Review of Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1900(Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) from Korea
Review of Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1900(Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) from Korea
Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity. 2016. Oct, 32(4): 293-296
Copyright © 2016, The Korean Society of Systematic Zoology
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : August 05, 2016
  • Accepted : October 28, 2016
  • Published : October 31, 2016
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About the Authors
Jae-Cheon, Sohn
Institute of Littoral Environment, Mokpo National University, Muan 58554, Korea
Sung-Soo, Kim
Research Institute for East Asian Environment and Biology, Yongin 16894, Korea
Soowon, Cho
Department of Plant Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea

Two species of Cryptophlebia : C. nota Kawabe and C. ombrodelta (Lower), are reported from Korea for the first time. This is in fact the first record of Cryptophlebia from Korea, as the previous Korean records of the genus were based on one species, Cryptophlebia hematoma Diakonoff, currently assigned to Thaumatotibia Zacher. Photos of the superficial and genital features are provided for the two Korean species of Cryptophlebia and their distribution and host plants are summarized. Cryptophlebia ombrodelta is recognized as an adventive species in Korea and a potential pest on leguminoseous crops.
Cryptophlebia Walsingham comprises about 53 species predominantly distributing in the Indo-Pacific Region (Komai, 2013) . Obraztsov (1958) proposed that Cryptophlebia belongs to olethreutine tribe, Grapholitini. Differing from this, Common (1990) mentioned its relatedness with Microcorsini or Olethreutini, while Horak and Brown (1991) assigned the genus to Eucosmini. Recent phylogenetic approaches with morphologies (Komai, 1999) or molecular data (Regier et al., 2012) supported Obraztsov’s proposal. Komai (1999) further suggested that the genus Cryptophlebia belongs to the Grapholita- genus group. Kuznetzov and Stekolnikov in Kuznetzov (2005) established Cryptophlebiina, a new subtribe within Grapholitini, for Cryptophlebia and Thaumatotibia Zacher. Cryptophlebia includes medium-sized to large moths typically with a subtriangular pretornal patch on the forewing. The larvae often bore into fruits, galls or twigs of various host plants, mainly Leguminosae. A polyphagous species, Cryptophlebia ombrodelta (Lower), also known as the macadamia nut borer, is a serious pest of macadamia (Proteaceae) and lychee (Sapindaceae) (Common, 1990) .
The first Korean record of Cryptophlebia was given by Byun et al. (1998) with Cryptophlebia hemitoma Diakonoff. This species was later combined to Thaumatotibia (Komai, 1999) . Therefore, the present study is in fact the first record of Cryptophlebia from Korea. We report two species of Cryptophlebia new to Korea. All the specimens examined for this study are deposited at the Department of Plant Medicine, Chungbuk National University (CBNU); the National Institute of Biological Resource, Incheon (NIBR); and the second author’s private collection (KSS).
  • Family Tortricidae
  • Subfamily Olethreutinae
  • Tribe Grapholitini
- CryptophlebiaWalsingham
  • CryptophlebiaWalsingham, 1899: 105. Type species:Cryptophlebia carpophagaWalsingham, 1899[=Arotrophora(?)ombrodeltaLower, 1898], by original designation.
  • PogonozadaHampson, 1905: 586. Type species:Pogonozada distortaHampson, 1905, by original designation.
  • PhanerophlebiaDiakonoff, 1957b: 142(as subgenus ofCryptophlebia). Type species:Cryptophlebia perfractaDiakonoff, 1957, by original designation.
Diagnosis. Cryptophlebia is closely related to Thaumatotibia but differs from the latter in having a subtriangular or Y-shaped plate on the male tergum VIII (a broad plate in Thaumatotibia ) and a pair of filiform scale-tufts on each side from the pocket on each side of male tergum VIII (absent in Thaumatotibia ). Komai (1999) recognized three additional character states supporting the monophyly of Cryptophlebia : (1) male sternum VIII with a pair of short projections laterally; (2) a greatly swollen, clavate valva with sparse strong spines on the inner surface of the cucullus; and (3) the corpus bursae spinulose in anterior 1/2-4/5. The males usually have the hind-tibia and first hind-tarsomere short and wide, with piliform scale, the hindwing on the underside usually with an elongate, heavily sclerotized pocket formed in the distal half of CuA 2 which contains a mass of fine piliform scales (Komai, 1999) .
Distribution. Worldwide except for the Nearctic region, most diverse in Indo-Pacific area.
Host plants. Seeds, nuts, pods, fruits, or twigs of various plant families including Anacardiaceae, Hippocastanaceae, Leguminosae, Proteaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae (Komai, 1999) .
- 1*Cryptophlebia notaKawabe (Figs. 1C,2B)
  • Cryptophlebia notaKawabe, 1978: 188(type locality [TL]: Japan, Ichikawa Pref., Anamizu, Bira).
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Cryptophlebia ombrodelta: A, Male (forewing length 7.5 mm); B, Female (forewing length 10.3 mm). Cryptophlebia nota: C, Male (forewing length 5.7 mm).
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Cryptophlebia ombrodelta: A, Male genitalia, ventral view; C, Female genitalia, ventral view. Cryptophlebia nota: B, Male genitalia, ventral view.
Description. Scales on head dark brownish gray; antenna dark brown. Forewing length 5.7-6.5 mm (n=3), dark brownish gray, with dark brown irroration and reticulation; reddish brown patch present at middle of dorsum and near tornus; pale orange streak present along basal 1/2 of dorsum. Hindwing pale brownish gray on distal half, pale grayish yellow on basal half, with black, elliptical patch after hyaline area; tornal area emarginated. Abdomen brownish gray dorsally, pale yellowish gray ventrally. Male genitalia ( Fig. 2 B) with uncus semi-elliptical; tegumen subquadrate; valva gradually broadened distally, necked with spatulate cucullus, basal cavity quadrate, sacculus with triangular bulge and two strong, spiniform setae at distal end; juxta semicircular with a pair of subtriangular depression along upper margin; phallus narrow, with elongate area of spinulate cornuti. See Kawabe (1978) for female genitalia.
Material examined. Korea: 1♂, Gangwon Prov.: Chuncheon, Gangwon National University, 4 VI 2001, Sohn JC, NIBR; 1♂, Chungnam Prov.: Nonsan, Yangchon-myeon, Yangchon Resting Place, 36°09′29.11″N, 127°12′56.99″E, 1 VII 2004, Sohn JC, GS#: SJC-350, CBNU; 1♂, Jeonnam Prov.: Gwangyang, Mt. Baegunsan, 22 VI 1989, Yoo YH, NIBR.
Distribution. Korea (new record), Japan (Honshu), Russia (Far East).
- 2*Cryptophlebia ombrodelta(Lower) (Figs. 1A, B,2A, C)
  • Arotrophora(?)ombrodeltaLower, 1898: 48(TL: Australia, New South Wales, Sydney).
  • Cryptophlebia carpophagaWalsingham, 1899: 106(TL: India, Calcutta).
  • Argyroploce lasiandraMeyrick, 1909: 592(TL: Sri Lanka).Cryptophlebia ombrodelta:Bradley, 1953: 682.
Description. Scales on head pale brown on basal 2/3, dark grayish brown on distal 1/3; antenna grayish orange. Forewing length 7.7-10.3 mm (n=4), pale brown, with brown reticulation and dark brown streaks in males, brownish gray, broadly irrorated with pale grayish brown on tornal area in females; postmedian line double, pale orange in males; white spot at end of discal cell apparent; dorsal area broadly dark brown in males; dark reddish brown, semicircular patch near tornus in females. Male hindwing brownish gray, paler to base; hyaline area transparent; tornal area with androconial scales on sclerotized elliptical patch. Female hindwing dark brownish gray, slightly sinuous along termen. Abdomen dark brownish gray dorsally, pale yellowish gray laterally, purplish gray ventrally. Male genitalia ( Fig. 2 A) with tegumen broadly semitriangular on upper 1/3, rectangular on lower 2/3; valva gradually broadened to apex, cucullus semiglobular, with three strong spiniform setae, basal cavity rectangular; juxta inversed-trapezoidal, with a pair of round depression along upper margin; phallus broadened in basal 1/3, with elongate patch of spinulate cornuti. Female genitalia ( Fig. 2 C) with papilla analis broadened dorsally; ostium bursae with narrow sclerotized area postlaterally; sterigma ring narrow; ductus bursae slender in caudal 1/3, gradually broadened to corpus bursae, with sclerotized ring at caudal 1/3; corpus bursae globular, with two isomorphic signa; each signum elongate, blade-like.
Material examined. Korea: 1♂, Chungnam Prov.: Taean- gun, Manripo Beach, 27 VI 2002, Sohn JC, GS#: SJC- 349, CBNU; 1♂, Jeonnam Prov.: Sinan-gun, Isl. Heuksando, 34°41′N, 125°24′E, 143 m, 22 IX 2006 (MNU), GSN: SJC-972, NIBR; 1♀, Wando-gun, Gunoi-myeon, near Wan-do Arboretum, 22 V 2015, Kim SS, KSS; 1♀, ditto, 6 X 2015, Kim SS, GSN: SJC-993, NIBR.
Distribution. Korea (new record), Japan, Russia (Far East), China, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Guam Island, Australia, New Guinea, Fiji, and Hawaii Islands.
Host plant. This species is one of the well-known pests to macadamia nuts (Proteaceae: Macadamia spp.), therefore known as the macadamia nut borer. Another vernacular name of this species is the litchi fruit moth, also reflecting its host plant. The larvae are seed feeders on a wide range of leguminoseous plants, e.g., Acacia , Adenanthera , Bauhinia , Caesalpinia , Cassia , Indigofera , Parkinsonia , Phaseolus , Pithecolobium , Poinciana , Prosopis , Sesbania , and Tamarindus , and also fruit feeders on Arecaceae- Cocos nucifera L.; Euphorbiaceae- Euphorbia ; Polygonaceae- Coccolobis uvifera (L.) Crantz; Rutaceae- Aegle , Citrus , and Feronia ; Saphidaceae- Filicium decipiens Thwaites, Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Bradley, 1953 ; Diakonoff, 1957a ; Issiki, 1957 ; Zimmermann, 1978 ; Komai, 1999 ; Kuznetzov, 2005) .
Remarks. Diakonoff (1957a) suggested that it originated from India. This species seems adventive rather than residential in Korea since it has been caught only from the areas adjacent to the coasts. Once established, this species could be a potential pest on leguminoseous crops.
1*점깍지애기잎말이나방, 2*큰깍지애기잎말이나방
We thank to Prof. Sei-Woong Choi (Mokpo National University) for allowing us to examine the institutional collection under his responsibility. This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR201601203).
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