Quantum-behaved Electromagnetism-like Mechanism Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch of Power System

Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology.
2015.
Jul,
10(4):
1415-1421

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

- Received : September 27, 2014
- Accepted : February 23, 2015
- Published : July 01, 2015

Download

PDF

e-PUB

PubReader

PPT

Export by style

Article

Metrics

Cited by

TagCloud

This paper presents a new algorithm called Quantum-behaved Electromagnetism-like Mechanism Algorithm which is used to solve economic load dispatch of power system. Electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm simulates attraction and repulsion mechanism for particles in the electromagnetic field. Every solution is a charged particle, and it move to optimum solution according to certain criteria. Quantum-behaved electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm merges quantum computing theory with electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm. Superposition characteristic of quantum methodology can make a single particle present several states, and the characteristic potentially increases population diversity. Probability representation of quantum methodology is to make particle state be presented according to a certain probability. And the quantum rotation gates are used to realize update operation of particles. The algorithm is tested for 13-generator system and 40-generator system, which validates it can effectively solve economic load dispatch problem. Through performance comparison, it is obvious the solution is superior to other optimization algorithm.
where
F
is the cost function;
s
is the number of generators in the system;
P_{i}
is the power of generator
i
(in MW);
f_{i}
(
P_{i}
) is the total fuel cost for the
i
th generator(in $/h).
Cost functions comprise very different input-output curves, since each generator has multi-valve steam turbines. A sinusoidal function is incorporated into a quadratic function to consider the value-point loadings. Cost functions addressing the valve-point loadings of generating units are given by
where
a_{i}
,
b_{i}
,
c_{i}
are the fuel cost coefficients of the
i
th unit;
g_{i}
and
h_{i}
are the coefficients of generator
i
reflecting the valve point effects;
is the output of the minimum operation of the generating unit
i
(in MW).
where
is the output of the maximum operation of the generating unit
i
(in MW).
where
P_{L}
is the system load demand (in MW).
F
_{21}
, and the repulsion force exerted on particle 1 by particle 3 is
F
_{31}
.
F
_{1}
is the total force exerted on particle 1 by particle 2 and particle 3. Particle 1 will move along with the total force
F
_{1}
, and it can move to better region.
Schematic diagram of attraction and repulsion mechanism for particles
where
α
and
β
are complex numbers, satisfying
| 0 > represents the state of spin up, while | 1 > represents the state of spin down, so a Qubit can represent two state information (| 0 > and | 1 > ) simultaneously. The superposition state can also expressed in (7).
where
θ
is phase of Qubit, the relation among
θ
and
α
and
β
, satisfying
Then
m
particles can be expressed by (9) or (10).
The Flowchart of QEMA
Some core steps of QEMA can be introduced in following parts.
m
particles (
X
_{1}
,
X
_{2}
,⋯,
X_{i}
, ⋯,
X_{m}
) in
n
-dimensional search space. The
ith
particle can be recorded as
X_{i}
= (
θ
_{i,1}
,
θ
_{i,2}
, ⋯
θ_{i,j}
, ⋯,
θ_{i,n}
).
S
is matrix composing with probability amplitude of particles.
s
(1,
j
,
i
) expressed
α_{ij}
(
α
of
j
th dimension of
i
th particle).
s
(2,
j
,
i
) denoted
β_{ij}
(
β
of
j
th dimension of
i
th particle). The initialization process can be described in (11) and (12).
where
r
is random number from 0 to 1.
According to above description, the relation among
θ_{i,j}
,
α_{ij}
and
β_{ij}
can be described in (13).
Where
p
is the choice probability of state expression;
r
is random number from 0 to 1;
s
(1,
j
,
i
) expressed
α
of
j
th dimension of
i
th particle.
s
(2,
j
,
i
) denoted
β
of
j
th dimension of
i
th particle.
c
(
i
,
j
) denotes actual parameter values of
j
th dimension of
i
th particle.
ith
particle
X_{i}
= (
θ
_{i,1}
,
θ
_{i,2}
, ⋯
θ_{i,j}
, ⋯,
θ_{i,n}
) is shown as follows:
where
q_{i}
is the charge for the
ith
particle;
m
is the population size;
n
is the dimension number of particle;
f
(
X_{i}
),
f
(
X_{k}
) and
f
(
X_{best}
) denote the objective value of the
ith
particle, the
kth
particle and the best solution.
After the charge is calculated, the resultant force of the
ith
particle can be calculated as
where
f
(
X_{j}
) <
f
(
X_{i}
) represents attraction and
f
(
X_{j}
) <
f
(
X_{i}
) represents repulsion. As can be seen from Eq.(17) above,
F_{i}
is directly proportional to the the charge values of the particles and is inversely proportion to the distance between the
ith
particle and the
jth
particle. Because the objective value of the particle
X_{best}
is best, it is an absolute attraction particle, and it can attract other particles.
where Δ
X_{i}
= (Δ
θ
_{i,1}
, Δ
θ
_{i,2}
, ⋯Δ
θ_{i,j}
, ⋯Δ
θ_{i,n}
) .
λ
is a random step length, which is uniformly distributed between 0 and 1.
V
denotes the allowed range of movement toward the lower or upper bound for the corresponding dimension.
Next step is calculating quantum rotation gate to update particles.
where
denotes phase correction of
j
th dimension of
i
th particle in the
t
+1th iterative course;
,
are probability amplitudes of
j
th dimension of
i
th particle in the
t
th iterative course;
,
are probability amplitudes of
j
th dimension of
i
th particle in the
t
+1th iterative course.
• Test Case 1
A system with 13 generators with value-point loading is used here to check the feasibility of QEMA. The unit characteristics like cost coefficients along with value-point loading coefficient, operating limits of generators are given in
Table 1
. The data shown in
Table 1
are also available in
[17]
. The total load is 1800MW.
Units data for test case 1
The following QEMA parameters have been used after a number of careful experimentation: Number of particles m =100; Dimension number of particles n =13.
Simulation results can be described in
Table 2
.
Simulation results of case 1 for QEMA
In order to verify the performance advantages of QEMA further, the simulation results were compared with that of other optimized algorithm, and the comparison results in
Table 3
. Algorithm 1 is QEMA which have been applied in this paper; Algorithm 2~Algorithm 5 is evolutionary programming algorithm which have been proposed in
[18]
; Algorithm 6 is improved genetic algorithm which have been proposed in
[19]
. Algorithm 7 is EMA.
The performance comparison of case 1 for some optimization algorithm
It can be seen from
Table 3
that QEMA is superior to EMA, other evolutionary programming algorithms and improved genetic algorithm.
• Test Case 2
This case study consisted of 40 thermal units of generation with the effects of valve-point loading, as given in
Table 2
. The data shown in
Table 4
are also available in
[13]
. In this case, the total load is 10500MW.
Units data for test case 2
The following QEMA parameters have been used after a number of careful experimentation: Number of particles
m
=300; Dimension number of particles
n
=40.
Simulation results can be described in
Table 5
.
Simulation results of case 2 for QEMA
In order to verify the performance advantages of QEMA further, the simulation results were compared with that of other optimized algorithm, and the comparison results in
Table 6
. Algorithm 1 is QEMA which have been applied in this paper; Algorithm 2 ~ Algorithm 5 are evolutionary programming algorithm which have been proposed in
[13]
; Algorithm 6 ~ Algorithm 9 are MPSO algorithm, ESO algorithm, GA-MU algorithm and IGAMU algorithm which have been presented in
[1]
. Algorithm 10 is EMA.
The performance comparison of case 2 for some optimization algorithm
It can be seen from
Table 6
that QEMA is superior to EMA and other algorithms. It can solve ELD problem effectively.
Zhang Zhisheng He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in Electrical Engineering from Shandong University, China, in 1998 and 2001, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Tianjin University, China, in 2004. Currently, he is a Professor in the School of Automation Engineering, Qingdao University. His research interests include load forecasting and economic load dispatch of power system.
Gong Wenjie He received the B.S. degrees in Electrical Engineering from Shandong University, China, in 1997, and the M.S. degree in Project Management from North China Electric Power University, China, in 2008. Currently, he is a senior engineer in Qingdao Electric Power Company. His research interests are smart grids and economic load dispatch of power system.
Duan Xiaoyan She graduated from Electrical Engineering in Northeast Dianli University, China, in 2004. Currently, she is a engineer in Qingdao Electric Power Company. Her research interests are smart grids economic load dispatch of power system.

Economic load dispatch
;
Power system
;
Quantum-behaved electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm
;
Value-point effects

1. Introduction

Economic load dispatch (ELD) is one of the major mathematical optimization issues in power system operation. It seeks “the best” generation schedule for the generating plants to supply the required demand with the minimum production cost. The input-output characteristics of modern generators are nonlinear by nature. To solve ELD problem, a lot of conventional methods such as the lambda iteration method, the gradient method, Newton’s method etc. have been employed. Unfortunately, for generating units with nonlinear characteristics, the conventional methods can hardly achieve the optimal or near optimal solution. Recently more and more interests have been focused on the application of artificial intelligent technology for solution of ELD problems. Several artificial intelligence methods, such as genetic algorithms
[1]
, evolutionary programming algorithm
[2]
, clonal algorithm
[3]
, neural network
[4]
etc. have been developed and applied successfully to ELD problems.
Electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm originates from the electromagnetism theory of physics
[5]
, which considering potential solutions as electrically charged particles spread around the solution space. It has been effectively used in different sorts of research and engineering problems, such as neural network training
[6]
, vehicle routing problems
[7]
flow shop scheduling problems
[8]
, communication
[9]
, array pattern optimization in circuits
[10]
, image processing
[11]
, intelligent forecasting
[12]
, and control systems
[13]
and so on. But EMA exist some defects such as premature convergence etc.
Quantum-behaved electromagnetism-like mechanism Algorithm (QEMA) is proposed and used to solve ELD problem. QEMA merges quantum computing theory with electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm. The superposition characteristic and probability representation of quantum methodology are combined into electromagnetism-like mechanism Algorithm. This can make a single particle be expressed by several certain probability states. And the quantum rotation gates are used to realize update operation of particles. The algorithm is tested for 13-generator system and 40-generator system, which validates it can effectively solve ELD problem.
2 ELD Problem Formulation

- 2.1 Objective function considering valve-point loading effects

The main objective is to minimize the fuel cost while satisfying the load demand with operating constraints. The objective function can be described as an minimization process with the objective:
PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

- 2.2 Constraint conditions

The above objective function is to be minimized subject to the following constraints.
- 2.2.1 Thermal power limits constraint

Thermal units can generate power between specified maximum and minimum limits. These inequality constraints are expressed as
PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

- 2.2.2 System active load balance constraint

Total generated power is equal to the total demand in the dispatch interval, as shown in (4).
PPT Slide

Lager Image

3. Quantum-behaved Electromagnetism-like Mechanism Algorithm

- 3.1 Basic electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm

EMA imitates the attraction-repulsion mechanism between charged particles in an electromagnetic field. In EMA methodology, every particle represents a solution and carries a certain amount of charge which is proportional to the solution quality. Solutions are in turn defined by position vectors which give the real positions of particles in a multi-dimensional space. Moreover, objective function values of particles are calculated based on these position vectors. Each particle exerts repulsion or attraction forces on other population members and a resultant force on a particle is used to update its position. The idea behind the EMA methodology is to move particles towards the optimum solution by exerting attraction or repulsion forces.
There are three particles in schematic diagram of attraction and repulsion mechanism for particles (see
Fig. 1
). If particle 2 is better than particle 1, while particle 3 is worse than particle 1, the attraction force exerted on particle 1 by particle 2 is
PPT Slide

Lager Image

- 3.2 Quantum-behaved electromagnetism-like mech-anism algorithm

The concept of quantum computing was proposed in the early 1980s
[14]
. Many efforts on quantum computing have progressed actively because these computing shown to be more powerful that classical computing on various specialized problems
[15
,
16]
. QEMA merges quantum computing theory with EMA. Superposition characteristic of quantum methodology can make a single particle present several states, and the characteristic potentially increases population diversity. Probability representation of quantum methodology is to make particle state be presented according to a certain probability. And the quantum rotation gates are used to realize update operation of particles.
- 3.2.1 Qubit

A particle is denoted by Qubit for QEMA. A Qubit may be in the “1” state, in the “0” state, or in any superposition of the two, while a bit in EMA can only hold a single state, either 0 or 1. The state of a Qubit can be represented as
PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

- 3.2.2 Steps of QEMA

The steps of QEMA is described as
Fig. 2
.
PPT Slide

Lager Image

- 3.2.3 Initialization of Qubit encoding of particles

There are
PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

- 3.2.4 Decoding of particles

When a particle collapses into a basic state, the probability of occurrence of the basic state need be expressed to participate in the fitness assessment of particles. Supposed the actual parameter space searched by algorithm is [a, b], and the occurred probability of some state is [0, 1], then the probability need to be decoded into the actual parameter space [a, b]. The decoding process can be expressed by (14).
PPT Slide

Lager Image

- 3.2.5 Evaluating particles

Evaluating particles is based on the minimum of the total fuel cost. (Seeing section 2.1)
- 3.2.6 Changing particles form

In the course of changing particles form, the probability amplitude expression transforms into phase expression according to (8).
- 3.2.7 Updating particles

The first step of updating particles is to calculating the phase correction, which includes calculation of force and movement of particles.
- (1) Calculation of force

QEMA is via calculating the resultant force in the population to determine moving direction of the current particle by Coulomb’s law and superposition principle. The resultant force is inversely proportional to the distance between the particles and directly proportional to their charges.
The first step in the force calculation is the calculation of the charge for each particle. The charge of particle can decide the size of own attraction or repulsion force, and can affect the size of attraction or repulsion force of other particles.
The charge of the
PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

- (2) Movement of particles

Each particle moves according to the resultant force which can be given as
PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

PPT Slide

Lager Image

4. Simulation Results

The applicability and validity of QEMA for practical applications has been tested on two test cases.
Units data for test case 1

PPT Slide

Lager Image

Simulation results of case 1 for QEMA

PPT Slide

Lager Image

The performance comparison of case 1 for some optimization algorithm

PPT Slide

Lager Image

Units data for test case 2

PPT Slide

Lager Image

Simulation results of case 2 for QEMA

PPT Slide

Lager Image

The performance comparison of case 2 for some optimization algorithm

PPT Slide

Lager Image

5. Conclusion

This paper presents a new algorithm called QEMA which is used to solve economic load dispatch of power system. QEMA merges quantum computing theory with electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm. Superposition characteristic of quantum methodology can make a single particle present several states, and the characteristic potentially increases population diversity. Probability representation of quantum methodology is to make particle state be presented according to a certain probability. And the quantum rotation gates are used to realize update operation of particles. Through performance comparison, it is obvious the solution is superior to EMA and other optimization algorithm. QEMA can effectively solve ELD problem in power systems.
Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Project Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (51477078).

BIO

Chiang C.L.
2007
Chiang Genetic-based algorithm for power economic load dispatch. IET Generation
Transmission & Distribution
1
(2)
261 -
269
** DOI : 10.1049/iet-gtd:20060130**

Sinha N.
,
Chakrabarti R.
,
Chattopadhyay P.K.
2003
Evolutionary programming techniques for economic load dispatch
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation
7
(1)
83 -
94
** DOI : 10.1109/TEVC.2002.806788**

Panigrahi B.K.
,
Yadav Salik R.
,
Agrawal Shubham
2007
A clonal algorithm to solve economic load dispatch
Electric Power Systems Research
77
(10)
1381 -
1389
** DOI : 10.1016/j.epsr.2006.10.007**

Lee K.Y.
,
Sode-Yome A.
,
Park June Ho
2002
Adaptive Hopfield neural network for economic load dispatch
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
13
(2)
519 -
526

Birbil S I
,
Fang S C
2003
An electromagnetism-like mechanism for global optimization
Journal of Global Optimization
25
(3)
263 -
282
** DOI : 10.1023/A:1022452626305**

Wang Xiao-Juan
,
Gao Liang
,
Zhang Chao-Yong
2008
Electromagnetism-like mechanism based algorithm for neural network training
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
5227
40 -
45

Wu Peitsang
,
Yang Kung-Jiuan
,
Huang Bau-Yuan
2007
A revised EM-like mechanism for solving the vehicle routing problems
Second International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control
Kumamoto, Japan
5-7 Sep
181 -
185

Kun Yuan
,
Sauer N.
,
Sauvey C.
2009
Application of EM algorithm to hybrid flow shop scheduling problems with a special blocking
IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation
Mallorca, Spain
22-25 Sep
1 -
7

Hung Ho-Lung
2014
Electromagnetism-like method tuned constant modulus algorithm for blind detector in multicarrier CDMA system
International Journal of Communication Systems
27
(2)
233 -
247
** DOI : 10.1002/dac.2351**

Jhang Jhen-Yan
,
Lee Kun-chou
2009
Array pattern optimization using electromagnetism-like algorithm
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications
63
(6)
491 -
496
** DOI : 10.1016/j.aeue.2008.04.001**

Jianguo Jiang
,
Juan wang
,
Mingxiang Zang
,
Wenhong Zhou
2014
An image retrieval algorithm based on improved electromagnetism-like mechanism
Journal of Information and Computational Science
11
(16)
5895 -
5903
** DOI : 10.12733/jics20104901**

Wu Peitsang
,
Hung Yung-Yao
,
Lin Zi-Po
2014
Intelligent forecasting system based on integration of electromagnetism-like mechanism and fuzzy neural network
Expert Systems with Applications
41
(6)
2660 -
2677
** DOI : 10.1016/j.eswa.2013.11.007**

Guan Xianping
,
Dai Xianzhong
,
Li Jun
2011
Revised electromagnetism-like mechanism for flow path design of unidirectional AGV systems [J]
International Journal of Production Research
49
(2)
401 -
429
** DOI : 10.1080/00207540903490155**

Benioff P.
1980
The computer as a physical system: a microscopic quantum mechanical hamiltonian model of a computers as represented by turing machines
Journal of Statistical Physics
22
(5)
563 -
591
** DOI : 10.1007/BF01011339**

Shor. P. W.
1994
Algorithms for quantum computation: Discrete logarithms and factoring
Proceedings of 35th annual symposium on foundations of computer science
Sante Fe, Nm, USA
124 -
134

Grover. L. K.
1996
A fast quantum mechanic algorithm for database search
Proceedings of 28th ACM symposium theory of computing
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
212 -
219

Noman N.
,
Iba H.
2008
Differential evolution for economic load dispatch problems
Electric Power Systems Research
78
(8)
1322 -
1331
** DOI : 10.1016/j.epsr.2007.11.007**

Sinha Nidul
,
Chakrabarti R
,
Chattopadhyay P K
2003
Chattopadhyay. Evolutionary programming techniques for economic load dispatch
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation
7
(1)
83 -
94
** DOI : 10.1109/TEVC.2002.806788**

Ling S. H.
,
Lam H. K.
,
Lee Y. S.
2003
Improved genetic algorithm for economic load dispatch with valvepoint loadings
The 29th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
2-6 Nov
442 -
447

Citing 'Quantum-behaved Electromagnetism-like Mechanism Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch of Power System
'

@article{ E1EEFQ_2015_v10n4_1415}
,title={Quantum-behaved Electromagnetism-like Mechanism Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch of Power System}
,volume={4}
, url={http://dx.doi.org/10.5370/JEET.2015.10.4.1415}, DOI={10.5370/JEET.2015.10.4.1415}
, number= {4}
, journal={Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology}
, publisher={The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers}
, author={Zhisheng, Zhang
and
Wenjie, Gong
and
Xiaoyan, Duan}
, year={2015}
, month={Jul}