (Tanaka, 1917 ) in having a dorsal fin with 14 spines (Table 1 ), and is clearly distinguished from C. analis and C. albicauda by the number of dorsal fin spines (13 spines;Song et al., 2013 ). We propose the new Korean name “Tti-ja-ri-dom” for C. mirationis , following Yamada et al. (Song et al., 2009 ).
This research was supported by the project on survey and excavation of Korean indigenous species of the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR) under the Ministry of Environment, Korea.
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