Advanced
Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Antarctic Krill <italic>Eupausia superba</italic>
Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Antarctic Krill Eupausia superba
Fisheries and aquatic sciences. 2011. Dec, 14(4): 289-293
Copyright ©2011, The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : October 10, 2011
  • Accepted : November 11, 2011
  • Published : December 31, 2011
Download
PDF
e-PUB
PubReader
PPT
Export by style
Share
Article
Author
Metrics
Cited by
TagCloud
About the Authors
Na Young Yoon
Food and Safety Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 617-705, Korea
dbssud@nfrdi.go.kr
Chengliang Xie
Department of Food Science and Technology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea
Kil-Bo Shim
Food and Safety Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 617-705, Korea
Yeon-Kye Kim
Food and Safety Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 617-705, Korea
Doo-Seog Lee
Food and Safety Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 617-705, Korea
Ho-Dong Yoon
Food and Safety Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 617-705, Korea
Abstract
The antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of methanol, pretanol, and acetone extracts of Eupausia superba were in-vestigated and their bioactivities compared. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS + ) radical-scavenging activities and reducing power assays were used to determine antioxidant activities, and Ellman’s colorimetric methods were applied to evaluate cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Although all extracts were positive, Acetone extract of E. superba showed the highest activities. However, these showed moderate or no inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase. Moreover, the total carotenoid contents of the organic solvent extracts followed the same order as their antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. These results suggest that E. superba is a potential source of natural antioxidants and cholinesterase inhibitors.
Keywords
Introduction
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common type of senior dementia, is characterized by the progressive degeneration of neurological function (Nie et al., 2009). The pathogenesis of AD is associated with a reduction in cholinergic neurotrans-mitter levels in the basal forebrain, resulting in memory loss and reduced cognitive ability (Felder et al., 2000). AD can be prevented by cholinergic agents that recover the cholin-ergic functions through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyryl-cholinesterase (BChE), which hydrolyze neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine (ACh) and butyrylcholine (BCh) (Schneider, 2001).
Oxidative stress caused by free radicals and reactive oxy-gen species (ROS) contributes to oxidation of biomolecules and cellular damage (Zhu et al., 2004). Recently, oxidative stress was related to the pathological changes in AD (Prat-icó and Delanty, 2000). Interest in the discovery of natural antioxidants from marine sources is growing because such compounds prevent oxidative damage and neurodegenerative diseases (Fusco et al., 2007).
The Antarctic krill, Eupausia superba Dana, is a crustacean with a large biomass and it is a primary species in the South-ern Ocean. It is a good source of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoate (C20:5) and docosa-hexaenoate (C22:6), and it has potential as a food source (Bot-tino, 1975; Phleger et al., 2002). Recently, interest in krill has increased due to developments in processing technology, in-cluding those in aquaculture feed and krill-based products for human consumption (Nicol et al., 2000; Smetacek and Nicol, 2005).
In this study, the antioxidant and cholinesterase (ChEs) in-hibitory activities of E. superba solvent extracts were inves-tigated in vitro by determining 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS + ) radical scavenging activities, reducing power, and inhibition of AChE and BChE. In addition, the associa-tion of the total carotenoid content of extracts with the above-mentioned activities was evaluated.
Materials and Methods
- Materials
E. superba (average total length of 3-4 cm) was obtained from Dong Won Co. (Busan, Korea) in May 2011. Astaxan-thin, butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), ʟ-ascorbic acid, DPPH, ABTS + , trolox, potassium persulfate, potassium ferricyanide, trichloroacetic acid, ferric chloride, AChE, BChE, acetylthio-choline, butylthiocholine, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitribenzoic acid) [DTNB], and eserine were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA) and methanol (MeOH), acetone, and pretanol (Pretanol-A, 95% alcohol) were ob-tained from Duksan Chemical Co. (Seoul, Korea). All other reagents were of the highest grade available.
- Preparation of sample
Whole E. superba was freeze-dried and stored at -20℃ until use. Lyophilized E. superba (10 g) was extracted three times with 50 mL MeOH, pretanol, or acetone.
- DPPH radical-scavenging activity
The DPPH radical-scavenging activity was measured by modifying the method of Blois (1958). An aliquot (160 μL) of sample in MeOH was added to 40 μL of 0.15 mM DPPH solu-tion. After mixing and leaving for 30 min at room temperature, the absorbance at 520 nm was measured using a spectropho-tometer (Powerwave XS; BioTex, Inc., Houston, TX, USA). The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of each sample was ex-pressed as an IC 50 value, indicating the concentration required for scavenging 50% of the absorbance of the DPPH radical. ʟ-Ascorbic acid was used as a positive control.
- ABTS+radical-scavenging activity
ABTS + radical-scavenging activity was determined by modifying the method of Arnao et al. (2001). The stock solu-tions were 7.4 mM ABTS + and 2.6 mM potassium persulfate. The working solution was prepared by mixing the two stock solutions in equal quantities. The mixture was allowed to react for 12 h at room temperature in the dark, followed by dilution by mixing 1 mL ABTS + solution with 50 mL MeOH to obtain an absorbance at 734 nm of 1.10 ± 0.02, as determined using a spectrophotometer (BioMate 5; Thermo Electron, Waltham, MA, USA). Fresh ABTS + solution was prepared for each as-say. Sample (150 μL) was mixed with 2.85 mL ABTS + solution and the mixture was left in the dark for 2 h. The absorbance at 734 nm was then measured using a spectrophotometer. A standard curve of trolox ranging from 9.4 to 37.5 μg/mL was prepared and the results were expressed as trolox equivalents per gram of extract.
- Reducing power assay
Reducing power was evaluated by the method of Oyaizu (1986). Various sample concentrations (2.5 mL) were mixed with 2.5 mL of 200 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.6) and 2.5 mL of 1% potassium ferricyanide. After incubation at 50℃ for 20 min, 2.5 mL of 10% trichloroacetic acid (w/v) was added. The mixture was then centrifuged at 2,000 g for 10 min, and 5 mL of the upper layer was mixed with deionized water and 1 mL of 0.1% ferric chloride. The absorbance at 700 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer (BioMate 5). ʟ-Ascorbic acid was used as a positive control.
- ChEs inhibitory activity assay
ChEs inhibition was measured using the spectrophotomet-ric method of Ellman et al. (1961). The reaction mixture con-tained 140 μL of 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), 20 μL of sample, and 20 μL of either AChE (0.36 U/mL) or BChE (0.36 U/mL). The solution was placed in a 96-well mi-croplate and mixed. After incubation at room temperature for 15 min, 10 μL of the DTNB solution and 10 μL of ACh or BCh, respectively, were added. The absorbance of all reac-tions was measured using a spectrophotometer (Powerwave XS). Eserine was used as a positive control.
- Total carotenoid contents
A spectrophotometric method was used to evaluate the total carotenoid contents following the modified method of Tolasa et al. (2005). Astaxanthin standard (3.0 mg) and BHT (100 mg) were dissolved in 10 mL of dichloromethane. Subse-quently, 1 mL of this stock solution was diluted to 10 mL with n -hexane, and the absorbance was measured in a UV-visible spectrophotometer (BioMate 5) at a wavelength between 350 and 600 nm. The maximum absorbance was observed at 472 nm and the concentration of astaxanthin in the solution was measured and corrected according to the following formula:
  • Castaxanthin(μg/mL) = A × 10,000/E,
where C astaxanthin is the total carotenoid content, A is the absor-bance at 472 nm, E = 2100 is the extinction coefficient, and 10,000 is the scale factor.
To prepare the standard curve, 0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 mL of stock solution were placed in separate 10 mL flasks using a solvent dispensing pipette and made up to the appropriate volume with n -hexane. The absorbance at 472 nm was measured using n -hexane as the blank. The standard curve was prepared in triplicate under yellow light and low temperature.
Results and Discussion
- Antioxidant activity
Oxidative stress is associated with age-related neurodegen-erative diseases (Mount and Downton, 2006). ROS oxidize and damage nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. These reac-tions contribute to brain aging and age-associated neurodegen-erative diseases such as AD, likely because of the imbalance between antioxidant defenses and intracellular generation of ROS. Antioxidants play a crucial role in reducing unsaturated fatty acid oxidation in the brain and in preventing the neuronal death associated with the pathology of neurodegenerative dis-orders (Ramassamy, 2006; Kamatou et al., 2008).
DPPH and ABTS + radical-scavenging activities and reduc-ing power were used to determine in vitro antioxidant activi-ties of E. superba organic solvent extracts ( Table. 1 and 2 ). As shown in Table 1 , the E. superba extracts exhibited potent DPPH and ABTS + radical-scavenging activities. DPPH radi-cal-scavenging activities were acetone ex. (IC 50 = 1.16 ± 0.02 mg/mL) > MeOH ex. (IC 50 = 1.24 ± 0.02 mg/mL) > pretanol ex. (IC 50 = 1.45 ± 0.04 mg/mL). ABTS + radical-scavenging activities of the extracts were acetone ex. (158.9 ± 9.628 mg trolox eq/g extract) > MeOH ex. (153.8 ± 10.92 mg trolox eq/g
DPPH and ABTS+radical-scavenging activities of the extracts of Eupausia superbaThe values of DPPH and ABTS+radical-scavenging activities were ex-pressed as the means ± SD of three experiments. ʟ-Ascorbic acid was used as a positive control of DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, respec-tively.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
DPPH and ABTS+ radical-scavenging activities of the extracts of Eupausia superba The values of DPPH and ABTS+ radical-scavenging activities were ex-pressed as the means ± SD of three experiments. ʟ-Ascorbic acid was used as a positive control of DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, respec-tively.
The reducing power of the extracts of Eupausia superbaThe absorbance of reducing power was expressed as the means ± SD of three experiments. ʟ-Ascorbic acid was used as a positive control of reducing power assay.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
The reducing power of the extracts of Eupausia superba The absorbance of reducing power was expressed as the means ± SD of three experiments. ʟ-Ascorbic acid was used as a positive control of reducing power assay.
extract) > pretanol ex. (113.6 ± 11.94 mg trolox eq/g extract). As summarized in Table 2 , the reducing power of E. superba extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner. The order of the absorbance for the extracts at a concentration of 2.3 mg/mL was acetone ex. (0.35 ± 0.05) > MeOH ex. (0.18 ± 0.02) > pretanol ex. (0.17 ± 0.03). The acetone extract showed the most potent radical-scavenging activities and reducing power. However, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power of E. superba extracts were lower than those of the ʟ-ascorbic acid used as a positive control.
- ChEs inhibitory activities
AChE, a substrate-specific enzyme, exists in nerve syn-apses and catalyzes the cleavage of ACh in the synaptic cleft, which plays an important role in the initial stage of AD. BChE is a less-specific enzyme located in plasma and tissues, and lingers as the major ChE in the late-stage AD brain (Ballard et al., 2005; Silman and Sussman, 2005). Thus, inhibition of ChEs shows promise as an anti-AD therapy, and it has been shown to reverse the reduced cognition and behavioral func-tions associated with AD in clinical studies (Giacobini, 2004).
The ChEs inhibitory activity of E. superba extracts was evaluated by AChE and BChE inhibition assays ( Table 3 ). The MeOH and pretanol extracts of E. superba exhibited selective AChE inhibitory activities (IC 50 = 0.13 ± 0.00 mg/mL and 0.13 ± 0.00 mg/mL, respectively), whereas the acetone extract in-hibited both enzymes, with IC 50 values of 0.11 ± 0.00 mg/mL
Cholinesterase inhibitory activity of the extracts of Eupausia superbaThe values were expressed as the mean ± SD of three experiments. Eser-ine was used as a positive control.AChE, acetylcholinesterase; BChE, butyrylcholinesterase.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Cholinesterase inhibitory activity of the extracts of Eupausia superba The values were expressed as the mean ± SD of three experiments. Eser-ine was used as a positive control. AChE, acetylcholinesterase; BChE, butyrylcholinesterase.
Total carotenoid contents of the extracts of Eupausia superba
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Total carotenoid contents of the extracts of Eupausia superba
and 0.32 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively, for AChE and BChE.
This selective AChE inhibitory activity may be due to the characteristics of enzyme-substrate binding (Silman and Suss-man, 2005). As with antioxidant activities, the ChEs inhibitory activity of E. superba extracts was lower than that of eserine, which was used as a positive control.
- Total carotenoid contents
The carotenoids, a class of hydrocarbons with cyc-lic or acyclic end groups, exist as a pigment in crustaceans and exert biological effects such as antioxidant activity and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer (Britton, 1995; Kohlmei-er and Hastings, 1995; Stahl et al., 1998; Fraser and Bramley, 2004). The total carotenoid content of the E. superba extracts is shown in Table 4 . The highest total carotenoid content was identified in the acetone ex. (1.96 ± 0.03 mg/g), followed by the MeOH ex. (1.21 ± 0.05 mg/g) and pretanol ex. (0.64 ± 0.02 mg/g).
Thus, the order of total carotenoid content was similar to those of the antioxidant and ChEs inhibitory activities. Thus, these activities may be attributable to carotenoids. More de-tailed investigations are necessary to isolate and identify the active ingredients from extracts and to clarify their mecha-nism of action.
Acknowledgements
This research was supported by a grant from the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute (RP-2011-FS-021).
References
Arnao MB , Cano A , Acosta M 2001 The hydrophilic and lipophilic contribution to total antioxidant activity. Food Chem 73 239 - 244
Ballard CG , Greig NH , Guillozet-Bongaarts AL , Enz A , Darvesh S 2005 Cholinesterases: roles in the brain during health and disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 2 307 - 318
Blois MS 1958 Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181 1199 - 1200
Bottino NR 1975 Lipid composition of two species of Antarctic krill: Euphausia superba and E. crystallorophias. Comp Biochem Physiol B 50 479 - 484
Britton G 1995 Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function. FASEB J 9 1551 - 1558
Ellman GL , Courtney KD , Andres V Jr , Featherstone RM 1961 A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinestserase activity. Biochem Pharmacol 7 88 - 95
Felder CC , Bymaster FP , Ward J , DeLapp N 2000 Therapeutic op-portunities for muscarinic receptors in the central nervous system. J Med Chem 43 4333 - 4353
Fraser PD , Bramley PM 2004 The biosynthesis and nutritional uses of carotenoids. Prog Lipid Res 43 228 - 265
Fusco D , Colloca G , Lo Monaco MR , Cesari M 2007 Effects of antioxidant supplementation on the aging process. Clin Interv Ag-ing 2 377 - 387
Giacobini E 2004 Drugs that target cholinesterase. In: Cognitive Enhancing Drugs. Buccafusco JJ ed. Birkhauser-Verlag Basel 11 - 36
Kamatou GP , Makunga NP , Ramogola WP , Viljoen AM 2008 South Africa Salvia species: a review of biological activities and phytochemistry. J Ethnopharmacol 119 664 - 672
Kohlmeier L , Hastings SB 1995 Epidemiologic evidence of a role of carotenoids in cardiovascular disease prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 62 (6 Suppl) 1370S - 1376S
Mount C , Downton C 2006 Alzheimer disease: progress or profit? Nat Med 12 780 - 784
Nicol S , Forster I , Spence J 2000. Products derived from krill. In: Krill Biology Ecology and Fisheries. Everson I ed. Blackwell Sci-ence Oxford GB 262 - 283
Nie K , Yu JC , Fu Y , Cheng HY , Chen FY , Qu Y , Han JX 2009 Age-related decrease in constructive activation of Akt/PKB in SAMP10 hippocampus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 378 103 - 107
Oyaizu M 1986 Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxida-tive activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glu-cosamine. Jpn J Nutr 44 307 - 315
Phleger CF , Nelson MM , Mooney BD , Nichols PD 2002 Interannu-al and between species comparison of the lipids fatty acids and ste-rols of Antarctic krill from the US AMLR Elephant Island survey area. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 131 733 - 747
Praticó D , Delanty N 2000 Oxidative injury in diseases of the cen-ral nervous system: focus on Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Med 109 577 - 585
Ramassamy C 2006 Emerging role of polyphenolic compounds in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: a review of their intracel-ular targets. Eur J Pharmacol 545 51 - 64
Schneider LS 2001 Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease with cholinester-se inhibitors. Clin Geriatr Med 17 337 - 358
Silman I , Sussman JL 2005 Acetylcholinesterase: 'classical' and 'non-classical' functions and pharmacology. Curr Opin Pharmacol 5 293 - 302
Smetacek V , Nicol S 2005 Polar ecosystems in a changing world. Nature 437 362 - 368
Stahl W , Junghans A , de Boer B , Driomina E , Briviba K , Sies H 1998 Carotenoid mixtures protect multilamellar liposomes against oxidative damage: synergistic effects of lycopene and lutein. FEBS Lett 427 305 - 308
Tolasa S , Cakli S , Ostermeyer U 2005 Determination of astaxan-thin and canthaxanthin in salmonid. Eur Food Res Technol 221 787 - 791
Zhu X , Raina AK , Lee HG , Casadesus G , Smith MA , Perry G 2004 Oxidative stress signaling in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Res 1000 32 - 39