This paper presents a tunable bandpass filter based on the varactorloaded composite right and lefthanded transmission line (CRLHTL). The proposed filter is composed of one CRLHTL unit cell, which corresponds to the thirdorder bandpass filter. The tunable bandpass filter is designed using only lumpedelements. The use of lumped elements saves space and lowers the fabrication cost. The size of the proposed tunable bandpass filter is 17 mm×5 mm, neglecting the feed lines and DC lines. All of the varactors are controlled by one DC bias. The center frequency of the bandpass filter can be controlled by varying the value of the varactors. The tunable range of the center frequency is from 412.5 to 670 MHz. The insertion loss is less than 3 dB, the return loss is more than 10 dB in the passband.
Ⅰ. INTRODUCTION
There has been intense research on metamaterial (MTM)based transmission lines. The structure and theory of onedimensional (1D) composite right and lefthanded transmission lines (CRLHTLs) have been studied and analyzed a great deal
[1

4]
. The conventional transmission lines, which support transverse electromagnetic waves and follow the righthand rule, have been characterized by the distributed series inductance
L
(given in units of H/m) and shunt capacitance
C
(given in units of F/m). The 1D MTM lines can be constructed by periodically loading series capacitors and shunt inductors on TLs
[1]
. These MTM lines have been employed to build compact wideband phase shifters, filters, and other electromagnetic devices
[2]
. The tunable bandpass filter (BPF) is an essential element to extract signals in modern multimode and multiband communication systems. Tunable filters are a great of interest for the design of multifunctional wireless, cognitive radio, and satellite communication systems. Most tunable BPFs are composed of resonator circuits with a voltagevariable capacitor as a tuning element
[5

11]
. Two kinds of voltagevariable capacitors are in common use. One type is a conventional varactor
[5
,
6]
, and the other is a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) bridge
[7
,
8]
. The tunable BPFs using the MEMS technique have an advantage in terms of loss. However, a very high DC bias voltage must be applied to control the bridge height, and MEMSbased BPFs are slow. Often, it is expensive to fabricate the MEMS. Therefore, MEMSbased BPFs are not ideal for commercial wireless applications. In contrast, tunable BPFs with varactors show faster tuning speeds and lower voltage operation. However, because of the low
Q
varactors, insertion loss inside the passband can be larger in tunable BPFs with the varactor. In controlling the center frequency of the conventional tunable BPFs, the series and parallel resonant frequencies must be controlled simultaneously. Thus, the BPFs should have two DC biases. In
[9]
, the center frequency of the BPF can be tuned from about 0.45 to 0.65 GHz. Because the center frequency is controlled by varying the upper cutoff frequency, the tuning range of the center frequency is slightly narrow. However, the fractional bandwidth, which has a wide range, is about 36%. The size of the fabricated circuit is about 30 mm×5mm.
In this paper, despite the lossy substrate (FR4), a BPF with a compact size and lowinsertion loss is proposed. Although the proposed BPF has a narrow fractional bandwidth, a wide tunable range of the center frequency can be obtained by varying the center frequency independently. Furthermore, the proposed tunable BPF has only one DC bias to control the center frequency. The presented tunable filter is for applications in the ISM band (400 MHz) and LTE band (800 MHz), but may easily be modified for other applications using different bands.
Ⅱ. THEORY
Fig. 1
shows that the conventional CRLHTL has a periodic structure with multiple cells.
Fig. 2
shows one cell of the conventional CRLHTL in the form of a Tsymmetric equivalent circuit.
C_{L}
and
L_{L}
have a lefthanded property and
C_{R}
and
L_{R}
have a righthanded property. In the prototype design, the source and the load resistances are unity (except for equalripple filters with an even
N
, which have nonunity load resistance).
The source resistance of
R_{S}
can be obtained by multiplying the impedances of the prototype design by
R
_{0}
. If we let primed variables denote the impedance scaled quantities, the new filter element values are given by
where
L, C
, and
R_{L}
are the values given in the original prototype.
Circuit model of the periodic composite right and lefthandedtransmission line.
Tequivalent circuit of one cell composite right andlefthanded transmission line (three stages).
If
ω
_{1}
and
ω
_{2}
denote the lower and upper cutoff frequencies of the passband, a bandpass response can be obtained by using the following frequency substitution:
where Δ is the fractional bandwidth of the passband.
The new filter elements are determined using (2) in the expressions for the series reactance and shunt susceptance. Thus,
which shows that a series inductor given in the lowpass prototype,
L_{k}
, is transformed to the series LC circuit with element values by
In the same manner, a shunt capacitor given in the lowpass prototype,
C_{k}
, is transformed to the shunt LC circuit with element values by
When the center frequency is 0.8 GHz, the values of the inductors and capacitors (
C_{L}
=0.202 pF,
L_{L}
=1.1 nH,
C_{R}
= 36 pF, and
L_{R}
=196 nH) through impedance scaling and frequency transformation are given by
where
ω
_{0}
is the center frequency,
L_{k}
and
C_{k}
are the element values for the lowpass prototype circuit, and Z
_{0}
is the source impedance.
Equivalent circuit using the impedance inverters of onecomposite right and lefthanded transmission line cell.
Fig. 3
shows an equivalent circuit using inverters of
Fig. 2
. In it, lumped inductors can be used instead of impedance inverters. The use of lumped elements saves space and lowers the fabrication cost. By using inverters, an identical series tuned resonator can be substituted for the parallel resonant circuit section of the BPF. Therefore, all of the varactors are controlled by the same voltage. The value of the
K
inverter in
Fig. 3
is given by
where,
J
is an admittance inverter (
K
=51.6),
L
is the inductor in the lumpedelement
K
inverter (
L
=10.26 nH), and
ω
_{0}
is the angular design frequency (
f
_{0}
=0.8 GHz).
Ⅲ. DESIGN OF THE CRLH TYPE TUNABLE BPF
Fig. 4
(a) shows the circuit of the proposed CRLHTL type tunable BPF using the lumpedinverters and DC biases.
Fig. 4
(b) shows the geometry of the proposed CRLHTL type tunable BPF. It is constructed using microstrip lines on an FR4 substrate (with a relative permittivity of 4.6 and a height of 1 mm). The circuit was built with lumpedelements and varactors, resulting in a compact size. The two inverters, a series capacitor, and a series inductor are substituted for the parallel resonant circuit at the Tequivalent circuit of one CRLHTL cell. After the substitution, all of the series capacitors are replaced with the varactors, and the inverters are replaced with lumped elements. Therefore, the center frequency of the BPF is controlled by varactors of the same value.
The proposed tunable bandpass filter. (a) Circuit and (b)geometry.
The simulation software used in this paper is CST STUDIO SUITE (Computer Simulation Technology AG, Darmstadt, Germany). The design frequency is 0.8 GHz. The diameter of the via hole is 0.5 mm. The size of the BPF is approximately 15 mm×5 mm, neglecting the feed and DC lines. The impedances of the feed and DC lines are 50 Ω and 130.8 Ω, respectively. The width of the feed line is 1.87 mm. The other dimensions are depicted in
Fig. 4
(b). To provide a DC block to the shunt inductors and the feed lines, four chip capacitors (0.1 μF) were put into the structure, as shown in
Fig. 4
.
Fig. 5
shows the simulated insertion loss variation graph versus the number of stages at 0.8 GHz. The slope of the stopband attenuation can be made steeper by increasing the number of cells. However, the insertion loss inside the passband can be larger.
Fig. 6
shows the insertion loss and return loss variation versus the value of the resistance at 0.8 GHz. To prevent the radio frequency (RF) signal from flowing into the DC lines, the resistor should be much larger than 50 Ω. Therefore, 5 kΩ chip resistors were used to give the proper DC voltage to the chip varactors. A large resistance value reduces the insertion loss at the expense of the total circuit size, especially when it is made as a monolithic microwave integrated circuit. The used varactor is the SMV1265011LF hyperabrupt junction varactor diode from Skyworks Solution Inc. to control the center frequencyC(V
_{bias}
=0V) =22.47 pF, C(V
_{bias}
=5 V) =3.38 pF, C(V
_{bias}
=7 V) =1.86 pF, C(V
_{bias}
=14 V) =1.05 pF, C(V
_{bias}
=26 V) =0.73 pF, and C(V
_{bias}
=30 V) =0.71 pF. The series resistance in the varactor is 2.4 Ω.
The electromagneticsimulated insertion loss versus the resistancevalue at 0.8 GHz.
The electromagneticsimulated insertion loss and return lossversus the resistance value at 0.8 GHz. (a) S_{21} and (b)S_{11}.
Fig. 7
shows the comparison between the EMsimulated and measured
S
parameters versus the values of the chip varactor.
Fig. 7
(a) shows the magnitude of
S
_{21}
, and
Fig. 7
(b) shows the magnitude of
S
_{11}
. In the measured results, the insertion loss is slightly larger than in the EMsimulated result. This may be because the varactors and inductors have large series resistance. As shown in
Fig. 7
, the center frequency of the BPF can be tuned from about 410 to 670 MHz, which can be increased by using the appropriate varactor model with small series resistance. When the value of the varactors is 0.74 pF,r frequency (
f
_{0}
), 3dB bandwidth (BW), and fractional bandwidth (FBW) are 670 MHz, 42.5 MHz, and 6.3%, respectively. When the value of the varactors is 1.09 pF,r frequency (
f
_{0}
), 3dB BW, and FBW are 600 MHz, 35 MHz, and 5.8%, respectively. When the value of the varactors is 1.83 pF,r frequency (
f
_{0}
), 3dB BW, and FBW are 500 MHz, 22.5 MHz, and 4.5%, respectively. When the value of the varactors is 2.8 pF, the center frequency (
f
_{0}
), 3dB BW, and FBW are 412.5 MHz, 15 MHz, and 3.6%, respectively. Based on the FBW of about 4.5%–6%, the center frequency is tuned from about 500 to 670 MHz. Regardless of maintaining the FBW, the center frequency can be tuned with a range of 260 MHz when the value of the varactors is 2.8 pF. The insertion loss and the return loss in all cases are less than 3 dB and more than 10 dB in the passband, respectively.
Sparameters of the proposed bandpass filter versus the chipvaractor values. (a) S_{21} and (b) S_{11}. EM=electromagneticsimulated, Meas =measured.
Summary of center frequency (f0) and bandwidth versus the varactor values (C)BW=bandwidth, FBW=fractional bandwidth.
Summary of center frequency (f_{0}) and bandwidth versus the varactor values (C) BW=bandwidth, FBW=fractional bandwidth.
Comparison between the proposed filter and conventional ones
Comparison between the proposed filter and conventional ones
Table 1
shows the summary of the center frequency, 3dB BW, and FBW versus the chip varactor values.
Table 2
shows the comparison between the proposed filter and the conventional ones in terms of size, insertion loss, and a tunable range of the center frequency.
Ⅳ. CONCLUSION
A tunable BPF based on the varactorloaded MTM line is proposed, and the detailed theory concerning its operation is discussed. By using inverters, seriestuned resonators are substituted for the parallel resonant circuit section of the BPF. All of the varactors that are substituted for the capacitors are controlled by the same voltage of one DC bias. Therefore, the center frequency of the BPF is controlled by varactors of the same value. In addition, lumped elements replaced the inverters to save space and to lower the fabrication cost. Considering that the FBW is maintained between 4.5%–6%, the tunable range of the center frequency is around 170 MHz. Otherwise, the tunable range of the center frequency is around 260 MHz. The results of the EMsimulation and the measurements show good agreement. The circuit size was compact (17 mm×5 mm), since only lumped elements were used to design the device. The insertion loss of the proposed BPF is less than 3 dB, despite the high loss of the FR4 substrate, and the return loss is more than 10 dB in the passband.
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the National Research Foundationof Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(No. 2013015202).
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