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Modified Unipolar Carrier-Based PWM Strategy for Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Voltage Source Inverters
Modified Unipolar Carrier-Based PWM Strategy for Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Voltage Source Inverters
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology. 2014. Mar, 9(2): 489-500
Copyright © 2014, The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
  • Received : July 01, 2013
  • Accepted : September 16, 2013
  • Published : March 01, 2014
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About the Authors
Watcharin Srirattanawichaikul
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. (watcharin.cmu@ gmail.com,suttic@eng.cmu.ac.th)
Suttichai Premrudeepreechacharn
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. (watcharin.cmu@ gmail.com,suttic@eng.cmu.ac.th)
Yuttana Kumsuwan
Corresponding Author: Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. (yt@ eng.cmu.ac.th)

Abstract
This paper presents a simple modified unipolar carrier-based pulsewidth modulation (CB-PWM) strategy for the three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) voltage source inverter (VSI). Analytical expressions for the relationship between modulation reference signals and output voltages are derived. The proposed modulation technique for the three-level NPC VSI includes the maximum and minimum of the three-phase sinusoidal reference voltages with zero-sequence voltage injection concept. The proposed modified CB-PWM strategy incorporates a novel method that requires only of one triangular carrier wave for generate the gating pulses in three-level NPC VSI. It has the advantages of being simplifying the algorithm with no need of complex two/multi-carrier pulsewidth modulation or space vector modulation (SVM) and it's also simple to implement. The possibility of the proposed CB-PWM technique has been verified though computer simulation and experimental results.
Keywords
1. Introduction
Multilevel converter topologies has recently been increasingly applied in medium- and high-voltage, and medium- and high-power industrial applications, such as active power filters, static reactive power compensation, adjustable-speed drive, and renewable energy generation, due to advantages of high power rating, high quality output waveforms associated with reduced voltage/current harmonic distortions, low electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) concerns, lower common-mode voltage, lower switching losses, and higher efficiencies when compared to the conventional two-level voltage source converters [1 - 3] .
Nowadays, there are three generally commercial classified topologies of multilevel converters in the literature as diode-clamped converters [4 , 5] , cascaded Hbridge converters [6 - 8] , and flying-capacitor converters [9] , [10] . Among the various multilevel converter topologies, the most popular topology in high power industrial applications is the three-level neutral point clamped (NPC) voltage source inverter (VSI), which was proposed in 1981 by Nabae et al. [4] , as shown in Fig. 1 . One advantage of the three-level NPC VSI topology is that the power switches and the dc-link capacitors have to endure only one-half of the dc-link voltage. As a result, the converter can deal with double voltage and power value than in a standard two-level VSI with the same switching frequency. However, the drawbacks of this topology are the higher number of power switches, which adds complexity to the modulation method. In addition the voltage balance of the dc-link neutral point is required [5 , 32] .
In recent year, several modulation strategies for a threelevel NPC VSI have been developed [11 - 30] . They could be mainly classified into carrier-based pulsewidth modulation (CB-PWM) [11 - 18] , space vector modulation (SVM) [19 - 26] , and selective harmonic elimination (SHE) [27 - 30] . Among these PWM strategies, the CB-PWM has probably been the most popular due to its simplicity of implementation, which based on the comparison between the modulation reference signals and two triangular carriers.
Also, several CB-PWM strategies for the three-level NPC VSI have been extensively researches. The traditional modulation technique for CB-PWM is sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation (SPWM). The use of injected zerosequence signals for three-phase sinusoidal reference voltages initiated the research on non-sinusoidal CB-PWM [14 - 16] . Compared with SPWM, the non-sinusoidal CBPWM strategies can extend the linear modulation ranges make it possible to increase the fundamental of the output voltages. Reference [12] presented the CB-PWM strategies, which are essentially two modulation modes (unipolar mode and dipolar mode). The application of both modulation modes to three-level NPC VSI has been equated output voltages. The unipolar mode is the most widely used at three-level NPC VSI due to the low ripple output voltages and currents. The voltage balancing control capability was improved. In [15] , an optimal CBPWM strategy of three-level NPC VSI was proposed, which analyzed continuous and discontinuous pulsewidth modulation strategies. However, this conventional modified method requires two triangular carriers to generate the gating pulses. A PWM strategy based on carrier-based concept, capable of controlling the locally averaged neutral-point current to be equal to zero, was presented and analyzed [17] , which presented a modified modulation strategy for a three-level NPC VSI. The minimum and maximum of the sinusoidal three-phase reference voltages were added to the output reference voltages obtained from the modified modulation signals. The proposed modulation strategy completely removes the low-frequency voltage oscillations that appear in the neutral-point voltage. In addition, this technique can be implemented with a very simple algorithm and processed very fast. Nevertheless, this technique is somewhat complicated for two triangular carriers are required to generate the gating pulses.
An even simple modified CB-PWM strategy is proposed. In this paper, the only one triangular carrier is employed for the modulation of three-level NPC VSI. The practical implementation method of the modified unipolar CB-PWM with a triangular carrier wave was proposed strategy in conjunction with a zero-sequence voltage injection concept. The switch states of each leg are determined by comparing the modified modulation signals and a triangular carrier wave. The proposed CB-PWM strategy has the following advantages:
  • 1) It does not need to know the parameters of the reference voltages;
  • 2) Simplifying the algorithm with no need of complex two/multi triangular carrier or SVM;
  • 3) The fundamental of output voltages are maintain equal dc-link voltage due to extend the linear modulation ranges;
  • 4) Ideal for closed loop and during dynamic operation.
The proposed method has been verified by simulation and experimental results for three-level NPC VSI.
This paper is organized as follows. Section II presents principle of three-level NPC VSI. Section III details the proposed of the CB-PWM strategy. Simulation results are provided in Section IV to verify the good performance of the proposed strategy. Section V describes the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of the proposed method. Finally, conclusions are presented in Section VI.
2. Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Voltage Source Inverter and Basic Theory
- 2.1 Three-level NPC-VSI configuration
Fig. 1 shows the simplified schematic of the power circuit of the three-level NPC VSI. It consists of twelve active switches, twelve anti-parallel-connected freewheeling diodes, six clamp diodes, and a split dc-link with series connected capacitors. For example, the inverter leg A is composed of four active switches S A1 to S A4 with four anti-parallel-connected freewheeling diodes D A1 to D A4 . The diodes connected to the neutral point Z , D ZA1 to D ZA2 , are the clamping diodes. On the dc-link side of the inverter, the dc-link voltage capacitor is split into two, providing a neutral point.
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Simplified schematic of the power circuit of the three-level neutral-point-clamped voltage source inverter.
Switching states and pole voltages of a three-level neutral-point-clamped voltage source inverter
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Switching states and pole voltages of a three-level neutral-point-clamped voltage source inverter
- 2.2 Switching states
The operating status of the switches in the three-level NPC VSI can be represented by switching states shown in Table 1 , where k denotes one of the three-phase A, B , or C , and vkZ denotes the each output pole voltage. This voltage has possible values, namely Vd / 2, 0, and - Vd / 2 . The switching state ‘P’ denotes that the each phase two switches, S k1 and S k2 , are on and the output pole voltage vkZ , which is the voltage terminal with respect to the neutral point Z , is Vd / 2 . The switching state ‘N’ implies that the lower two switches ( S k3 and S k4 ) conduct and lead to vkZ = - Vd /2 . The switching state ‘O’ signifies that the inside two switches S k2 to S k3 are on. The output voltage is clamped to zero through the clamping diodes, D ZA1 to D ZA2 . It can be observed from Table I that two switches of each phase are closed whilst the other two are opened. In other words, switches S k1 and S k3 operate in a complementary manner. With one switched on, the other must be off. Similarly, S k2 and S k4 are a complementary pair as well. In each leg, three valid switching states are available to generate three voltage levels on the output pole voltage.
3. Modulation Strategy
The objective of this section is to present the proposed CB-PWM strategy, which evaluates performance of the three-level NPC VSI of Fig. 1 .
- 3.1 Conventional CB-PWM strategy
Numerous studies about the CB-PWM strategy for the three-level NPC VSI have been published [12] , which assists to understand the proposed method in this paper. From their results, it is widely known that the addition of a zero-sequence voltage
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selected as (1) to the three-phase sinusoidal reference voltages
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,
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,
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in (2) locates the non-zero voltage vectors in the center of a sampling period [14] - [16] . It provides an optimum switching sequence by which it has some advantages, such as lower harmonic distortion and higher available modulation index ma , compared with the SPWM technique. The zerosequence voltage
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can be generated as,
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In the traditional modulation method, the three-phase reference voltages including the zero-sequence voltage
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for generated the non-sinusoidal three-phase reference voltages
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,
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,
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can be described by,
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where the sinusoidal three-phase reference voltages,
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,
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,
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, are given by,
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where the normalized modulation index ma controls the voltage magnitude and has range of 0 to 1.0.
In (3), ωs t is the inverter electrical position which may be related to a desired fundamental frequency f 1 of output voltages by,
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The traditional CB-PWM strategy takes the instantaneous average of the maximum and minimum of the three-phase reference voltages and adds this value from each of the sinusoidal three-phase reference voltages to obtain the modulation waveforms. The addition of this zero-sequence voltage continuously centers all of the three reference waveforms in the carrier band, which is like to the CBPWM conventional two-level VSI. The CB-PWM technique can only be used for three-phase three-wire system, and it enables the modulation index to be increased by 15.5% before over-modulation.
- 3.2 Principle of the proposed CB-PWM strategy
In the traditional CB-PWM strategy, the three-phase sinusoidal reference voltages including the zero-sequence voltage
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for generated the reference voltages of phase leg voltages. The proposed CB-PWM strategy is a generalized method that uses the effective three-phase sinusoidal reference voltage and the maximum and minimum of the three reference voltages.
The new two variables of modified reference voltage in the proposed CB-PWM strategy are obtained through double reference voltages
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and
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( k A, B,C ) for each phase. The modified reference voltages
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,
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,
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are derived as follows:
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where
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,
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,
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, are the positive reference voltages and
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,
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,
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are the negative reference voltages of the modified reference voltage
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, respectively.
The positive reference voltages take the minimum of the three-reference voltages and subtract this value from each of the three-phase sinusoidal reference voltages, which can be expressed as,
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Similar to (6), the negative reference voltages takes the maximum of the three-reference voltages and subtract this value from each of the three-phase sinusoidal reference voltages is given as,
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where sign function (sgn) is defined by +1 or -1, and δ ∈ {0,1}.
Combining (6) and (7), the modified reference voltages,
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,
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,
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within the maximum and minimum of the three reference voltages, is calculated as,
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- 3.3 Output voltages synthesis
The main proposes of a CB-PWMs strategy of a three-level NPC VSI are to synthesize the desired output voltages and to verify the modified duty cycles. The output pole voltages vkZ , which is the voltage at terminal k with respect to the neutral point Z of Fig. 1 , can be expressed as,
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where Vd is the dc-link voltage.
Form the above equation, these output pole voltages vAZ , vBZ , vCZ are determined by the modified reference voltages
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,
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,
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, directly. In the linear modulation index range, if the peak value of the line-to-line voltage is
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. Therefore, the instantaneous value of the output line-to-line voltages vAB , vBC , vCA can be expressed as,
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In the linear modulation range in (10), the output line-toline voltages are equal to or less than dc-link voltage Vd . Therefore, if a three-phase balanced voltage is to be synthesized using CB-PWM scheme describe above. The modulation index is defined as,
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where
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the fundamental of output pole voltage (peak value), and the possible the modulation index in the linear range can be increased beyond ma = 1 the maximum modulation ma = 1.15 before over-modulating.
Considering the inverter circuit shown in Fig.1 , it can be seen that if the load is star-connected, the line-to-line voltages do not clearly define the respective output phase voltages vAn , vBn , vCn may be expressed in terms of the phase-to-ground voltages by,
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where vnZ is the voltage between the neutral point of the load n and the neutral point of the dc-link capacitor Z , which can be calculated as,
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- 3.4 Calculation of duty cycles
basic idea of this proposed CB-PWM strategy only requires the calculation of the independent duty cycles, which is to consider the output phase voltage in terms of the modified duty cycles dA , dB , dC may be described by,
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Proposed modified CB-PWM scheme for threelevel neutral-point-clamped voltage source inverter.
where dAP , dBP, dCP are positive duty cycles, and dAN , dBN , dCN are negative duty cycles of the modified duty cycles.
From above expressions, the equations show the relationships between effective duty cycles and output pole voltages. Commanded voltages are obtained by first defining a three-phase set of duty cycles which will be offset so that they range from 0-100%. By solving (14), the modified duty cycles for output pole voltage, that is to divide the dc-link voltage, can be described as,
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where dkP , dkN are the modified upper and lower duty cycles, respectively.
The modified duty cycles defined by (15) can be compared to a set of single triangular carrier wave in order to produce a generalized switching state for the additional leg. Therefore, the algorithm can be simply implemented with a triangular carrier and the duty cycles calculation as shown in block diagram of Fig. 2 .
The modified duty cycles of the proposed CB-PWM strategy are given in Fig. 3 . In Fig. 3 (a) , the original sinusoidal modulation signals
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,
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,
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are used to generate the modified duty cycles in the proposed method. Fig. 3 (b) shows the modified duty cycle waveforms dAP and dAN for leg A obtained from application of (6) and (7) to a sinusoidal set of balanced modulation signals, which a line period, ma = 1.0, sgn = +1, and δ = +1. The duty cycles for phase B and C are the same but phase shifted by ± 2 π / 3 . From these figures, it can be shown that the waveforms of the modified duty cycles in phase A comparative with single triangular wave, which are in the range 0 to 1. The expression for modified duty cycle dAN is the same as dAP but inverted and phase shifted of π radian.
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The modified duty cycles for leg A of the proposed CB-PWM strategy under the condition of ma = 1.0, sgn = +1, and δ = +1.
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The modified duty cycles for leg A of the conventional CB-PWM strategies (a) Conventional CB-PWM 1: ma = 1.0, sgn = +1, and δ = 0 (b) Conventional CB-PWM 2: ma = 1.0, sgn = -1, and δ = 0.
For comparative purposes, the simulated duty cycles of conventional CB-PWM strategies for three-level NPC VSI are illustrated in Figs. 4 (a) and (b) , which developed in [17] and [18] , respectively. Fig. 4 (a) shows the simulation duty cycles of conventional CB-PWM 1 for leg A in the case that ma = 1.0, sgn = +1, and δ = 0 From this result, it can be seen that the comparison of the duty cycles with two carriers, which consist of the upper and lower carriers ( vcr1 and vcr2 ). The positive signals will be compared to the upper carrier wave vcr1 , while the negative signal will be compared with the lower carrier wave vcr2 . In the same way, the upper duty cycles for double signals of conventional CB-PWM 2 with ma = 1.0, sgn = -1, and δ = 0 are illustrated in Fig. 4 (b) . The results indicate that the duty cycle dAP is the same dAN but phase shifted of π radian. This method can also be implemented by using upper duty cycles but two phase shift carrier waves ( vcr1 and vcr2 ). The two carrier waves are the same amplitude and frequency, but out of phase.
From the simulation duty cycles in Figs. 3 (b) and Fig. 4 , all CB-PWM strategies give the same results for the output voltages, which are good performance. However, the proposed method is simple and easy to implementation due to the modified duty cycles utilized only single of the triangular carrier wave for generates the gating pulse in three-level NPC VSI.
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Block diagram of the neutral-point voltage control for proposed modified CB-PWM scheme.
The neutral-point voltage control algorithm for proposed modified CB-PWM scheme,k∈ {A, B,C}
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The neutral-point voltage control algorithm for proposed modified CB-PWM scheme, k ∈ {A, B,C}
One of the essential problems of the three-level NPC VSI is the neutral-point voltage balancing. The improved neutral-point voltage unbalance by neutral-point voltage control algorithm is used to solve a problem associated in [24] . The block diagram of the controller is given in Fig. 5 . The neutral-point voltage unbalanced can be controlled by changing the offset voltage ( doffset ) which is generated by the PI controller [31] . The neutral-point voltage control algorithm for proposed modified CB-PWM can be formulated as shown in Table 2. The control algorithm is achieved by applying the magnitude of the offset voltage to the modified duty cycles of each phase ( dkP, dkN ), which is generated the duty cycles ( d'kP ,d'kN ).
4. Simulation Results
In this section, some simulation results of the proposed method are presented. The modeling of the three-level NPC VSI using the proposed CB-PWM strategy has been implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The general conditions for the simulations are given as follows: the dc-link voltage Vd = 550 V and the dc-link capacitors C d1 , C d2 =4700 μ F, and the fundamental frequency f 1 =50 Hz. The three-level NPC VSI feeds a 4-pole wye-connected induction motor, with nominal values of 1 kW, 1500 r/min, 220/380 V, 50 Hz.
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Simulation waveforms for leg A (a) the modified duty cycles dAP and dAN (b) gating pulses vSA1vSA4 .
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Simulation waveforms of dynamic response operation for a ramp modulation index reference (a) line-to-line voltage vAB (b) modulation index ma.
For example, Fig. 6 shows the proposed CB-PWM strategy for the application of a three-level NPC VSI. Fig. 6 (a) shows the simulated waveforms in leg A with modified duty cycles under the condition of the modulation index ma = 1.0 and the low switching frequency fs = 550 Hz. In the proposed CB-PWM strategy, only one of triangular carrier wave vcr is used to generate the gating pulses v SA1 v SA4 , for power switches S A1 and S A4 , which are generated by comparing the modified duty cycle waveforms dAP and dAN with the triangular carrier wave vcr . The logic of gating pulses for power switches is very simple as follows: if dAP > vcr S A1 = ON , S A3 = OFF and if dAN > vcr S A2 = ON , S A4 = OFF . Since the inner gating pulses S A3 and S A4 operate are complementary with S A1 and S A2 , respectively.
The proposed CB-PWM strategy, operating in dynamic response, the output voltages of the three-level NPC VSI system are controlled by adjusting the modulation index ma . Fig. 7 (a) illustrates the dynamic response for a ramp output line-to-line voltage vAB . The modulation index reference increases starting from zero to maximum value (0 to 1.15) for the linear operation mode in 500 ms, with a switching frequency of 2.5 kHz, as shown in Fig. 7 (b) . As can be seen from simulated waveform, the line-to-line voltage has five voltage levels at high modulation index and three voltage levels at low modulation index and the result proves that smooth output voltage can be obtained over the whole range of operation.
The output voltage and current waveforms are given in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 with both high ( ma = 0.8) and low modulation and low modulation ( ma = 0.5) indexes in steady-state conditions. Fig. 8 shows the simulated output voltage and current waveforms of the three-level NPC VSI in high modulation index, at a switching frequency of 2.5 kHz. The pole voltage, line-to-line voltage and phase currents iA, iB, iC of the inverter are illustrated in Fig. 8 (a) - (c) , respectively. This is three voltage levels on the pole voltage vAZ and the five voltage levels on the line-to-line voltage vAB at high modulation indexes. The simulated waveforms agree with the theoretical analysis. The feasibility of the proposed CB-PWM method and the good quality of the voltage and control signals are verified. It can be seen that the voltages are well balanced in the steady-state operation, while the output phase currents are balanced and almost sinusoidal even fundamental frequency switching under high modulation indexes.
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Simulation waveforms at high modulation index, ma =0.8 (a) pole voltage vAZ , (b) line-to-line voltage vAB (c) phase currents iA iB iC .
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Simulation waveforms at high modulation index, ma =0.5 (a) pole voltage vAZ , (b) line-to-line voltage vAB (c) phase currents iA iB iC .
As the low modulation index, the output voltages and currents of the three-level NPC VSI are illustrated in Fig. 8 . Three voltage levels are generated on the output pole voltage vAZ , and three voltage levels are achieved on the line-to-line voltage vAB , as shown in Figs. 9 (a) and (b) , respectively. In Fig. 9 (c) , the phase currents shown are high quality sinusoids and are well balanced despite the open-loop nature of the proposed method algorithm.
The total harmonic distortion (THD) for line-to-line voltages of three-level NPC VSI with both high and low modulation indices are about 43.40% and 58.09%, respectively, as simulated by MATLAB/Simulink. In Fig. 10 (a) and (b) , the output line-to-line voltage harmonics around the switching frequency for the three-level NPC VSI are 379.6 V and 237.6 V at high and low modulation indexes, respectively. As all simulation results, it can be seen that the proposed CB-PWM is good of a three-level NPC VSI and the voltage balance of the dc-link is controlled fairly well in the whole modulation index range of the steady-state operation, even though the proposed CB-PWM method is simple in its structure.
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Simulation harmonic spectrum of line-to-line voltage vAB with proposed CB-PWM strategy (a) ma = 0.8 (b) ma = 0.5.
5. Experimental Results
The experimental set-up of the proposed CB-PWM strategy for the three-level NPC VSI is represented by the block diagram shown in Fig. 11 . It consists of a dSPACE DS1104 controller board with TMS320F240 slave processor, I/O interface board CP1104, a 1 kW four-pole induction motor. A prototype induction motor drive with a front-end three-phase diode bridge rectifier and three-level NPC VSI was built in the laboratory. The setup parameters are the same as those used for the simulation. The inverter output is connected to an induction motor using a standard constant open-loop control method. The machine was unloaded, operating at 50 Hz.
Fig. 12 shows measured waveforms of duty cycles and gating pulse for power switches. Fig. 12 (a) shows the duty cycles dAP and dAN of the conventional CB-PWM 2 at the modulation index ma = 0.8. It can be seen that the upper duty cycles for double signals, which indicate that the duty cycle dAP is the same as dAN but the phase is shifted of π radian. This conventional method requires two triangular carriers to generate the gating pulses. Fig. 12 (b) shows the proposed modified duty cycles dAP and dAN for leg A at the modulation index ma = 0.8, which use only one of triangular carrier wave for generate the gating pulses. It can be seen that the experiments resemble the simulation results. The gating pulses of the power switches for leg A in the three-level NPC VSI can be represented in Fig. 12 (c) , which generated by the proposed CB-PWM strategy. It shows an example of gating pulse arrangements, where v SA1 to v SA4 be the gating pulses for power switches S A1 to S A4 , respectively.
Fig. 13 shows the experimental waveforms of the dynamic response operation for a ramp modulation index reference, which increases from zero to the maximum modulation index ( ma = 1.15). It can be seen that the output line-to-line voltage waveform proves that smooth output voltage for the linear operation. Therefore, the low modulation index becomes limited to a value which is equal to 0.57.
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Experimental set-up.
The inverter voltage and current waveforms in steadystate are shown in Fig. 14 for high and low modulation indices. It can be seen that from both figures there is good agreement between simulations and experiments, which obtained in the conditions of Figs. 8 and Fig. 9 . Fig. 14 (a) shows the steady-state waveforms of the pole voltage vAZ , line-to-line voltage vAB , and output phase currents , iA, iC when the inverter operates at the modulation index ma = 0.8. The line-to-line voltage of the inverter under steady-state operation generated by the five-level inverter can be clearly appreciated in the voltage waveform.
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Experiment waveforms for leg A : (a) the conventional CB-PWM 2 duty cycles dAP and dAN (Scale: 2 V/div), (b) the proposed modified CB-PWM duty cycles dAP and dAN (Scale: 2 V/div), and (c) the proposed modified CB-PWM gating pulses for power switches vSA1 , vSA2 , vSA3 , and vSA4 (Scale: 20 V/div).
Similarly, Fig. 14 (b) also show voltage and current waveforms of the proposed method can be applied for low modulation index, ma = 0.5. From these results, it can be shown that the line-to-line voltage vAB of the inverter under steady-state operation is generated by the three-level voltage and has a amplitude of Vd / 2 . The line-to-line voltage is identical to that of a conventional two-level inverter. The closely match of simulation and experimental results well verify the feasibility and validity of the proposed strategy. In addition, from both simulation and experimental results, it can be seen that the voltage waveforms generated by the proposed CB-PWM strategy are stable in the steady-state condition.
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Experimental waveforms of dynamic response operation for a ramp modulation index reference (a) line-to-line voltage vAB (Scale: 250 V/div), (b) modulation index ma (Scale: 5 V/div).
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Experiment waveforms of the proposed modified CB-PWM: pole voltage vAZ (Scale: 500 V/div), line-to-line voltage vAB (Scale: 250 V/div), and output phase currents iA, iC at no load (Scale: 1.5 A/div) (a) modulation index ma = 0.8 (b) modulation index ma = 0.5.
Fig. 15 shows the steady-state voltage and current waveforms of the conventional CB-PWM 2 for high and low modulation indices. It can be seen from both figures that there is good agreement and the experimental results of the proposed method in Fig. 14 are close to conventional CB-PWM 2. Again, the conventional method requires two triangular carriers for generate the gating pulses, which is a complex implementation.
Fig. 16 shows the harmonic spectrum of the line-to-line voltages of three-level NPC VSI using the proposed CBPWM strategy with a switching frequency fs = 2.5 kHz. The fundamental output line-to-line voltage under the condition of ma = 0.8 and 0.5 had a value of 384.5 V and 238.9 V, respectively. The THD was showed from 46.13% in the high modulation index and 58.88% in the low modulation index. Experimental results and simulated ones presented in Fig.16 and Fig. 10 are in close agreement. Furthermore, in order to verify the proposed CB-PWM strategy for three-level NPC VSI by the simulation results and compared with experimental results, as shown in Table 3 . It can be observed that the differences of the output voltage and THD for line-to-line voltages between simulation and experimental are a very good agreement the whole modulation index ranges (0.1-1.15) and their corresponding the graph in Fig. 17 .
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Experiment waveforms of the conventional CBPWM 2: pole voltage vAZ (Scale: 500 V/div), lineto- line voltage vAB (Scale: 250 V/div), and output phase currents iA, iC at no load (Scale: 1.5 A/div) (a) modulation index ma = 0.8 (b) modulation index ma = 0.5.
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Experimental harmonic spectrum of line-to-line voltage with proposed CB-PWM strategy (a) ma = 0.8 (b) ma = 0.5.
The output voltage and THD for line-to-line voltages between simulation and experimental results under various modulation index.
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The output voltage and THD for line-to-line voltages between simulation and experimental results under various modulation index.
Fig. 17 summarizes the comparison results of the line-toline voltage total harmonic distortion for the conventional and proposed CB-PWM strategies. The THD is evaluated in the whole linear modulation index ranges (0.1-1.15) with incremental step size of 0.1 under 2.5 kHz switching frequency condition. It can be seen that the experimental results of the proposed method are close to conventional CB-PWM strategies (CB-PWM 1 and CB-PWM 2). In the all experimental, the output line-to-line voltages THD between the proposed and other conventional CB-PWM strategies are almost no difference values. However, the advantage of the proposed method can be implemented easily than other conventional strategies because it is used only one of the triangular carrier wave for generating the gating pulses in the three-level NPC VSI.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
THD for the output line-to-line voltages with modulation index of the three-level NPC VSI for different CB-PWM strategies.
6. Conclusion
This paper presented a novel CB-PWM strategy for the three-level NPC VSI. The novelty of the proposed CBPWM strategy is that only single of the triangular carrier wave is employed to for generate the gating pulses in the three-level NPC VSI and significantly simplify the modulation strategy. Experimental results confirmed the good performance with quality to the output voltages and the almost sinusoidal output phase currents in the dynamic and steady-state operations under high and low modulation indices. The feasibility and reliability of the proposed modulation strategy has been verified by both computer simulation and experimental results on an induction motor drive system. Finally, the main advantages associated were simple PWM algorithm, reduce capacitor voltage ripple, lower switching frequencies, and easily hardware implemented.
Acknowledgements
The work was supported by the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program and National Research University (NRU) Project from Office of the Higher Education Commission of Thailand.
BIO
Watcharin Srirattanawichaikul received the B.Eng degree in electrical engineering (First class honors) from King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand, in 2006 and the M.Eng. degree in Electrical Engineering from Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, in 2008. He is currently working toward his Ph.D. at Chiang Mai University. His research interests include power electronics, energy conversion systems, and electric drives.
Suttichai Premrudeepreechacharn received the B.Eng. degree in electrical engineering from Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, in 1988 and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electric power engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA, in 1992 and 1997, respectively. Since 2002, he has been an Associate Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University. His research interests include power quality, high-quality utility interfaces, power electronics, and artificial-intelligence-applied power systems.
Yuttana Kumsuwan received the M.Eng. degree in electrical engineering from King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand, in 2000 and the Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, in 2007. Since 2011, he has been an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University. He was a visiting professor at the Texas A&M University, College Station, United States, from October 2007 to May 2008, and at Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada in March to May 2010. His research interests include power electronics, energy conversion systems, and electric drives.
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