Advanced
Inclusion of Distillers Dried Grain as Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour and Soybean Meal in the Diet of Juvenile Abalone Haliotis discus hannai
Inclusion of Distillers Dried Grain as Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour and Soybean Meal in the Diet of Juvenile Abalone Haliotis discus hannai
Fisheries and aquatic sciences. 2014. Jun, 17(2): 249-254
2014 © The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Licens (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/)which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : February 02, 2014
  • Accepted : March 03, 2014
  • Published : June 01, 2014
Download
PDF
e-PUB
PubReader
PPT
Export by style
Share
Article
Author
Metrics
Cited by
TagCloud
About the Authors
Jin Choi
Department of Marine Bioscience and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-702Korea
Md Mostafizur Rahman
Department of Marine Bioscience and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-702Korea
Sang-Min Lee
Department of Marine Bioscience and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-702Korea
smlee@gwnu.ac.kr
Abstract
An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the influence of dietary distillers dried grain (DDG) on the growth and body composition of juvenile abalone Haliotis discus hannai . Five diets were formulated to contain 0% (DDG0), 15% (DDG15), 30% (DDG30), 45% (DDG45), and 60% (DDG60) DDG, and three replicate groups of abalone (average body weight: 3.6 ± 0.21 g) were fed one of the experimental diets at a feeding rate of 5% body weight per day once daily (17:00 h) for 8 weeks. Survival, shell length, and shell width of juvenile abalone were not affected by dietary DDG levels ( P > 0.05). Weight gains of juvenile abalone fed DDG15 and DDG30 diets were not different compared to DDG0, but abalone fed DDG45 and DDG60 diets gained less weight than those fed DDG0 ( P < 0.05). Soft body weight/body weight ratio of juvenile abalone fed the DDG60 diet was lower than that of those fed the DDG0 diet ( P < 0.05), but proximate composition of the soft body was not affected by dietary DDG levels ( P > 0.05). The results of this experiment suggest that DDG is a good replacement for wheat flour and soybean meal, and can be used up to 30% in the diet to maintain the growth performance of the juvenile abalone.
Keywords
Introduction
Successful operations associated with the aquaculture industry are growing rapidly. Abalone Haliotis discus hannai is one of the most commercially important shellfish species in East Asia, especially Korea, Japan, and China. Culture techniques of this species have been developed since 1970, and its aquaculture production has rapidly increased with demand for human consumption (Cho, 2010 ). The utilization of pelleted feed has been demonstrated to be convenient and cost-effective in commercial abalone production (Britz et al., 1994 ;Lee, 2004 ), but the species is characterized by naturally slow and heterogeneous growth rates (Bautista-Teruel et al., 2003 ). The poor growth rate of abalone has generated the need for more research into optimal nutrition for successful cultures (Fleming et al., 1996 ), and nutritional demands must be met to produce more efficient cultures (Lee, 2004 ). Recently, abalone cultures have become increasingly dependent on formulated feeds because of constantly limited supplies of harvested seaweed (Green et al., 2011 ). A great demand exists for identifying cost-effective ingredients to produce a diet that can maintain abalone growth (Lee et al., 2004 ), and the replacement of soybean meal and wheat flour using more economical ingredients may be beneficial for minimizing feed costs.
Distillers dried grain (DDG) is a cereal by-product that is fermented and distilled to create alcoholic beverages (Hertrampf and Piedad-Pascual, 2000 ). DDG is a useful feed ingredient in the livestock industry because of its high nutritional value and low cost, and it is currently mainly being tested for use as a possible energy source in ruminant diet programs (Jacob et al., 2008 ). However, due to the enhanced availability and potential cost–benefit of DDG, incorporating DDG into aquafeed may present a large economic value. DDG has already been tested as a possible alternative protein and/or energy source associated with aquafeed (Chevanan et al., 2010 ;Wu et al., 1996 ), and it is less expensive than traditional ingredients such as soybean meal and wheat flour (Rahman et al., 2013a , 2013b ). Seo et al. (Rahman et al., 2011 ) reported that rice-based DDG contains a high protein content and well-balanced amino acid profile, and may be useful for producing low-cost feed for juvenile olive flounder (Rahman et al., 2013a ) and sea cucumber (Choi et al., 2013 ). Therefore, the objective of the this study was to investigate the effects of dietary DDG as an alternative feed ingredient (compared to traditional soybean meal and wheat flour) on the growth and body composition of juvenile abalone .
Materials and Methods
- Experimental diets
The essential amino acid and proximate compositions of major ingredients used in the experimental diets are presented in Table 1 . The ingredients and chemical composition of the experimental diets are given in Table 2 . Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated to contain 0%, 15%, 30%, 45%, and 60% DDG (designated DDG0, DDG15, DDG30, DDG45, and DDG60, respectively). Fish meal was used as the primary protein source, and fish oil was the lipid source. The DDG used in this study was produced by filtration of an aqueous mixture of fermented rice with As pergillus oryzae and yeast during the manufacturing process of Makgeolli, a traditional Korean alcoholic beverage. DDG produced from Gangneung Makgeolli factory (Gangneung, Korea) was dried at 60ºC for 24 h and finely ground prior to incorporation in the experimental diets. All ingredients were thoroughly mixed with 30% distilled water, and pellets were prepared using a moist pelleting machine in the laboratory. The pellets were dried at room temperature for 48 h and ground into desirable particle sizes. All diets were stored at –30ºC until experimental use.
Proximate composition and essential amino acid (% in protein) of the ingredient of experimental diets
Ingredients
Fish meal Soybean meal Wheat flour Distillers dried grain (DDG) *
Proximate composition (% dry matter)
Dry matter 95.8 89.2 89.3 97.0
Crude protein 75.3 55.2 19.3 21.5
Crude lipid 8.8 1.6 3.9 4.5
Ash 14.7 6.8 2.2 0.9
Essential amino acid composition (% protein)
Arg 6.7 7.6 5.7 5.9
His 2.3 2.8 2.9 2.4
Ile 4.5 3.3 2.3 4.0
Leu 8.3 7.5 6.0 8.2
Lys 8.8 6.5 3.7 3.2
Met + Cys 5.1 2.4 2.8 4.3
Phe + Tyr 8.1 8.2 6.8 9.2
Thr 4.8 4.4 3.5 4.4
Val 4.5 3.3 3.2 4.9
Residue obtained by filtration of an aqueous mixture of fermented rice with Aspergillus oryzaeand yeasts produced from Gangneung Makgeolli factory (Gangneung, Korea).
Ingredient and chemical composition of the experimental diets
Diets
DDG0 DDG15 DDG30 DDG45 DDG60
Ingredients (%)
Fish meal 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Soybean meal 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0
Wheat flour 45.2 34.9 24.6 14.3 4.0
Distillers dried grain * 15.0 30.0 45.0 60.0
Fish oil 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Na alginate 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
L-lysine HCL 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2
Vitamin premix 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Mineral premix 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Choline salt (50%) 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
Proximate composition(%, dry matter basis)
Dry matter 85.3 82.1 83.7 82.7 87.3
Crude protein 32.9 32.0 30.4 29.3 29.1
Crude lipid 2.8 2.5 3.4 3.5 3.6
Ash 8.1 7.8 7.7 7.1 6.8
DDG, distillers dried grain. Residue obtained by filtration of an aqueous mixture of fermented rice with Aspergillus oryzaeand yeasts produced from Gangneung Makgeolli factory (Gangneung, Korea). Vitamin premix contained the following amount which were diluted in cellulose (g/kg premix): L-ascorbic acid, 200 DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, 18.8 thiamin hydrochloride, 2.7 riboflavin, 9.1 pyridoxine hydrochloride, 1.8 niacin, 36.4 Ca-D-pantothenate, 12.7 myo-inositol, 181.8 D-biotin, 0.27 folic acid, 0.68 p-aminobenzoic acid, 18.2 menadione, 1.8 retinyl acetate, 0.73 cholecalciferol, 0.003 cyanocobalamin, 0.003. Mineral premix contained the following ingredients (g/kg premix): NaCl, 10 MgSO 4·7H 2O, 80.0 NaH 2PO 4·2H 2O, 370.0 KCl, 130.0 Ferric citrate, 40.0 ZnSO 4·7H 2O, 20.0 Ca-lactate, 356.5 CuCl, 0.2 AlCl 3·6H 2O, 0.15 KI, 0.15 Na 2Se 2O 3, 0.01 MnSO 4·H 2O, 2.0 CoCl 2·6H 2O, 1.0.
- Experimental animal and feeding experiment
Juvenile abalone were produced at the Gangwon Province Marine Culture Experimental Station (Korea) and acclimated to a laboratory flow-through aquarium system for 2 weeks. During this conditioning period, abalones were fed a commercial feed before starting the feeding trial. Following the acclimation period, juvenile abalones (average body weight, 3.6 ± 0.21 g) were randomly allocated to 50-L rectangular plastic tanks (40 L of water each) in a seawater flow-through system at a density of 20 individuals per tank. Three replicate groups of abalone were fed one of the five experimental diets at a feeding rate of 5% body weight per day every other day (17:00 h) for 8 weeks. Uneaten feed in each aquarium was removed by siphoning prior to daily feeding. Photoperiod was maintained at the natural condition, and aeration was provided during feeding periods. Water was supplied at a flow rate of 1 L/min and maintained at 19.4 ± 2.16ºC. At the initiation and the termination of the experiment, abalones in each aquarium were collectively weighed using an electric balance following a 24 h starvation period.
- Sample collection and chemical methods
All surviving abalone at the end of the feeding experiment were sampled after a 24 h starvation period and stored at –25ºC for proximate analysis. Proximate composition of the soft body of abalones was analyzed according to standard methods (AOAC, 1995 ). Crude protein content was determined using an Auto Kjeldahl System (Buchi, Flawil, Switzerland). Moisture content was measured by drying in an oven at 105ºC for 6 h. Crude lipid content was determined by ether-extraction in a Soxhlet extractor (SER 148; VELP Scientifica, Milano, Italy), and ash content was determined using a muffle furnace at 600ºC for 4 h. Amino acid compositions of the experimental diets were analyzed with acid hydrolysis with 6 N HCL (reflux for 23 h at 110ºC) using an automatic amino acids analyzer (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan).
- Statistical analysis
Differences among groups were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Significant differences ( P < 0.05) among the means were determined using a Duncan`s multiple range test (Duncan, 1955 ). The data are presented as the mean ± standard error (SE) of three replicate groups.
Results
The growth performances of juvenile abalone in each experimental diet group are presented in Table 3 . Survival, shell length, and shell width were not affected by dietary DDG levels ( P > 0.05). Weight gains of juvenile abalone fed DDG15 and DDG30 diets were not different compared to DDG0, but abalone fed DDG45 and DDG60 diets gained less weight than those fed DDG0 ( P < 0.05). Soft body weight/body weight of juvenile abalone fed the DDG60 diet was lower than that of abalone fed the DDG0 diet ( P < 0.05), but proximate composition of the soft body was not affected by dietary DDG levels ( P > 0.05; Table 4 ).
Growth performance of juvenile abalone fed the experimental diets for 8 weeks*
Diets
DDG0 DDG15 DDG30 DDG45 DDG60
Survival (%) 96 ± 1.7 ns 98 ± 1.7 97 ± 1.7 98 ± 1.7 97 ± 1.7
Weight gain (%) 76.2 ± 0.90 b 69.7 ± 2.55 b 61.2 ± 6.33 ab 53.1 ± 1.74 a 51.7 ± 7.49 a
Shell length (cm) 3.79 ± 0.23 ns 3.66 ± 0.37 3.50 ± 2.64 3.51 ± 1.43 3.54 ± 1.33
Shell width (cm) 2.54 ± 0.77 ns 2.45 ± 0.45 2.27 ± 3.10 2.35 ± 1.40 2.37 ± 1.37
Soft body weight/ body weight 0.64 ± 0.003 a 0.65 ± 0.006 ab 0.63 ± 0.009 ab 0.64 ± 0.003 ab 0.62 ± 0.003 b
DDG, distillers dried grain; ns, not significant ( P> 0.05). Values (mean ± SE of three replications) in the same row not sharing a common superscript (e.g., a, b, ab, ns) are significantly different ( P< 0.05). Weight gain (%) = (final fish weight – initial fish weight) × 100 / initial fish weight.
Proximate composition (%) of the soft body of juvenile abalone fed the experimental diets for 8 weeks*
Diets
DDG0 DDG15 DDG30 DDG45 DDG60
Moisture 75.4 ± 0.71 ns 74.7 ± 0.57 74.5 ± 1.30 74.0 ± 0.68 74.8 ± 0.80
Crude protein 16.8 ± 0.88 ns 17.1 ± 0.60 16.6 ± 1.54 16.0 ± 1.10 15.4 ± 0.30
Crude lipid 1.4 ± 0.44 ns 1.4 ± 0.12 1.4 ± 0.53 1.4 ± 0.25 1.1 ± 0.07
Ash 2.2 ± 0.09 ns 2.1 ± 0.02 2.3 ± 0.09 2.2 ± 0.20 2.3 ± 0.08
DDG, distillers dried grain; ns, not significant ( P> 0.05). Values are presented as mean ± SE of three replications.
Discussion
The results of this study indicate that dietary supplementation of DDG up to 30% did not affect the growth performance and body composition of juvenile abalone, which suggests that rice-based DDG can be an effective low-cost feed ingredient for this species, as has been demonstrated for juvenile olive flounder (Rahman et al., 2013a ), black seabream (Rahman et al., 2013b ), and juvenile sea cucumber (Choi et al., 2013 ). Similarly, when supplemented with fish meal, corn-based DDG can be included in juvenile Nile tilapia feed without incurring negative effects on growth performance (Wu et al., 1996 ;Schaeffer et al., 2009 ;Coyle et al., 2004 ). Previous studies (Tidwell et al., 1990 ;Robinson and Li, 2008 ;Li et al., 2010 ) have also demonstrated that corn-based DDG can be integrated into channel catfish diets without negative effects on growth performance, and is suitable to replace soybean meal and corn meal in hybrid catfish diets (Zhou et al., 2010 ). The effectiveness of a diet containing DDG on the growth of freshwater fishes is related to several factors such as improved digestibility (Randall and Drew, 2010 ) and decreased exposure to anti-nutritional factors (Borgeson et al., 2006 ). In our study, weight gain of juvenile abalone fed diets containing up to 30% DDG did not differ from the control group. Although growth performance tended to decrease in groups fed high-DDG diets, dietary treatments had no effect on the soft body proximate composition of abalone at the end of the experiment. Poor palatability and unknown post-fermentation anti-nutritional factors may have been responsible for low growth in the high-DDG diet groups.
The experimental feed used in this study appears to contain sufficient protein, carbohydrate, and essential amino acid contents to meet abalone nutritional requirements. Uki et al. (Borgeson et al., 1985 ) identified diets containing many protein sources such as soybean meal that promoted good growth in abalone. Mai et al. (Borgeson et al., 1995 ) reported that high levels of dietary carbohydrates can be utilized easily by abalone to satisfy their energy requirements, and Lee et al. (Borgeson et al., 1998 ) suggested that abalone can utilize carbohydrates more efficiently than lipids as an energy source. Considering these results, dietary supplementation using DDG may provide not only sufficient protein, but also energy for body growth and maintenance of juvenile abalone.
We found that replacing wheat flour and soybean meal with DDG may be a useful solution for producing more economical abalone feed. The use of rice-based DDG may provide the feed producer with greater flexibility in formulating a nutritious diet at the lowest possible cost by reducing the dependence on wheat flour and soybean meal. The results of this experiment suggest that DDG is a good substitute for plant materials such as wheat flour and soybean meal, and can be used up to 30% in feed to maintain the growth performance of juvenile abalone.
Acknowledgements
This research was supported by the Fishery Commercialization Technology Development Program (110077-3) funded by Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries in Korea.
References
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 1995 Official Methods of Analysis 16th ed Association of Official Analytical Chemists Arlington, VA, US
Bautista-Teruel MN , Fermin AC , Koshio SS 2003 Diet development and evaluation for juvenile abalone,Haliotis asinina: animal and plant protein sources Aquaculture 219 645 - 653
Borgeson TL , Racz VJ , Wilkie DC , White LJ , Drew MD 2006 Effect of replacing fishmeal and oil with simple or complex mixtures of vegetable ingredients in diets fed to Nile tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus) Aquac Nutr 12 141 - 149
Britz PJ , Hecht T , Knauer J , Dixon MG 1994 The development of an artificial feed for abalone farming S Afr J Sci 90 7 - 8
Chevanan N , Rosentrater KA , Muthukumarappan K 2010 Effects of processing conditions on single screw extrusion of feed ingredients containing DDGS Food Bioprocess Technol 3 111 - 120
Cho SH 2010 Effect of fishmeal substitution with various animal and/or plant protein sources in the diet of the abaloneHaliotis discushannaiIno Aquac Res 41 e587 - e593
Choi J , Rahman MM , Lee SM 2013 Distillers dried grain from makgeolli by-product is useful as a dietary ingredient for growth of juvenile sea cucumberApostichopus japonicus Fish Aquat Sci 16 279 - 283
Coyle SD , Mengel GJ , Tidwell JH , Webster CD 2004 Evaluation of growth, feed utilization, and economics of hybrid tilapia,oreochromis niloticusxOreochromis aureus, fed diets containing different protein sources in combination with distillers dried grains with solubles Aquac Res 35 365 - 370
Duncan DB 1955 Multiple-range and multiple F tests Biometrics 11 1 - 42
Fleming AE , Van Barneveld RJ , Hone PW 1996 The development of artificial diets for abalone: A review and future directions Aquaculture 140 5 - 53
Green AJ , Jones CLW , Britz PJ 2011 The protein and energy requirements of farmed South African abaloneHaliotis midaeL. cultured at optimal and elevated water temperatures Aquac Res 42 1653 - 1663
Hertrampf JW , Piedad-Pascual F 2000 Handbook on ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht, NL
Jacob ME , Fox JT , Drouillard JS , Renter DG , Nagaraja TG 2008 Effects of dried distillers’ grain on fecal prevalence and growth ofEscherichia coliO157 in batch culture fermentations from cattle Appl Environ Microbiol 74 38 - 43
Lee SM 2004 Utilization of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate by abaloneHaliotis discus hannai: a review J Shellfish Res 23 1027 - 1030
Lee SM , Yun SJ , Min KS , Yoo SK 1998 Evaluation of dietary carbohydrate sources for juvenile abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) J Aquac 11 133 - 140
Lee SM , Kim KD , Kim TJ 2004 Utilization of fermented skipjack tuna viscera as a dietary protein source replacing fish meal or soybean meal for juvenile abaloneHaliotis discus hannai J Shellfish Res 23 1059 - 1063
Li MH , Robinson EH , Oberle DF , Lucas PM 2010 Effects of various corn distillers by-products on growth, feed efficiency, and body composition of channel catfish,Ictalurus punctatus Aquac Nutr 16 188 - 193
Mai K , Mercer JP , Donlon J 1995 Comparative studies on the nutrition of two species of abalone,Haliotis tuberculataL. andHaliotisdiscus hannaiIno. IV. Optimum dietary protein level for growth Aquaculture 136 165 - 180
Rahman MM , Choi J , Lee SM 2013a Influences of dietary distillers dried grain level on growth performance, body composition and biochemical parameters of juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Aquac Res Adavanced online publication
Rahman MM , Choi J , Lee SM 2013b Use of distillers dried grain as partial replacement of wheat flour and corn gluten meal in the diet of juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli) Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 13 699 - 706
Randall KM , Drew MD 2010 Fractionation of wheat distiller’s dried grains and solubles using sieving increases digestible nutrient content in rainbow trout Anim Feed Sci Technol 159 138 - 142
Robinson EH , Li MH 2008 Replacement of soybean meal in channel catfish,Ictalurus punctatus, diets with cottonseed meal and distiller’s dried grains with solubles J World Aquac Soc 39 521 - 527
Schaeffer TW , Brown ML , Rosentrater KA 2009 Performance characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing graded levels of fuel-based distillers dried grains with solubles J Aquac Feed Sci Nutr 1 78 - 83
Seo JY , Shin IS , Lee SM 2011 Effect of dietary inclusion of various plant ingredients as an alternative forSargassum thunbergiion growth and body composition of juvenile sea cucumberapostichopus japonicus Aquac Nutr 17 549 - 556
Tidwell JH , Webster CD , Yancey DH 1990 Evaluation of distillers grains with solubles in prepared channel catfish diets Trans Ky Acad Sci 51 135 - 138
Uki N , Kemuyama A , Watanabe T 1985 Nutritional evaluation of several protein sources in diets for abaloneHaliotis discus hannai Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 51 1835 - 1839
Wu YV , Rosati RR , Brown PB 1996 Effect of diets containing various levels of protein and ethanol coproducts from corn on growth of tilapia fry J Agric Food Chem 44 1491 - 1493
Zhou P , Zhang W , Davis DA , Lim C 2010 Growth response and feed utilization of juvenile hybrid catfish fed diets containing distiller's dried grains with solubles to replace a combination of soybean meal and corn meal N Am J Aquac 72 298 - 303