The main objective of this paper is to design DCDC MPPT circuit using chaotic pulse width modulation to track maximum power from solar PV module for space application. The direct control method of tracking is used to extract maximum power. The nominal duty cycle of the main switch of DCDC SEPIC converter is adjusted so that the solar panel output impedance is equal to the input resistance of the SEPIC converter which results better spectral performance in the tracked voltages when compared to conventional PWM control. The conversion efficiency of the proposed MPPT system is increased when CPWM is used as a control scheme
1. Introduction
Solar power is a renewable energy source that might replace fossil fuel dependent energy sources. However, for that to happen, solar power cost per kilowatthour has to be competitive with fossil fuel energy sources. Currently, solar panels are not very efficient it has 1220% efficiency to convert sunlight to electrical power. The efficiency can drop further due to other factors such as solar panel temperature and load conditions. In order to maximize the power derived from the solar panel, it is important to operate the panel at its optimal power point. To achieve this, a type of charge controller called a Maximum Power Point Tracker will be designed and implemented.
The MATLAB / PSPICE model of the PV module is developed
[1

4]
to study the effect of temperature and insolation on the performance of the PV module. MATLABbased modelling and simulation scheme suitable for studying the
IV
and
PV
characteristics of a PV array under a nonuniform insolation due to partial shading
[5]
was proposed. The mathematical model of solar PV module is useful for the computer simulation. The power electronics interface is connected between a solar panel and a load or battery bus, is a pulse width modulated (PWM) DCDC converter or their derived circuits is used to extract maximum power from solar PV pane
l [6]
. IV characteristic curve of photovoltaic (PV) generators based on various DCDC converters
[7

10]
was proposed and concluded that SEPIC converter is the best alternative to track maximum power from PV panel.
Shagar et al.
[11]
described the closed loop mechanism of the SEPIC converter and the simulated results are presented. The inherent nature of SEPIC converter is that additional input filters are not necessary to filter out high frequency harmonics. The SEPIC (Single Ended Primary Inductor Converter) topology is an excellent choice for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) converter in small solar energy systems. Simulation and experimental validation are given by Kashyap et al.
[12]
The maximum power tracking for PV panel using DCDC converter is developed
[13]
without using micro controller. The nominal duty cycle of the main switch in the SEPIC converter is adjusted to a value, so that the input resistance of the converter is equal to the equivalent output resistance of the solar panel at the MPP. This approach ensures maximum power transfer under all atmospheric conditions. The analogue chaotic PWM is used to reduce the EMI in boost converter. The conversion efficiency is increased when CPWM is uses as a control technique
[14

15]
. The chua’s diode and chua’s oscillator was used to generate chaotic PWM. The spectral performance has been improved in induction drives when CPWM is used
[16]
.
This paper proposes to implement Chaotic PWM as a control method to improve the steady state performance of the DCDC SEPIC converter based MPPT system for solar PV module. The nominal duty cycle of the main switch of DCDC SEPIC converter is adjusted, so that the solar panel output impedance is equal to the input resistance of the dcdc converter which results better spectral performance in the tracked voltages when compared to conventional PWM control. The conversion efficiency of the proposed MPPT system is increased when CPWM is used.
2. MATLAB Model of L123537W Solar PV Module
A solar cell is a kind of pn junction semiconductor device and converts light energy into electrical energy. The output characteristics of the solar PV module depend on the irradiance and the operating temperature of the cell. The equivalent circuit of PV module is shown in
Fig. 1(a)
.
(a) Equivalent circuit of solar PV module
(b) MATLAB model for PV module
From the
Fig. 1(a)
, the current equation is given by
where diode current is,
Based on the electrical Eqs. (1) and (2), the solar PV module is modelled in MATLAB as shown in
Fig. 1(b)
. Which is used to enhance the understanding, predict the VI characteristics to analyze the effect of temperature and irradiation variation. If irradiance increases, the fluctuation of the open circuit voltage is very small. But the short circuit current has sharp fluctuations with respect to irradiance. However, for a rising operating temperature, the opencircuit voltage is decreased in a Nonlinear fashion
[1]
.
The VI characteristics are validated experimentally in the L123537Wp solar module shown in
Fig. 2(a)
. The
Table 1
shows the technical specifications of L123537W solar module under test. The
Fig. 2(b)
shows the VI characteristics is based on the experimental results under irradiation (G) =1000W/m
^{2}
, temperature =25°C.
Specifications of l123537W solar PV panel
Specifications of l123537W solar PV panel
(a) L123537W solar module under test
(b) VI characteristics of L 123537W solar panel
 2.1 Modelling of SEPIC converter
The relation between input and output currents and voltage are given by
The
Table 2
shows the components used in simulation and hardware setup for the power circuit. The duty cycle of the SEPIC converter under continuous conduction mode is given by
Specification of SEPIC converter
Specification of SEPIC converter
V
_{D}
is the forward voltage drop across the diode (D), The maximum duty cycle is
The value of the inductor is selected based on the below equations
Δ
I_{L}
is the peaktopeak ripple current at the minimum input voltage and f
_{s}
is the switching frequency. The value of C
_{1}
depends on RMS current, which is given by
The voltage rating of capacitor C
_{1}
must be greater than the input voltage. The ripple voltage on C
_{1}
is given by
The parameters governing the selection of the MOSFET are the minimum threshold voltage V
_{th(min)}
, the onresistance R
_{DS(ON)}
, gatedrain charge Q
_{GD}
, and the maximum drain to source voltage V
_{DS(max)}
. The peak switch voltage is equal to V
_{in}
+ V
_{out}
. The peak switch current is given by
I _{Q1(Peak)} = I_{L1(PEAK)} + I_{L2(PEAK)}
The RMS current is given by
The total power dissipation for MOSFETs includes conduction loss (as shown in the first term of the above equation) and switching loss as shown in the second term. I
_{G}
is the gate drive current. The R
_{DS(ON)}
value should be selected at maximum operating junction temperature and is typically given in the MOSFET datasheet.
P_{switch} = (I_{Q1(rms)} * R_{DS (ON)} *D_{max}) +(V_{in(min)})+V_{out})*I _{Q1(Peak} * (Q_{GD} * f_{S} )/ I_{G}
The output diode must be selected to handle the peak current and the reverse voltage. In a SEPIC converter, the diode peak current is the same as the switch peak current I
_{Q1(peak)}
. The minimum peak reverse voltage the diode must withstand is,
V_{RD} = V_{in(max)} + V_{out (max)}
 2.2 Dynamic input characteristics of a SEPIC converter at MPP
The input voltage and the equivalent input resistance of the converter are Vs and R
_{i }
respectively. As the input power ρ
_{i}
to the converter is equal to the output power ρ
_{o}
of the solar PV module
The rate of change
ρ_{i}
with respect to V
_{S}
and R
_{i}
can be shown below
At the MPP, the rate of change of
p_{i}
equals zero and R
_{i}
= r
_{g}
The equation gives the required dynamic resistance characteristics of the tracker at MPP.
3. Generation of Chaotic PWM
In order to improve the steady state performance of Solar PV powered system, direct control Chaotic Pulse width modulated (CPWM) SEPIC converter is proposed to track maximum power from solar PV module. Therefore, in order to get chaotic frequency f
_{Δ}
or chaotic amplitude A
_{Δ}
, chaosbased PWM (CPWM), as shown in
Figs. 3 (a)
and
(b)
is analyzed to generate chaotic PWM. The analogue chaotic PWM has its advantages over the digital in its low costs and easytodesign, making it suitable for highfrequency operation and situations when design flexibility, high converter conversion efficiency and low cost. In order to generate chaotic pulse width modulation chua’s diode is used to trigger the main switch of SEPIC converter, and to be used for reducing spectral peaks in tracked converter voltage.
Chua’s diode
Chua’s oscillator
The CPWM adopts sawtooth to modulate, but its carrier period T
_{Δ}
′ changes according to
Where T
_{Δ}
is invariant period, X
_{i}
, I = 1,2,….N, a chaotic sequence, x=(x
_{1}
,x
_{2}
…x
_{N}
), and Mean(x), average of the sequence, defined as
Similarly the CPWM also adopts sawtooth to modulate, but its carrier amplitude
changes according to
Where A
_{Δ}
is the invariant amplitude, Xi, i= 1,2,….N, a chaotic sequence
x= ( x
_{1}
,x
_{2}
…x
_{N}
), and Mean (x), average of the sequence, and K is the modulation factor of the amplitude which can be set required in practice. The value of K is selected as low so that the ripple in the output voltage of the SEPIC converter is low. Also the ripple in the output voltage controlled by Chaotic PWM is low.
The analog chaotic carrier is generated based on the circuit shown in
Fig. 3(a)
. The resistances (R
_{d1}
… R
_{d6}
) are used to realise linear resistor called Chua diode. The parameters for Chua’s diode are designed and chosen as
R_{d1}
= 2.4 kΩ,
R_{d2}
= 3.3 kΩ,
R_{d3}
=
R_{d4}
= 220Ω, and
R_{d5}
=
R_{d6}
= 20 kΩ. The other parameters of Chua’s oscillator used in the experiment are
L
_{1}
= 2.2 mH,
C
_{1}
= 4.7 nF,
C
_{2}
= 500 pF, and
R
= 1.75 KΩ.
4. Simulation Result
The block diagram of the hardware setup is shown in
Fig. 4.
The closed loop simulink model of SEPIC DCDC converter based maximum power tracking using Chaotic PWM is shown in
Fig. 5
.
Block diagram of the proposed MPPT system
Closed loop simulation of MPPT system using CPWM for solar PV module
The generated chaotic carrier and Chaotic PWM are shown in
Figs. 6
and
7
. The conventional PWM is shown in
Fig. 8
.
Chaotic carrier
Chaotic PWM
Conventional PWM
The
Fig. 9
shows the tracked power from the solar PV module is 36.5W corresponds to 1000W/m^2 and 13W corresponds to 500W/m^2. The tracking efficiency is 98.6% without considering the efficiency of the solar PV module and the converter. The duty cycle of the main switch of the SEPIC converter is 45%. The converter conversion efficiency is increased from 86% to 92% because of the lower average switching frequency in CPWM.
Tracked power using DCDC SEPIC converter
5. Experimental Setup
Fig. 10
shows of experimental setup of the proposed SEPIC converterbased MPPT for solar PV module, which is constituted by a power stage and a control circuit. The power stage includes an inductor L
_{1}
, L
_{2}
, capacitor C
_{1}
, C
_{2}
, a switch S, a load resistance, a solar PV module (L1235 37Wp).
Hardware setup
The generated chaotic carrier and periodic carrier are shown in
Figs. 11
and
12
. The corresponding conventional PWM and chaotic PWM are shown in
Figs. 13
and
14
.
Chaotic carrier
Periodic carrier
PWM
Chaotic PWM
The tracked input and output voltage from the solar PV module is shown in
Figs. 15
and
Fig. 16
. The ripple voltage of the converter output voltage is analyzed using FFT.
Fig 17
shows the ripple voltage in the output voltage is 200 m V. The spectrum of output voltage using conventional PWM is shown in
Fig. 18
. It implies that the db magnitude corresponds to fundamental frequency (25KhZ) is 10db Vrms when convention PWM is used as control method.
Tracked input voltage from solar PV module
SEPIC converter output voltage (multiplier=5)
Output Voltage Ripple (PWM)
Spectral analysis of output voltage using FFT
The SEPIC converter output voltage ripple using CPWM control method is shown in
Fig. 19
. The ripple voltage is only 80mV. The db magnitude corresponds to fundamental frequency is 40db Vrms. Hence high frequency harmonic peaks are eliminated to great extent.
Output voltage ripple and its spectrum analysis using FFT (Yaxis: 20 db)
6. Conclusion
The analogue chaotic PWM is generated and used as a control scheme to track the maximum power from PV module in order to improve the conversion efficiency of the MPPT system. The tracking efficiency is 98.6% without considering the efficiency of the solar PV panel and converter. The converter conversion efficiency is increased from 86% to 92% because of the lower average switching frequency in CPWM. The nominal duty cycle of the main switch of DCDC SEPIC converter is adjusted so that the solar panel output impedance is equal to the input resistance of the SEPIC converter which results better spectral performance in the tracked voltages when compared to conventional PWM control.
BIO
J. R. Maglin as born in Tamil Nadu, India. He received his B.E degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from University of Mysore, Karnataka, India in 1995. He received his M.E degree in Power Systems from Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India in 2002. Doing Ph.D degree in the area of Grid Connected Solar System in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy.
R. Ramesh was born in Tamil Nadu, India. He received his B.E degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from University of Madras, Chennai, India in 1999. He received his M.E degree in Power Systems from Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India in 2002. He received Ph.D degree in the area of Grid Service Model for Distributed OnLine Loadflow Monitoring from the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Chennai, India in 2008. Presently he is working as a Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Chennai, India. His research areas are Multiarea Power Systems, Solar PV systems, Power Electronic Converters, Web and Embedded based systems. He has published more than 40 research papers in reputed International Journals and IEEE Conferences. He is a Member of Institution of Engineers (India), Member of Indian Society for Technical Education, and Member of IAENG, Hong Kong. He received the IET YPSC Young Teacher Award in 2011 from IET (UK) YPS Chennai Network for his contributions to the profession and IET. Also he received Young Engineering Award from the Institution of Engineers (India) in 2012.
Vaigundamoorthi. M was born in Tamil Nadu, India. He received his B.E degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamilnadu, India in 2002. He received his M.E degree and Ph.D Degree in Power electronics and Drives from Anna University, Chennai, India in 2007 and 2013. His area of research include power electronics circuits for solar PV system
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