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An Innovative Solution for the Power Quality Problems in Induction Motor by Using Silica and Alumina Nano Fillers Mixed Enamel for the Coatings of the Windings
An Innovative Solution for the Power Quality Problems in Induction Motor by Using Silica and Alumina Nano Fillers Mixed Enamel for the Coatings of the Windings
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology. 2015. Jul, 10(4): 1621-1625
Copyright © 2015, The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : September 28, 2014
  • Accepted : January 29, 2015
  • Published : July 01, 2015
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About the Authors
K. Mohanadasse
Corresponding Author: Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai, India. (electrical-researchkmd@gmail.com)
C. Sharmeela
Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, A.C. Tech., Anna University, Chennai, India. (sharmeela20@yahoo.com)
D. Edison Selvaraj
Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai, India. (edisonsivakasi@gmail.com)

Abstract
Power quality has always been a concern of power engineers. Certainly an argument can be successfully made that most parts of power engineering have the ultimate objective to improve power quality. AC motors were widely used in industrial and domestic applications. Generally, AC motors were of two types: Induction and Synchronous motors. In motor many parameters like different load cycling, switching, working in hot weather and unbalances creates harmonics which creates major reasons for temperature rise of the motors. Due to high peak value of voltage, harmonics can weaken insulation in cables, windings and capacitors and different electronic components. Higher value of harmonics increase the motor current and decrease the power factor which will reduce the life time of the motor and increase the overall rating of all electrical equipments. Harmonics reduction of all the motors in India will save more power. Coating of windings of the motor with nano fillers will reduce the amount of harmonics in the motor. Based on the previous project works, actions were taken to use the enamel filled with various nano fillers for the coating of the windings of the different AC motors. Ball mill method was used to convert the micro particles of Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , TiO 2 , ZrO 2 and ZnO into nano particles. SEM, TEM and XRD were used to augment the particle size of the powder. The synthesized nano powders were mixed with the enamel by using ultrasonic vibrator. Then the enamel mixed with the nano fillers was coated to the windings of the several AC motors. Harmonics were measured in terms of various indices like THD, VHD, CHD and DIN by using Harmonic analyzer. There are many other measures and indices to describe power quality, but none is applicable in all cases and in many instances, these indices may hide more than they show. Sometimes power quality indices were used as a basis of comparison and standardization. The efficiency of the motors was increased by 5 – 10 %. The thermal withstanding capacity of the motor was increased by 5º to 15º C. The harmonics of the motors were reduced by 10 – 50%.
Keywords
1. Introduction
In recent years, a great deal of attention has been given to the applications of nano fillers in the field of electrical insulating materials. It has been examined that the use of nano fillers to the enamel used in the motors can greatly improve the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of it [1 , 3] . The efficiency of the induction motor depends upon the properties of the enamel used for the coating of the windings of the motor [2] . For single phase induction motors, the enamel was used for three purposes: impregnation, coating and adhesion. The efficiency of the single phase induction motor could be increased by adding the nano fillers with the enamel which was used as coating for the windings of the motor. In this paper, the efficiency of the normal single phase induction motor, SiO 2 nano filler mixed enamel coated single phase induction motor and Al 2 O 3 was analyzed and the results were compared with each other [8] . Heat run test was performed on the single phase induction motors to determine the total loss of energy dissipated as heat [4] . It was well-known that the operating temperature of the motor has a very strong relationship with the life duration of the insulation. The enamel used for coating of the machine windings were organic in nature and were adversely affected by thermal decomposition. Harmonics create a major problem in the field of power system. Due to high peak value of voltage, harmonics can weaken insulation in cables, windings and capacitors and different electronic components. Higher value of harmonics increase the motor current and decrease the power factor which will reduce the life time of the motor and increase the overall rating of all electrical equipments. Harmonics reduction of all the motors in India will save more power. Coating of windings of the motor with nano fillers will reduce the amount of harmonics in the motor. Harmonics will cause the following problems:
  • (1). Reduction of efficiency of the motor
  • (2). Ageing of the electrical components
  • (3). Malfunctioning and failure of electronic equipment
  • (4). Overheating and failure of electric motors
  • (5). Excessive measurement errors
  • (6). Electromagnetic interference
  • (7). Spurious operation of protective devices.
2. Coating of the Nano Filler Added Enamel to the Windings of the Motor
Ball mill method was used to prepare the nano powders of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 . SEM was used to augment the particle size of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 [5] . Figs. 1 and 2 shows the SEM images of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 before ball mill process.
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SEM analysis of SiO2 at 50 μm
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SEM analysis of Al2O3 at 50μm
- 2.1 Figures
Figs. 3 and 4 shows the SEM images of SiO 2 after ball mill process. The sizes of the particles are in the range from 40 to 100 nm size.
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SEM analysis of SiO2 at 50 nm
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SEM analysis of Al2O3 at 50 nm
5 wt% of nano powder of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 was taken and it was mixed with the enamel by using ultrasonic vibrator. Then this enamel was coated on the windings of the single phase induction motor. The specifications of the single phase induction motor were shown in the Table 1 .
Specifications of the Single phase induction motor
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Specifications of the Single phase induction motor
3. Experimental Analysis
- 3.1 Load test
The load test was done as per the circuit diagram and arrangement shown in the Figs. 5 and 6 . The maximum efficiency obtained from an ordinary induction motor was 69%. The maximum efficiency obtained from SiO 2 nano filler mixed enamel coated induction motor was 74%. The maximum efficiency obtained from Al 2 O 3 nano filler mixed enamel coated induction motor was 75%. Al 2 O 3 nano fillers have excellent electrical, thermal, mechanical and physical properties. SiO 2 nano fillers have high level of resistance to partial discharge, high purity, large surface area, good thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. One of the reasons for the increase in efficiency of the motor by adding nano fillers was mainly due to the reduction in the dielectric losses and harmonic losses.
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circiut diagram
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circuit arrangement
The output power, current, efficiency, and speed were measured on the ordinary and nano coated single phase induction motor. The readings were shown in the Table 2 to 4 .
- 3.2 Tables
Experimental values of V, I, P, N, T and η for the normal single phase induction motor
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Experimental values of V, I, P, N, T and η for the normal single phase induction motor
Experimental values of V, I, P, N, T and η for SiO2nano coated single phase induction motor
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Experimental values of V, I, P, N, T and η for SiO2 nano coated single phase induction motor
Experimental values of V, I, P, N, T and η for Al2O3nano coated single phase induction motor
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Experimental values of V, I, P, N, T and η for Al2O3 nano coated single phase induction motor
- 3.3 Temperature test
Heat run test was done on electric machines to determine the total loss of energy dissipated as heat [6 , 7] . It was well-known that the operating temperature of an electric machine has a very strong relationship with the life duration of the insulation. Heat run test was conducted on the single phase induction motor as per IEC 60851. The temperature of the motor was measured under different conditions and the readings were shown in the Table 5 . The life time of the motor was dependent on the losses of the motor. When the losses were reduced, the heat rise in the motor will also be reduced. Generally, the energy due to losses was dissipated in the form of heat energy. The thermal withstanding capacity was increased due to the reduction in dielectric and harmonic losses present in the motor.
Measurement of temperature on the windings of the single phase induction motor
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Measurement of temperature on the windings of the single phase induction motor
- 3.4 Measurement of harmonics
The total harmonic distortion was a measurement of the harmonic distortion present and was defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency. THD was used to characterize the linearity of audio systems and the power quality of electric power systems. In power systems, lower THD means reduction in peak currents, heating, emissions, and core loss in motors. Total harmonic distortion was measured as the percentage. Lower percentages were better. In reality, total harmonic distortion was hardly perceptible to the human ear. Voltage distortion consists of very sharp notches and spikes in voltage. When applied to the equivalent circuit, that high frequency voltage does not cause much change in the inductive magnetizing current, but causes a change in the load current. Current THD was caused by the motor itself due to non-linearity of the magnetizing current. The current THD will be higher when the motor was unloaded. The THD was the means to express the distortion affecting a current or voltage flowing at a given point as a single number. THD analysis was done according to the standard IEC 61000-2-2. The harmonics of the motors were reduced by 10 - 50%. Fig. 7 shows the comparison of VHD for motors with and without nano coating.
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Comparison of VHD for motors with and without nano coating
4. Conclusions
The following observations were clear as per this research:
  • The efficiency of the induction motor was increased by 5 % by adding nano filler of SiO2to the enamel used as the coating for the windings of the single phase induction motor. The efficiency of the induction motor was increased by 6 % by adding nano filler of Al2O3to the enamel used as the coating for the windings of the single phase induction motor. The increase in efficiency of the motor by adding nano fillers was mainly due to the reduction in the dielectric losses and harmonic losses.
  • The addition of SiO2nano fillers to the enamel has also improved the temperature withstanding capacity of the induction motor by 5.26 %. The addition of Al2O3nano fillers to the enamel has also improved the temperature withstanding capacity of the induction motor by 7 %. The thermal withstanding capacity of the motor was increased due to the reduction in dielectric and harmonic losses present in the motor. Hence the life time of the motor will be increased.
  • The harmonics of the motors were reduced by 10 – 50 %.
BIO
K.Mohanadasse He holds a B.Tech. in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Pondicherry University, M.E. in Power Systems Engineering from Annamalai University and a Ph.D. Scholar in Electrical Engineering in Anna University, Chennai, India. At present, he holds the post of Associate Professor in EEE, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai – 600 119. His research areas of interest include power quality, power electronics applications to power systems.
C. Sharmeela He holds a B.E. in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, M.E. in Power Systems Engineering from Annamalai University and a PhD in Electrical Engineering from Anna University. At present, she holds the post of Assistant Professor (Senior Grade.) in EEE, A. C. Tech., Anna University, Chennai. She has done a number of consultancies for Power quality measurements and design of compensators for industries. Her areas of interest include Power Quality, Power Electronics applications to Power Systems and Renewable Energy Systems. She is a Life-member of the Institution of Engineers (India), ISTE and SSI.
D. Edison Selvaraj He was born in Sivakasi on 13th November 1985 to Mr. S. David Nadar and D. Elizabeth Rani. He belongs to Christian Nadar Community. He was a member in Ragland Memorial Church, Sivakasi. He carried out his early schooling in Seventh Day Adventist Matriculation School, Sivakasi and AVM Marimuthu Nadar Higher Secondary School, Vilampatti. He received the B.E. degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Sree Sowdambika College of Engineering affiliated to Anna University, Chennai in 2007 and M.E. degree in High-Voltage Engineering from Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India in 2010. He obtained Sixteenth Rank in B.E. degree and First Rank in M.E. degree. He has 5 years of teaching experience in various Engineering Colleges. He has published 150 papers in various International Journals, Conferences and Symposiums. He has attended various Workshops, Seminars, FDP, Short term courses and training programs. He was a technical committee member for many international conferences. He was Guest Editor and Lead Editor for many international journals. He received Shiksha Rattan Puraskar Award from IIFS, New Delhi. His name was also nominated for various awards. His biography was recognized in Marquis Who’s Who, Asia / Pacific Who’s Who and International Biographical Center. He was appointed as technical paper reviewer for various International Journals. He was doing research in the Applications of Nano technology in Electrical Engineering. His area of interest was Nano Dielectrics, Nano Motors, Nano Transformers, Nano Capacitors and Nano Electrical Apparatuses. He was the member of various Professional bodies like IEEE, ISTE, ACEEE, IAENG, IACSIT, UACEE, IDES, IETE and SCIEI. Presently, he was working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai, India and Guest Faculty in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Chennai, India.
References
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Inuzuka K. , Inano H. , Hayakawa N. , Hirose T. , Hamaguchi M. , Okubo H. 2006 “Partial discharge characteristics of nanocomposite enameled wire for inverter fed motor,” Kansas City 2006 Annu. Rep. Conf. Elect. Insul. Dielect. Phenomena 594 - 597
Zhang Guoqin , Wu Guangning , Tong Laisheng 2005 “Study of Nano TiO2 Filler in the Corona resistant Magnetic Wire Insulation Performance of Inverter-fed Motor” Proceedings of international Symposium on Electrical Insulating Materials Kitakyushu, Japan A3-8 June 5-9, 2005
Selvaraj D. Edison 2012 “Characterization of dielectric properties of the enamel filled with carbon nanotubes for the frequency range of 50 Hz-5 MHz.” International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications 1.2 102 - 106
Selvaraj D. Edison , Sugumaran C. Pugazhendhi 2012 “Comparative Analysis of Dielectric Properties of Enamel Filled with Various Nanofillers such as ZrO2, Al2O3, CNT and ZnO.” International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications 1.1 51 - 55
Selvaraj D. Edison 2012 “Partial discharge characteristics of enamel filled with micro and nano composite of SiO2 and TiO2.” International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications 1.2 95 - 101
Selvaraj D. Edison 2012 “Analysis of Efficiency, Thermal Withstanding Capacity and Electromagnetic Interference of Three Phase Squirrel Cage Induction Motor Coated with SiO2 & TiO2 Nano Composite Filled Enamel.” International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications 1.1 17 - 21
Edison Selvaraj. D , Pugazhendhi Sugumaran C. , SivaPrakash A. 2013 “Characterization of Electrical and Thermal Properties of Enamel Filled with Carbon Nanotubes,” Springer New York Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Trends in Information, Telecommunication and Computing