In this paper a novel converter structure based on cascade converter family is presented. The suggested multilevel advanced cascade converter has benefits such as reduction in number of switches and power losses. Comparison depict that proposed topology has the least number of IGBTs among all multilevel cascade type converters which have been introduced recently. This characteristic causes low cost and small installation area for suggested converter. The number of on state switches in current path is less than conventional topologies and so the output voltage drop and power losses are decreased. Symmetric and asymmetric modes are analyzed and compared with conventional multilevel cascade converter. Simulation and experimental results are presented to illustrate validity, good performance and effectiveness of the proposed configuration. The suggested converter can be applied in medium/high voltage and PV applications.
1. Introduction
Multilevel voltagesource converters provide a cost effective solution in the low and mediumvoltage energy management market
[1]
. The term multilevel was introduced with the three level converters
[2]
. A multilevel converter is a power electronic system that produces a desired output voltage via several levels of dc voltages as inputs. With increasing the number of dc voltage sources, the converter output voltage waveform yields nearly sinusoidal waveform while using a fundamental frequencyswitching scheme. As the number of levels increases, these advantages will be enhanced. This characteristic results in highpowerquality waveforms with lower distortion and a low blocking voltage for switching devices. However, it can impose more cost due to increase the circuit complexity and number of components and so the efficiency and reliability of multilevel converter is decreased. These are the main drawbacks of multilevel converters. Three main types of commercial topologies of multilevel voltagesource converters are: neutral point clamped (NPC) or diode clamped
[2]
, cascaded Hbridge (CHB)
[3]
, and flying capacitors (FCs)
[4]
.
Among these converter topologies, the higher output voltage and power rating (13.8 kV, 30 MVA) are related to cascaded multilevel converter and its modular topology causes the higher reliability. The major disadvantages associated with the multilevel configurations are their circuit complexity, requiring the high number of power switches and the great number of auxiliary dc voltages which provided either by independent supplies or, more commonly, by a bulky array of capacitive voltage splitters. In this case, balancing the dc voltages is another factor that makes modulator circuit more complex
[5]
. A lot of efforts in literatures have been done to reduce the number of power switches and dc sources in several new topologies of multilevel cascade converters. The first introduced topology was the series Hbridge design
[6]
, but several configurations have been obtained for this topology as well
[7

8]
. Several combinational designs have also been developed by cascading the fundamental topologies
[9

10]
. These designs can improve power quality for a given number of semiconductor devices than the fundamental topologies alone due to a multiplying effect of the number of levels. In
[11

12]
new configurations have also been proposed in which the number of separate dc sources have been diminished for highvoltage, highpower applications. A new cascaded multilevel converter called Zigzag converter is presented in
[13]
. Multiple outputs in this novel converter are produced only by one dc source. The dc voltage of each cascaded cell can be balanced without special control, and independent of load type. In this paper a novel symmetric and asymmetric multilevel modular cascade converter is proposed. Number of switches and onstate IGBTs is reduced in suggested advancedcascade converter. The proposed configuration is discussed in both symmetric and asymmetric form. Then comparison is done between suggested multilevel converter and conventional one that presents advantages of this topology. Eventually simulation results and a prototype implementation of proposed multilevel converter are presented to show affectivity of new topology.
2. Cascade Multilevel Converter
A series connection of multiple singlephase converters creates cascaded multilevel converter. Each converter consists of a dc voltage source and four power switches that can produce three levels of voltage on its terminals. Three voltage steps refer to positive and negative values and zero level in each basic converter. Desired staircase voltage waveform is generated by composing appropriate dc voltage sources. This construction has capability to acquire medium output voltage levels utilizing only standard lowvoltage components. This decreases the switching losses and voltage stress on power electronic devices, also the output voltage has small voltage steps, which results in high power quality, low harmonic components and better electromagnetic compatibility. A high modularity capability is main property of these converters because each converter can be seen as a module with similar circuit topology, control structure, and modulation. The cascaded Hbridge (CHB) topologies are suitable solution for high voltage applications due to the modularity and the simplicity of control. But, in these topologies, a great number of separated DC voltage sources are required to supply each conversion cell.
Fig. 1(a)
depicts a cascaded Hbridge structure with n DC voltages sources which can produce 2n+1 output voltage levels in symmetric mode. In symmetric position for n dc voltage sources we have V
_{1}
=V
_{2}
=…=V
_{n}
=V
_{dc}
.
Multilevel cascade HBridge converter: (a) Symmetric converter; (b) Asymmetric converter
3. Proposed Topology
 3.1 Fundamental unit of suggested converter
As seen from
Fig. 2
basic unit consist of two dc voltage sources and four semiconductor unidirectional switches or IGBTs. When number of dc sources is equal in conventional and proposed converter, it is found out that number of IGBTs here is half of that one in HBridge. Therefore each dc source devotes two IGBTs to itself.
Basic cell of proposed topology for symmetric mode
In asymmetric CHB converter more output voltage levels are generated compared to the symmetric mode by same number of dc voltage sources.
Each basic unit is able to generate all voltage levels, zero, V and 2V. It is noteworthy that each basic module with two DC voltage sources and 4 switches beside a surrounding Hbridge produces five levels (positive and negative levels and regarding zero level) so the proposed topology with more than three DC voltage sources (two dc sources inside first module and a single voltage source) can generate more output levels with less switches because Hbridge is common for all the modules. Switching states are given in
Table 1
for proposed symmetric basic unit. To avoid short circuit across dc voltage sources in the basic unit S
_{11}
and S
_{13}
should operate in complementary mode with S
_{12}
and S
_{14}
respectively.
Switching states of basic symmetric proposed topology
Switching states of basic symmetric proposed topology
Fundamental asymmetric unit of recommended converter is achieved with partial rearrangement in symmetric topology which is presented in
Fig. 3
. These changes entail adding an IGBT S
_{11}
at left side of symmetric structure and exchanging of central IGBT with one bidirectional switch as seen in
Fig. 3
. In this basic module S
_{13}
is added to avoid turning on diode of S
_{14}
when S
_{11}
is on. This prevents short circuit across dc voltage sources V
_{11}
and V
_{21}
in the
Fig. 3
.
Basic proposed topology for asymmetric mode
Switching states have been obtained in
Table 2
for asymmetric unit shown in
Fig. 3
. If dc voltage sources are selected as binary mode, the basic unit will be able to generate four positive levels considering zero level. It is assumed V
_{1}
=1V and V
_{2}
= 2V in this table.
Switching states of basic asymmetric proposed topology
Switching states of basic asymmetric proposed topology
As seen from
Table 2
to avoid short circuit across DC voltage sources in the basic unit S
_{11}
, S
_{12}
and S
_{15}
should operate in complementary mode with S
_{13}
, S
_{14}
and S
_{16}
respectively. Furthermore S
_{11}
and S
_{12}
should not be turned on simultaneously. For example if S
_{12}
and S
_{13}
are turned on, S
_{14}
should not turn on; otherwise V
_{11}
will be shorted circuit. S
_{13}
and S
_{14}
operate like a bidirectional switch.
 3.2 Suggested configuration
Novel suggested configuration for multilevel cascade converter called advanced cascade (AC) converter in symmetric form is shown in
Fig. 4
. In this method, all of the dc voltage sources in each unit are identical.
Proposed symmetric multilevel advanced cascade converter
Where V is amplitude of each dc voltage sources and n is number of dc power supplies. It is noteworthy that n should be odd. In the symmetric case a single DC voltage source is used in the top of all modules to produce more output level without need of two excessive IGBTs. This figure represents connection of n1 fundamental units and an innovative Hbridge encompassed bulk of novel cascade topology. In this structure, role of Hbridge is to reverse the positive output voltage levels in second half cycle of voltage waveform.
Although several dc sources are required in this configuration, in some applications renewable energy sources could be used, such as photovoltaic panels or fuel cells, or with energy storage devices, such as capacitors or batteries. If ac voltage is already available, multiple dc power supplies can be produced via the isolated transformers and rectifiers. The overall output voltage of the proposed cascaded multilevel converter is the sum of output voltages of the m basic units, as follows:
Where for ith basic unit
For achieving more output voltage steps with the same number of dc voltages sources that used in symmetric multilevel converter, asymmetric form is introduced.
Fig. 5
shows the proposed asymmetric multilevel converter. In asymmetric multilevel converter with n dc power supplies, values of dc voltage sources are defined as bellow:
Proposed asymmetric multilevel advanced cascade converter
Where k=1,2…n, and p is integer number that represents asymmetric factor and V is the smallest dc voltage source in the top of all modules (single DC voltage source). As the matter of the fact DC voltage sources which are used in
Fig. 5
are selected by (4) in a sequence.
Here some partial changes have been implied to asymmetric recommended topology. As well as adding two IGBTs in each basic unit which is mentioned before, two IGBTs are joined to alone dc voltage source. To increase the number of output levels in proposed asymmetric topology, one DC source with two IGBTs are added. Two IGBTs is added to the single DC voltage source in the top of all modules (V) to create paths for selecting or eliminating this DC source in order to generate desired step in output voltage. Also in the ith module (as seen in
Fig. 5
) Si1 is added to create path for contributing the V2i1 lonely in the output voltage waveform. Adding this IGBT necessitate adding Si3 beside Si4 to prevent short circuiting the DC sources in this module.
By combinations of switching states of each unit, the various output voltage levels can be obtained. If suitable values for the dc voltage sources are chosen, then the output voltage of the converter can be produced between –
and +
, where v
_{oi}
is determined as bellow:
4. Comparison Study
 4.1 Number and rating of devices
The purpose of this section is comparison of imperative quantities between suggested multilevel converter and traditional multilevel converter with the same dc power supplies in the both magnitudes and number.
Table 3
and
4
show comparison results between proposed advanced multilevel cascade converter and conventional multilevel cascade converter. It should be noticed in
Tables 3
and
4
number of output levels includes positive and negative as well as zero levels. Number of dc voltage sources is equal to n and each unit is consisted of two dc voltage source. It is noteworthy that n should be odd.
Comparison of proposed advanced cascade multilevel converter in symmetric and asymmetric modes
Comparison of proposed advanced cascade multilevel converter in symmetric and asymmetric modes
Comparison of conventional multilevel cascade converter in symmetric and asymmetric modes
Comparison of conventional multilevel cascade converter in symmetric and asymmetric modes
In the asymmetric form of basic unit shown in
Fig. 3
the PIV is calculated as follows:
In same way for asymmetric form of ith basic unit PIV would be equal to:
Therefore total PIV of asymmetric converter shown in
Fig. 5
can be obtained as follows:
Where, m is number of basic units.
It is noteworthy that n should be odd.
Table 4
shows traditional multilevel cascade circuit information in both symmetric and asymmetric modes. It should be pointed out that in the comparison of proposed and conventional topology the number of DC voltage sources should be considered as equal. So for the single DC voltage source (V) used in the asymmetric proposed topology with two IGBTs, it is assumed an Hbridge is used in the conventional one includes a DC source.
Comparison between two tables illustrates number of IGBTs and onstate switches are almost half of that one in conventional configuration. Number of output voltage levels of multilevel cascade converter in symmetric and asymmetric mode is exactly same to that of suggested converter. This comparison approves advantages of the suggested configuration in this paper. As a matter of fact with less number of IGBTs, same output voltage steps could be generated in introduced topology compared to HBridge cascade multilevel converter.
Fig. 6
shows the number of IGBTs versus the number of voltage levels in proposed symmetric topology. As the figure shows, for any specific value of level, the proposed topology uses lower number of IGBTs in comparison with CHB. The figure clearly shows that the proposed topology uses less number of IGBTs.
Number of IGBTs versus number of levels for the symmetric topology
 4.2 Power losses calculation
Generally power electronic converters have two kinds of losses. The conduction losses are produced by equivalent resistance and the onstate voltage drop of the semiconductor devices. Nonideal operation of switches creates the switching losses. Calculation of the losses of the proposed multilevel converter is discussed below.
 A. Conduction losses
In order to calculate the conduction losses, firstly conduction losses of a typical power transistor and diode is calculated then they are extended to the multilevel converter. The instantaneous conduction losses of a transistor (p c, T (t)) and diode (p c, D (t)) can be expressed as follows:
Where, VT and VD are the onstate voltage of the transistor and diode, respectively. RT and RD are the equivalent resistance of the transistor and diode, respectively and
β
is a constant related to the characteristic of the transistor. Therefore, using (9) and (10), the average conduction power loss of the proposed submultilevel converter can be calculated as follows
[14]
:
where, x(t) and y(t) are number of transistors and diodes in the current path in any instant of time respectively.
 B. Switching losses
The switching losses are calculated for a typical switch and then the results are developed for the proposed multilevel converter. The total switching power losses consist of two components:

1. IGBT switching power loss

2. Antiparallel diodes power losses
The following equations can be written:
Where,

Psw,Tis switching power losses of IGBT,Eon,Tis turn on energy losses in IGBT

Eoff,Tis Turn off energy losses in IGBT andfswis switching frequency.
The index
Anti
−
D
indicates the parameter related to the antiparallel diodes. The switching losses depend on the number of switching transitions. Therefore, it depends on the modulation method. Finally total switching power losses of a fundamental block can be calculated as below:
Where
i
are depended on switching pattern that define the number of turned on IGBTs.
Using (11) and (14), the total losses of the fundamental multilevel converter will be as follows:
Comparison of the power losses for the 7level symmetric proposed and conventional structures is depicted in
Fig. 7
. Calculation of losses is analyzed based on SPWM modulation approach. In this case the proposed configuration consist of a module includes two DC voltage sources and a single DC source is utilized. Here conventional structures consist of three Hbridges. Both cascaded and proposed converters are simulated using BUP406 IGBTs with the given data in
[15]
and 10v DC voltage sources values and load parameters of 30 ohm and 20 mH. As seen in this figure power loss of proposed topology is less than conventional one.
Comparison of the power losses for the proposed and conventional structures
5. Simulation and Experimental Results
 5.1 Simulation results
Fig. 8
shows the 11level hybrid Advanced cascade (AC) converter in symmetric form which has two basic unit so n=5 and number of IGBTs according to
Table 1
are 2n+2 where yield 12 IGBTs. Switching states of 11level proposed converter have been illustrated in
Table 5
to make operational principle of AC multilevel converter much more comprehensible. The switch S is ON when its state is 1 and is OFF when its state is 0.
The 11level symmetric hybrid Advanced cascade
Switching states of 11level proposed topology in symmetric form
Switching states of 11level proposed topology in symmetric form
Figs. 9
and
Fig 10
illustrate simulation results. It should be noticed that in symmetric and asymmetric proposed topologies two modules and one module as well as a single DC sources are implemented respectively. In presented simulation and experimental results the DC voltage sources are considered 100V. Therefore output voltage waveforms consist of 100 V steps in the simulation and experimental results. Dc voltage sources in asymmetric form for proposed configuration are selected according to a geometric progression with a factor of two.
Fig. 9 (a)
show simulation results of output voltage and current for 11level proposed symmetric topology under RL load.
Fig. 9 (b)
shows THD analysis and magnitudes of different harmonic components in output voltage waveform for proposed symmetric topology.
Simulation results of 11level proposed converter in symmetric mode
Simulation results of 15level proposed converter in asymmetric mode
Fig. 10 (a)
presents simulation result of 15level asymmetric configuration (output voltage and current).
Fig. 10 (b)
shows THD analysis and magnitudes of different harmonic in output voltage waveform for proposed asymmetric topology. For this case, THDs of the output voltage based on simulations are 14.58% and 11.24% in suggested symmetric and asymmetric forms respectively.
As it can be seen in these waveforms, the output current has a low THD, meaning near sinusoidal waveform. To produce a desired output with high power quality, the number of voltage levels should be increased.
 5.2 Experimental results
To evaluate the performance of the suggested multilevel converter, shown in
Fig. 8
, a singlephase 11level prototype has been modeled and implemented. The
Fig. 11
shows the implemented laboratory prototype photograph. The IGBTs used in the prototype are BUP406 with internal antiparallel diodes and voltage and current ratings equal to 1200V and 20 A, respectively. The switching required pulses are produced by the DsPIC30F4011 microcontroller. The Hcpl316j is used as IGBT gate derives. In the implemented proposed symmetric multilevel converter the DC voltage sources are 100 V.
The implemented laboratory prototype
Figs. 12
and
Fig. 13
illustrate experimental results. Amplitude of the smallest DC voltage source for the asymmetric proposed topology is 70 V in the experimental test so the output voltage waveform is obtained with 70 V steps.
Figs. 12 (a)
and
(b)
present experimental results of output voltage waveforms for 11level proposed symmetric topology in no load and under RL load respectively.
Experimental results of 11level proposed symmetric configuration
Experimental results of 15level asymmetric configuration
Figs. 13 (a)
and
(b)
depict experimental results of output voltage waveforms for 15level proposed asymmetric topology in no load and under RL load respectively.
Fig. 13 (c)
shows the FFT analysis and magnitudes of different harmonic components of output voltage. As seen in this figure main harmonic is related to 50Hz which devotes the greatest magnitude to itself.
As seen in this figure the simulation and experimental results are match as saliently. Partial difference between the magnitudes of the simulation and experimental results is because of the voltage drops on switches in the prototype.
6. Conclusion
In this paper, a new converter topology has been proposed which has many superior features over conventional topologies. In the proposed topology less number of power switches is required compared to conventional converter. Furthermore suggested topology needs lower number of isolated dc voltage sources in comparison to conventional topologies. The number of on state switches in current path is less than conventional topologies. Therefore, the voltage drop in output voltage, cost, and volume of proposed converter are low too. In the comparison part these advantages have been shown clearly. The experimental results of the developed prototype for an elevenlevel converter of the proposed topology are demonstrated in this paper.
BIO
Ali Ajami He received his B.Sc. and M. Sc. degrees from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty of Tabriz University, Iran, in Electronic Engineering and Power Engineering in 1996 and 1999, respectively, and his Ph.D. degree in 2005 from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty of Tabriz University, Iran, in Power Engineering. Currently, he is associate Prof. of electrical engineering department of Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University. His main research interests are dynamic and steady state modeling and analysis of FACTS devices, harmonics and power quality compensation systems, microprocessors, DSP and computer based control systems.
Mohammad Reza Jannati Oskuee He was born in Tabriz, Iran, in 1988. He received his B.Sc. degree (2011), in electrical power engineering from University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. Currently he is M.Sc. student of Power Engineering at Azarbaija n Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran. His major research interests include smart grid, distribution system planing and operation, renewable energy, power electronics, application of evolutionary algorithms and intelligence computing in power systems, dynamics and FACTS devices.
Ataollah Mokhberdoran He was born in Tabriz, Iran in 1983 and received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from the Electrical Engineering Faculty of Iran University of Science and Technology and Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Iran, in Electrical Power Engineering in 2006 and 2010, respectively. Currently, he works as R&D manager of ASAS Company in Tabriz. In recent years, he performed numerous industrial research and development projects in power engineering fields. His research interests include multilevel inverters, power converters, renewable energies, FACTs, DSP based power electronic devices and smart grids.
Mahdi Toupchi Khosroshahi He was born in Tabriz, Iran, in 1984. He received his B.Sc. and M. Sc. degrees from the electrical engineering Faculty of Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran, in Power Engineering in 2008 and 2013, respectively. His main research interests include control and operation of smart microgrid, distribution system, renewable energy, power electronics, FACTS devices, application of evolutionary algorithms and intelligence computing in power systems and Medicine.
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Data sheet of IGBT ‘BUP 406’
www.datasheetcatalog.com