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Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Sinopoda (Araneae, Sparassidae), with Descriptions of Two New Species from Korea
Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Sinopoda (Araneae, Sparassidae), with Descriptions of Two New Species from Korea
Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity. 2016. Oct, 32(4): 281-292
Copyright © 2016, The Korean Society of Systematic Zoology
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : September 21, 2016
  • Accepted : October 28, 2016
  • Published : October 31, 2016
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Jun-Gi, Lee
Jun-Ho, Lee
Sam-Kyu, Kim
samkyuk@kangwon.ac.kr

Abstract
The genus Sinopoda (Araneae, Sparassidae) from Korea are taxonomically reviewed. As a result, Sinopoda aureola is removed from the synonymy of Sinopoda stellatops and treated as a valid species. In addition, two new species, Sinopoda biguttata sp. nov. and Sinopoda nigrobrunnea sp. nov. are described with accompanying photographs. The new species, S. biguttata sp. nov., can be distinguished from other congeners by the combination of following characteristics: a pair of large ivory patterns near posterior muscle sigilla on opisthosoma; relatively small internal genitalia and long, distally bifurcated fertilization duct. The new species, S. nigrobrunnea sp. nov., can be distinguished from other congeners by the combination of following characteristics: lateral edge of epigyne angled; edge of epigynal pocket linear; glandular appendages perpendicularly directed then curved posteriorly.
Keywords
INTRODUCTION
The genus Sinopoda Jäger, 1999 belongs to a group of huntsman spiders (Araneae, Sparassidae), inhabiting many countries in Eastern Palaearctic and Oriental Regions, from Eastern India to Japan (Jäger, 1999) . Up to date, the genus contains 56 valid species, about 95% of them are endemic to each country (World Spider Catalog, 2016) . Previously eight species had been recorded from Korea (Kim et al., 2015a , 2015b) before the latest checklist of Korean spiders by Yoo et al. (2015) in which they reported three species for Korean Sinopoda species. Recently Yoo et al. (2015) revised Korean spider fauna, and synonymized four species, viz, Sinopoda aureola Kim, Lee and Lee, Sinopoda clivus Kim, Chae and Kim, Sinopoda yeoseodoensis Kim and Ye and Sinopoda jirisanensis Kim and Chae with Sinopoda stellatops Jäger and Ono, Sinopoda koreana Paik and Sinopoda forcipata Karsch, respectively, without taxonomic notes on their treatment. Synonymization for those Korean species by Yoo et al. (2015) was not properly justified because diagnostic characteristics of synonymized species are so distinct that it can be used to distinguish them from other Sinopoda species.
In this article, S. aureola , previously synonymized with S. stellatops , is revisited and the status of the species is revalidated. Additionally, detailed descriptions of two new species, Sinopoda biguttata sp. nov. and Sinopoda nigrobrunnea sp. nov., supplemented with photographs and figures are provided.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Specimens used in this study were hand-collected from fields, and fixed in 80% ethanol. Immature spiders were reared to adult for accurate identification, both collection date and preservation date are recorded: (collected date, immature stage)/(preserved date). Coloration was described from specimens preserved in 80% ethanol. For male specimens, left palp was detached from cephalothorax to examine in morphological details. Female epigynes were dissected and cleared in 10% KOH solution in 70℃ for 15 min to examine internal duct systems of epigynes. Photographs of general habitus of live specimens were taken with a digital camera (Sony RX100M3; Sony, Tokyo, Japan), and external morphologies and copulatory organs were examined and photographed by using a macroscope (Leica Z16 APO; Leica, Wetzlar, Germany) and a digital camera (Sony NEX-7; Sony) attached to the macroscope. Photographs were taken in different focal planes, and consecutive images were stacked by using Helicon Focus software (Helicon Soft Ltd., Kharkov, Ukraine). Specimens were measured under a dissecting microscope (Leica M165C; Leica) and analytical software (Leica Application Suite; Leica). All measurements are in millimeters. Measurements for leg and palp are given as ratio of each leg segment to the patella: total length (femur : patella : tibia : metatarsus : tarsus) (in case of palp, metatarsi are not included). Terminologies about somatic morphology followed Kim and Cho (2002) and copulatory organs followed Jäger (2012) . Specimens including type specimens used in this study are deposited at Arachnological Insutitute of Korea (AIK) and Department of Applied Biology, Kangwon National University (KNU), Republic of Korea.
Abbreviations are as follows: AER, anterior eye row; ALE, anterior lateral eye; AME, anterior median eye; AMEAME, interval between AME’s; AME-ALE, interval between AME and ALE; AW, anterior width of dorsal shield of prosoma (carapace); dRTA, dorsal branch of RTA; MOQ, median ocular quadrangle; MOQAW, MOQ anterior width; MOQL, MOQ length; MOQPW, MOQ posterior width; OL, opisthosoma length; OW, opisthosoma width; PER, posterior eye row; PL, length of dorsal shield of prosoma (carapace); PLE, posterior lateral eye; PME, posterior median eye; PME-PME, interval between PME’s; PME-PLE, interval between PME and PLE; PW, width of dorsal shield of prosoma (carapace); RTA, retrolateral tibial apophysis; TL, total body length; vRTA, ventral branch of RTA.
SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNTS
  • Order Araneae Clerck, 1757
  • Family Sparassidae Bertkau, 1872
  • GenusSinopodaJäger, 1999
  • SinopodaJäger, 1999: 19. Type species:Sarotes forcipatusKarsch, 1881. Type locality: Japan.
Diagnosis (modified from Jäger, 1999). For the members of genus Sinopoda can be distinguished from members of other sparassid genera by the combination of the following characteristics: male palp with well-developed embolic apophysis and RTA bifurcated; female copulatory duct uncoiled, running from anterior genital orifice to posterior part of spermathecae; spermathecae divided into a basal part and a head, situated laterally from the entrance of copulatory duct into the spermathecae.
- A key to females of KoreanSinopodaspecies
  • 1. Width of the narrowest portion of lobal septum about 1/3 of epigynal width (seeJäger and Ono, 2000: fig. 46) ····································································Sinopoda stellatops
  • - Width of the narrowest portion of lobal septum less than 1/3 of epigynal width (Fig. 4E) ······································ 2
  • 2. Posterior part of internal genitalia longer than glandular appendage (seePaik, 1968: fig. 14) ·····Sinopoda koreana
  • - Posterior part of internal genitalia as long as or shorter than glandular appendage (Fig. 4F) ································ 3
  • 3. Lateral furrow present (Figs. 3E,4E) ···Sinopoda aureola
  • - Lateral furrow absent (Fig. 5E) ······································ 4
  • 4. Lateral lobe with hump arising posteromedially (seeJäger, 1999: fig. 6) ········································Sinopoda forcipata
  • - Lateral lobe without hump (Fig. 5E) ······························ 5
  • 5. Glandular appendage directed posterolaterally; apical portion of glandular appendage linear; fertilization duct bifurcated; chelicera each with 4 retromarginal teeth (Figs. 5F,7B) ··································Sinopoda biguttatasp. nov.
  • - Glandular appendage directed perpendicularly; apical portion of glandular appendage bent posteriorly; fertilization duct not bifurcated; chelicera each with 5 retromarginal teeth (Figs. 6F,7D) ········Sinopoda nigrobrunneasp. nov.
Remarks. Yoo et al. (2015) synonymized some Korean Sinopoda species in their recently published checklist: S. aureola = S. stellatops ; S. clivus and S. yeoseodoensis = S. koreana ; S. jirisanensis = S. forcipata , respectively. However, Yoo et al. (2015) failed to provide plausible explanations to justify their treatment for synonymization of those species. Moreover, according to original descriptions for each species (Kim and Chae, 2013 ; Kim et al., 2013 , 2014 ; Kim and Ye, 2015) , those synonymized species clearly possessed distinct shapes of body patterns and copulatory organs in both sexes that can be readily distinguished from their respective senior species. In this respect, synonymization of those species should be reconsidered for taxonomic stability of Korean Sinopoda species. At present, type specimens for single species, S. aureola , is available for this study. Examination for those specimens showed that S. aureola is clearly distinctive from S. stellatops in many morphological features (e.g., presence/ absence of lateral furrow, shape of lobal septum) usually used in identification of Sinopoda species. Examination of type specimens of other three previously synonymized species and their respective senior species is warranted to confirm or revalidate the status of those Sinopoda species.
- 1*Sinopoda aureolaKim, Lee and Lee, 2014sp. revalid. (Figs. 1-4)
  • Sinopoda aureolaKim, Lee and Lee, 2014: 12, figs. 1-27 (type locality: Korea).
  • Sinopoda stellatops:Yoo et al., 2015: 6(Korean checklist, synonymization).
Type material. Holotype, ♂, Korea: Seoul, Nowon-gu, Sanggye-dong, rock crevices near the valley of Mt. Suraksan (37°40′59″N, 127°3′47″E), 31 Aug 2013 (collected, subadult)/21 Oct 2013 (preserved), Lee JH (AIK); allotype, ♀, another rock crevice of same locality (37°41′00″N, 127°3′48″E), 8 Sep 2012 (collected, juvenile)/9 Oct 2013 (preserved), Lee JG (AIK).
Other material examined. 1♀, under rocks of same locality as holotype (37°41′01″N, 127°3′51″E), 7 Sep 2013 (collected, subadult)/20 Apr 2014 (preserved), Lee JH (KNU); 1♂, under rocks of same locality, 11 Aug 2016 (collected, subadult)/12 Sep 2016 (preserved), Lee JH (KNU); 2 subadult ♂♂, under rocks of same locality, 11 Aug 2016, Lee JH (KNU); 1 subadult ♀, rock crevices of same locality, 11 Aug 2016, Lee JH (KNU).
Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished from other Sinopoda species by the combination of the following characteristics: male palp with long, pointed dRTA and relatively short, distally rounded vRTA; embolus with distally flattened projection; broadened embolic apophysis with apical part bent posteriorly; female epigyne with distinct lateral furrow and lateral lobes without hump; posterolaterally directed glandular appendage with apical portion bent posteriorly.
Redescription (modified after Kim et al., 2014). Male (holotype). TL 14.82, PL 7.34, PW 7.19, AW 3.83. Carapace ( Fig. 1 A) round, yellowish brown with pubescence; cephalic area with a pair of black Y-shaped pattern and a dark median stripe; thoracic area with dark grey radial pattern, consisted of many marks and horizontal stripes; median groove with black pubescence; posterior end of carapace lined with dark pubescence, making ivory horizontal stripe. Eye area brown ( Fig. 1 B): AME 0.27, ALE 0.44, PME 0.25, PLE 0.44; AME-AME 0.28, AME-ALE 0.09, PME-PME 0.38, PME-PLE 0.52; AER 1.81, PER 2.40, both weakly recurved; MOQL> MOQPW>MOQAW (0.99>0.96>0.77). Chelicera ( Fig. 1 C) 3.16 in length, 1.49 in width, dark brown, densely covered with black setae; cheliceral furrow with 3 promarginal teeth and 4 retromarginal teeth. Endite ( Fig. 1 D) 2.08 in length, 1.29 in width, greyish orange ground color, gradually bright toward apex. Labium ( Fig. 1 D) 1.17 in length, 1.16 in width, dark brown ground color with distally yellowish brown, with pubescence. Sternum ( Fig. 1 D) 3.86 in length, 3.63 in width, shield-shaped, yellowish brown with pubescence. OL 7.14, OW 5.02. Opisthosoma ( Fig. 1 A) ovoid, yellowish brown, densely covered with grey pubescence; anterodorsally with a pair of elongate, irregular black patterns; dorsomedially with two pairs of roundish black muscle sigilla; posterodorsally with two white chevrons and a large triangular ivory pattern with a horizontal black stripe and two lateral black spots; laterally with many irregular ivory spots. LegⅠ 41.96 (2.5 : 1.0 : 2.7 : 2.9 : 1.0); LegⅡ 45.21 (2.6 : 1.0 : 2.7 : 2.9 : 0.9); LegⅢ 32.88 (2.6 : 1.0 : 2.4 : 2.5 : 0.9); LegⅣ 36.14 (2.9 : 1.0 : 2.7 : 3.0 : 1.0); Palp 12.66 (2.0 : 1.0 : 1.0 : 1.9); leg formula 2143, leg formula index 100 : 108 : 78 : 86; coxae to femora yellowish brown, femora with pubescence; spines with dark ring patterns dorsally; patellae to tarsi brown with dark brown pubescence, darker distally. Palpal organ ( Figs. 2 , 4 A-D) reddish brown with pubescence. Cymbium longer than tibia, with retrolateral cymbial furrow. dRTA twice as long as vRTA; dRTA slender, apically pointed, curved ventrally; vRTA about 1.5× as thick as dRTA, apically rounded. Embolus arising in 7- to 8-o’ clock-position from the tegulum, distal part curved perpendicularly; embolus tip with a small, thin projection ( Fig. 4 D); embolic apophysis curved perpendicularly with long, scoop-like distal part. Conductor arising in 1-o’ clock-position from the tegulum, with a long, membranous distal part. Sperm duct distinctly curved.
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Sinopoda aureola holotype male. A, Habitus, dorsal view; B, Eye area, dorsal view; C, Chelicerae, frontal view; D, Endites, labium and sternum, ventral view. Scale bars: A, C, D=2 mm, B=1 mm.
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Sinopoda aureola holotype male. A-C, Left palp: A, Prolateral view; B, Ventral view; C, Retrolateral view; D, E, Embolic division of left palp: D, Ventral view; E, Prolateral view. Scale bars: A-C=1 mm, D, E=0.5 mm.
Female (allotype). TL 20.41, PL 8.22, PW 7.60, AW 4.34. Overall body pattern ( Fig. 3 A) almost same as male, except yellowish brown pubescence. AME 0.28, ALE 0.49, PME 0.30, PLE 0.48; AME-AME 0.35, AME-ALE 0.10, PME-PME 0.48, PME-PLE 0.58; AER 2.09, PER 2.81, both weakly recurved; MOQPW>MOQL>MOQAW (1.09>0.99>0.90). Chelicera ( Fig. 3 C) 3.72 in length, 2.05 in width, dark brown, densely covered with black setae; cheliceral furrow with 3 promarginal teeth and 4 retromarginal teeth. Endite ( Fig. 3 D) 2.29 in length, 1.47 in width, greyish orange ground color, gradually bright toward apex. Labium ( Fig. 3 D) 1.28 in length, 1.30 in width, dark brown with yellowish brown distally. Sternum ( Fig. 3 D) 3.88 in length, 3.87 in width, shield-shaped, yellowish brown. OL 11.67, OW 7.30. LegⅠ 34.83 (2.3 : 1.0 : 2.2 : 2.2 : 0.7); LegⅡ 36.55 (2.5 : 1.0 : 2.4 : 2.3 : 0.7); LegⅢ 30.74 (2.4 : 1.0 : 2.1 : 2.0 : 0.7); LegⅣ 33.37 (2.7 : 1.0 : 2.4 : 2.6 : 0.9); Palp 11.71 (2.0 : 1.0 : 1.3 : 2.3); leg formula 2143, leg formula index 100 : 105 : 88 : 96; leg pattern almost same as male, except yellowish pubescence. Epigyne ( Figs. 3 E, 4 E) wider than long, with a pair of short, narrow anterior longitudinal bands; epigynal pockets running from posterolaterally to anteromedially; edge of epigynal pocket distinctly concave; posterior epigynal margin without humps; lobal septum narrow, with a distinct median furrow; lateral furrow distinct. Internal genitalia ( Figs. 3 F, 4 F) with anterior part elongated; glandular appendages narrow, distally rounded, directed posterolaterally and curved posteriorly; parallel part of internal duct shorter than glandular appendages; posterior parts of spermathecae shorter than glandular appendages and parallel part of internal duct, distally rounded; fertilization ducts long, directed posterolaterally, with rectangular membranous sac medially.
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Sinopoda aureola allotype female. A, Habitus, dorsal view; B, Eye area, dorsal view; C, Chelicerae, frontal view; D, Endites, labium and sternum, ventral view; E, Epigyne, ventral view; F, Internal genitalia, dorsal view. Scale bars: A, C, D=2 mm, B=1 mm, E, F=0.5 mm.
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Illustrations of Sinopoda aureola holotype male (A-D) and allotype female (E, F). A-C, Left palp: A, Prolateral view; B, Ventral view; C, Retrolateral view; D, Embolus and embolic apophysis, ventral view; E, Epigyne, ventral view; F, Internal genitalia, dorsal view. CO, conductor; dRTA, dorsal branch of RTA; EA, embolic apophysis; EM, embolus; FD, fertilization duct; GA, glandular appendage; LF, lateral furrow; LS, lobal septum; MS, membranous sac; PP, posterior part of internal genitalia; SD, sperm duct; ST, subtegulum; TE, tegulum; vRTA, ventral branch of RTA. Scale bars: A-C=1 mm, D=0.25 mm, E, F=0.5 mm.
Coloration in live materials. Male carapace, opisthosoma and femora densely covered with ivory pubescence dorsally; endites, labium and sternum with khaki pubescence. Female body and femora with yellowish brown pubescence dorsally; endites, labium, sternum and coxae with greyish yellow pubescence. Overall body patterns same as preserved materials, but more distinct in live materials. For figures of habitus of live specimens, see Kim et al., 2014 : figs. 1, 14.
Ecology. This species usually inhabits dark, humid places in forests, such as under the pile of rocks or rock crevices near streams.
Distribution. Korea (indigenous).
Remarks. Although S. aureola was previously synonymized with S. stellatops (Yoo et al., 2015) , this species can be readily distinguished from S. stellatops and morphological differences are summarized in Table 1 . Besides, males of S. aureola are superficially similar to males of S. forcipata , S. hamata Fox and S. minschana Schenkel, which all have long and sharp dRTA, but differ from the latters by short, distally round vRTA ( Fig. 4 B, C) (Jäger, 1999 : figs. 1, 2; Fox, 1937 : figs. 8, 9; Schenkel, 1936 : fig. 52a, b). Females of S. aureola are quite similar to those of S. licenti Schenkel, which also have similar lateral furrow in epigynal pocket, but differ from the latter by lacking humps on posterior epigynal margin ( Fig. 4 E) (Schenkel, 1953 : fig. 28). Since S. aureola is morphologically distinctive from other known Sinopoda species including S. stellatops , the status of S. aureola should be revalidated and removed from the synonymy.
A comparison of diagnostic characters betweenSinopoda aureolaandSinopoda stellatops
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aFor figures of Sinopoda stellatops, refer figures in Jäger and Ono (2002).
- 1*Sinopoda biguttatasp. nov. (Figs. 5,7A, B,8A)
Type material. Holotype, ♀, Korea: Seoul, Gangbuk-gu, Suyu-dong, under rocks in forest of Mt. Bukhansan (37°37′42″N, 127°00′14″E), 23 May 2015 (collected, subadult)/ 30 Jul 2015 (preserved), Lee JH (KNU).
Diagnosis. This species is readily distinguished from other Sinopoda species by the combination of following characteristics: a pair of ivory patterns near the posterior muscle sigilla on opisthosoma in dorsal view; relatively small internal genitalia (glandular appendages not exceed edge of epigynal pocket); and long, distally bifurcated fertilization ducts.
Description. Female (holotype). TL 14.17, PL 6.47, PW 5.88, AW 3.55. Carapace ( Figs. 5 A, 8 A) round, yellowish brown with pubescence; cephalic area with a pair of black Y-shaped pattern and a dark median stripe; thoracic area with dark brown radial pattern, consisted of many marks and horizontal stripes; median groove with black pubescence; posterior end of carapace lined with dark pubescence, making ivory horizontal stripe. Eye area dark brown ( Fig. 5 B); AME 0.28, ALE 0.39, PME 0.28, PLE 0.40; AME-AME 0.32, AME-ALE 0.17, PME-PME 0.43, PMEPLE 0.62; AER 1.76, PER 2.46, both recurved; MOQPW> MOQL>MOQAW (0.98>0.79>0.73). Chelicera ( Fig. 5 C) 2.68 in length, 1.62 in width, dark brown, densely covered with black setae; cheliceral furrow with 3 promarginal teeth and 4 retromarginal teeth. Endite ( Fig. 5 D) 1.70 in length, 1.18 in width, greyish orange ground color, gradually bright toward apex, laterally with grey mark. Labium ( Fig. 5 D) 0.72 in length, 1.01 in width, dark brown and distally yellowish brown with pubescence. Sternum ( Fig. 5 D) 3.05 in length, 3.09 in width, shield-shaped, yellowish brown with pubescence. OL 7.38, OW 5.46. Opisthosoma ( Figs. 5 A, 8 A) ovoid, reddish brown, densely covered with grey pubescence; anterodorsally with a pair of elongate, irregular black patterns and a reversed T-shaped ivory pattern; dorsomedially with two pairs of black muscle sigilla, posterior pair with large ivory pattern; posterodorsally with two ivory chevrons and a large triangular ivory pattern with a horizontal black stripe; laterally with many irregular grey spots. LegⅠ 26.03 (2.6 : 1.0 : 2.3 : 2.3 : 0.8); LegⅡ 27.01 (2.6 : 1.0 : 2.2 : 2.2 : 0.8); LegⅢ 21.50 (2.5 : 1.0 : 1.9 : 2.1 : 0.8); LegⅣ 25.85 (2.9 : 1.0 : 2.3 : 2.7 : 1.0); Palp 9.09 (1.9 : 1.0 : 1.4 : 2.1); leg formula 2143, leg formula index 100 : 104 : 83 : 99; leg coxae to femora yellowish brown, femora with pubescence; spines with dark ring patterns dorsally; patellae to tarsi dark brown, darker distally. Epigyne ( Figs. 5 E, 7 A) wider than long, with a pair of short, narrow anterior longitudinal bands; epigynal pockets wide, running from posterolaterally to anteromedially; edge of epigynal pocket weakly concave; posterior epigynal margin without humps; lobal septum narrow, with a shallow, anteriorly indistinctive median furrow. Internal genitalia ( Figs. 5 F, 7 B) relatively small, with anterior part weakly elongated; glandular appendages short and narrow, not exceed edge of epigynal pocket, distally rounded, directed posterolaterally; parallel part of internal duct about as long as glandular appendages and posterior parts of spermathecae; posterior parts of spermathecae short, distally rounded; fertilization ducts long, distally bifurcated, directed posterolaterally, with rectangular membranous sac medially.
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Sinopoda biguttata sp. nov. holotype female. A, Habitus, dorsal view; B, Eye area, dorsal view; C, Chelicerae, frontal view; D, Endites, labium and sternum, ventral view; E, Epigyne, ventral view; F, Internal genitalia, dorsal view. Scale bars: A, C, D=2 mm, B=1 mm, E, F=0.5 mm.
Male. Unknown.
Coloration in live materials. Female ( Fig. 8 A) carapace, opisthosoma and femora densely covered with light grey pubescence dorsally; endites, labium, sternum and coxae with grey pubescence. Overall body patterns same as preserved materials, but more distinct in live materials.
Ecology. The holotype specimen of S. biguttata was collected under the pile of rocks in the forest.
Etymology. Specific epithet refers to a pair of large ivory patterns near the posterior muscle sigilla on opisthosoma.
Distribution. Korea (indigenous)
Remarks. Female epigyne of this new species is similar to that of S. angulata Jäger, Gao and Fei, S. forcipata , S. stellatops and S. ogatai Jäger and Ono, but differs from latters by posterior epigynal margin without humps and narrow lobal septum. Also, the internal genitalia of S. biguttata is similar to S. forcipata and S. ogatai , but is much smaller and shorter that glandular appendages does not exceed edge of epigynal pocket, and the angle between the glandular appendage and the parallel part of internal duct is almost 90°.
Male of this new species is largely unknown since only single female specimen is available for this study. Even though diagnostic characteristics of this new species, lateral edge of epigyne angled and almost linear edge of epigynal pocket, are enough to distinguish it from other Sinopoda species, more specimens including male are also in great need to clarify the uniqueness of this new species.
- 1*Sinopoda nigrobrunneasp. nov. (Figs. 6,7C, D,8B)
Type material. Holotype, ♀, Korea: Gyeonggi-do, Namyangju- si, Joan-myeon, on the wall of a building in AIK (37°34′03″N, 127°16′56″E), 25 Jul 2015 (collected, subadult)/ 13 Sep 2015 (preserved), Lee JH (KNU).
Diagnosis. This species can be readily distinguished from other Sinopoda species by the combination of following characteristics: blackish brown body coloration; lateral edge of epigyne angled; edge of epigynal pocket almost linear; glandular appendages long, directed perpendicularly then curved posteriorly.
Description. Female (holotype). TL 14.19, PL 7.21, PW 6.55, AW 3.45. Carapace ( Figs. 6 A, 8 B) round, yellowish brown, with pubescence; cephalic area with a dark median stripe; thoracic area with dark brown radial pattern consisted of many irregular marks; median groove with dark brown pubescence; posterior end of carapace lined with dark pubescence, making ivory horizontal stripe. Eye area dark brown ( Fig. 6 B); AME 0.30, ALE 0.42, PME 0.30, PLE 0.42; AME-AME 0.26, AME-ALE 0.13, PME-PME 0.42, PME-PLE 0.61; AER 1.90, PER 2.63, both recurved; MOQPW>MOQL>MOQAW (1.02>0.92>0.77). Chelicera ( Fig. 6 C) 3.06 in length, 1.77 in width, dark brown, densely covered with black setae; cheliceral furrow with 3 promarginal teeth and 5 retromarginal teeth. Endite ( Fig. 6 D) 1.78 in length, 1.23 in width, greyish orange ground color, gradually bright toward apex with lateral dark grey mark. Labium ( Fig. 6 D) 0.75 in length, 1.06 in width, dark brown, distally yellowish brown with pubescence. Sternum ( Fig. 6 D) 3.15 in length, 3.41 in width, shield-shaped, yellowish brown with pubescence. OL 6.52, OW 4.45. Opisthosoma ( Figs. 6 A, 8 A) ovoid, yellowish brown, densely covered with black pubescence; anterodorsally with a pair of irregular black patterns and a reversed T-shaped ivory pattern; dorsomedially with two pairs of black muscle sigilla; posterodorsally with a large triangular ivory pattern with a horizontal black stripe and two lateral black spots; laterally with many irregular black spots. LegⅠ 25.94 (2.4 : 1.0 : 2.3 : 2.0 : 0.8); LegⅡ 27.83 (2.4 : 1.0 : 2.2 : 2.0 : 0.8); LegⅢ 23.11 (2.3 : 1.0 : 1.9 : 1.8 : 0.7); LegⅣ 26.33 (2.6 : 1.0 : 2.2 : 2.3 : 0.9); Palp 9.60 (2.2 : 1.0 : 1.5 : 2.2); leg formula 2413, leg formula index 100 : 107 : 89 : 102; leg coxae to femora yellowish brown, patellae to tarsi dark brown, darker distally with dark brown pubescence; femoral spines with very small ivory spots dorsally. Epigyne ( Fig. 6 E, 7 C) laterally angled, wider than long, with a pair of short, narrow anterior longitudinal bands; epigynal pockets wide, running from posterolaterally to anteromedially; edge of epigynal pocket almost linear; posterior epigynal margin without humps; lobal septum narrow with a shallow, anteriorly indistinctive median furrow. Internal genitalia ( Fig. 6 F, 7 D) with anterior part elongated; glandular appendages long and narrow, distally rounded, directed perpendicularly and curved posteriorly; parallel part of internal duct about as long as glandular appendages and posterior parts of spermathecae; posterior parts of spermathecae short, distally round, thicker than glandular appendages; fertilization ducts long, directed posterolaterally, with rectangular membranous sac medially.
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Sinopoda nigrobrunnea sp. nov. holotype female. A, Habitus, dorsal view; B, Eye area, dorsal view; C, Chelicerae, frontal view; D, Endites, labium and sternum, ventral view; E, Epigyne, ventral view; F, Internal genitalia, dorsal view. Scale bars: A, C, D=2 mm, B=1 mm, E, F=0.5 mm.
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Illustrations of Sinopoda biguttata sp. nov. holotype female (A, B) and S. nigrobrunnea sp. nov. holotype female (C, D). A, C, Epigyne, ventral view; B, D, Internal genitalia, dorsal view. FD, fertilization duct; GA, glandular appendage; LS, lobal septum; MS, membranous sac; PP, posterior part of internal genitalia. Scale bars=0.5 mm.
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Habitus of live specimens of Sinopoda biguttata sp. nov. (A) and S. nigrobrunnea sp. nov. (B).
Male. Unknown.
Coloration in live materials. Female ( Fig. 8 B) carapace, opisthosoma and femora densely covered with dark brown pubescence dorsally; endites, labium, sternum and coxae with black pubescence. Overall body patterns same as preserved materials, but carapace patterns are less distinct in live materials.
Ecology. Although the holotype specimen of this new species has been collected in the artificial building, it is not clear that the new species inhabits in human houses as known in Heteropoda venatoria Linnaeus (Jäger, 2014) , because the collection site is located in the middle of the woods. This new species may inhabit dark, humid spaces such as rock crevices in forests, like other Sinopoda species in Korea, and deserted artificial building in the woods can also be a potential habitat.
Etymology. Specific epithet refers to the blackish brown coloration of overall body of the specimen.
Distribution. Korea (indigenous)
Remarks. Male of this new species is largely unknown since only single female specimen is available for this study.
1*금빛농발거미 (개칭)
1*쌍점농발거미 (신칭)
1*흑갈농발거미 (신칭)
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to express the deepest appreciations to Dr. Joo Pil Kim for his kindness in providing valuable specimens for this study. Thanks also go to anonymous reviewers for reviewing this manuscript. This study was supported by 2015 Research Grant from Kangwon National University (No. 520150110).
References
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