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Revision of the Genus Ablabesmyia (Diptera, Chironomidae, Tanypodinae) in Korea
Revision of the Genus Ablabesmyia (Diptera, Chironomidae, Tanypodinae) in Korea
Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity. 2016. Oct, 32(4): 241-252
Copyright © 2016, The Korean Society of Systematic Zoology
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : June 14, 2016
  • Accepted : October 28, 2016
  • Published : October 31, 2016
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Han Il, Ree
para@yuhs.ac

Abstract
Out of the 12,100 slide-mounted specimens of Chironomidae collected throughout Korea from February 1977 to March 2016, 271 (2.2%) were from the genus Ablabesmyia (Diptera, Chironomidae, Tanypodinae). These 271 specimens were re-examined and eight species were identified, with three of these species shown to be new to science ( A. hanea n. sp., A. microlongistyla n. sp., and A. paralongistyla n. sp.). It was discovered that A. monilis reported in 1981 and A. longistyla reported in 2009 had been misidentified, and corrected as A. prorasha in the present study. Among the eight species found from Korea, A. prorasha was predominant (37.8%), followed by A. longistyla (28.9%), and A. monilis (20.4%). A key of the eight species of Ablabesmyia found in Korea is provided.
Keywords
INTRODUCTION
The genus Ablabesmyia Johannsen, 1905 belongs to the subfamily Tanypodinae of the family Chironomidae. The adult males of this genus can be readily distinguished by leg bands and the unique structure of the megaseta at the tip of the gonostylus. However, species identification of this genus is difficult. The hypopygium of the males is the most useful key character, particularly the gonocoxal basal structure (Murray and Fittkau, 1989) . In Korea, four species of the genus Ablabesmyia - A. jeongi Ree, 2013 ; A. longistyla Fittkau, 1962 ; A. monilis (Linnaeus, 1758) , and A. yongi Ree have been reported (Ree and Kim, 1981 ; Ree, 2009 , 2013b , 2013c) . All 12,100 specimens of Ablabesmyia collected in Korea were re-examined, and it was discovered that A. longistyla and A. monilis were misidentified and three species were new to science. A key of the eight species of genus Ablabesmyia found in Korea is presented.
MATERIALs AND METHODS
Adult chironomids were collected by sweeping grasses around breeding sites using an insect net during the day, and operating light traps and aspirating adults attracted to the light and resting on walls and/or windows of various buildings/ houses at night. All collected adults were preserved in 75% ethanol. For slide preparation, the head, antennae, thorax with legs, wings, and hypopygium of each specimen were dissected using two fine dissecting needles under a stereomicroscope, and mounted in either phenol balsam or Hoyer’s solution. For body size measurements, wing length was measured from the apex to the arculus. The antennal ratio was calculated by dividing the length of the longest segment (plus any segment distal to it) by the combined length of the remaining segments, excluding the pedicel. The leg ratio of the fore leg was calculated by dividing the length of tarsus I by the length of the tibia. Abbreviations are WL (wing length), AR (antennal ratio), LR (leg ratio), RM (radius-median cross vein), MCu (medial-cubital cross vein), FCu (forked cubitus), and H (humeral vein). The terminology follows Saether (1980) . In the figures, the dorsal view was drawn, otherwise mentioned in parenthesis. Measurements were made using the holotype specimen. The type specimens are deposited in the collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance Bank, Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Yonsei University.
SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNTS
  • Order Diptera
  • Family Chironomidae
  • Subfamily Tanypodinae Thienemann and Zavrel, 1916
  • GenusAblabesmyiaJohannsen, 1905
Diagnosis. Eye bare, with narrow dorsomedial extension. Antepronotum well developed. Acrosticals and dorsocentrals numerous. Wing membrane with macrotrichia, either unmarked or marked with varying patterns. RM and MCu darkened. MCu distal to FCu. R 2+3 present and forked. Legs with distinct dark rings. Gonocoxite slightly swollen basally. Gonostylus long, slender, and tapering, with cochleariform megaseta and distally expanded subterminal seta. Gonocoxal basal structure unique, complicated.
- 1*Ablabesmyia hanean. sp. (Fig. 1)
Material examined. Holotype: ♂ (RCH-9828), Korea: Gangwon-do, Chuncheon-si, Geunwha-dong, 4 Oct 2014, Kim CH. Paratypes: 3♂♂ (RCH-5713, 5716, 7519), Chungcheongnam- do, Dangjin-gun, Hapdeok-eub, 28 Oct 2009, Ree HI; 1♂ (RCH-8053), Jeju-do, Seogwipo-si, Jungmundanji, 15 Oct 2012, Jeong KY.
Diagnosis. Medium-sized, brownish yellow species (WL 2.18 mm). Femur pale with sub-apical dark ring. Transverse sternapodeme short and thick. Gonocoxal basal structure with large, pale, broad, laterally directed lobe with round tip, and with scleroid basal bar; aedeagal blade absent. AR 1.95. LR 0.8.
Description (male). HEAD: Pale dark brown. Eye black, bare, dorsomedially produced. Antenna pale dark brown, with 14 segments (last one short). AR 1.95. Palp yellowish dark brown, with 5 segments: 32, 126, 162, 130, and 288 μm (1 : 2.9 : 5.1 : 4.1 : 9.0). Clypeus brownish yellow, with 39 setae. THORAX: Brownish yellow in ground colour. Scutum brownish yellow, vittae Van Dyke brown, 75 acrosticals, 29-37 dorsocentrals, and 20-23 prealars each side. Scutellum pale, with 52 setae. Postnotum Van Dyke brown. WING ( Fig. 1 A): WL 2.18 mm. Membrane covered with macrotrichia and faint clouds. FM, R 2 , tip of R 2+3 , tip of R 4+5 , H dark. R 2 present. R 4+5 distal to M 3+4 . MCu present. Cu 1 bent at tip. Anal lobe normally developed. Squama with setae. LEGS: Femur pale with subapical dark ring (basal 2/3 of fore and mid femur brown). Tibia pale with sub-basal, mid and apical dark rings. Tarsus I pale with mid and apical dark rings. Tarsi II-IV pale, apical 1/3 dark. Tarsus V pale brown. LR 0.8. ABDOMEN: Tergites I-V pale, tergites VI-VIII pale with faint cloud at middle. HYPOPYGIUM ( Fig. 1 B): Anal tergite small, lateral sternapodeme narrow, smoothly bent inward, transverse sternapodeme short and broad. Gonocoxite pale, very large, broadened at base, with 10 biserial, stout setae, sub-inner laterally. Gonocoxal basal structure with large, pale, broad, laterally directed lobe with round tip, aedeagal blade absent, basal bar sclerotized with filaments. Gonostylus pale, long, distal half narrow, megaseta teethed, with 2 setae sub-apically.
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Ablabesmyia hanea n. sp. A, Wing; B, Hypopygium. Scale bars: A=0.5 mm, B=0.1 mm.
Etymology. This new species name is derived from the Korean name of the country, Han.
Remarks. This species can be separated from other related species by the unique gonocoxal basal structure: aedeagal blade absent, almost transparent large lobe (broad and round tip) directed outward, and scleroid basal bar with filaments apically.
- 1*Ablabesmyia jeongiRee, 2013(Fig. 2)
  • Ablabesmyia jeongiRee, 2013c: 222.
Material examined. 4♂♂, Korea: Gangwon-do, Chuncheon-si, Wudu-dong, 1 May 2009, Jeong KY.
Diagnosis. Yellowish brown, large-sized species (WL 2.9 mm). Wing membrane covered with macrotrichia and faint clouds. Gonocoxite large. Gonocoxal basal structure ( Fig. 2 ), with scleroid dorsal lobe, and long main blade and short basal blade directed horizontally outward. Anal point absent.
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Gonocoxal basal structure of Ablabesmyia jeongi Ree, 2013. Scale bar=0.01 mm.
- 2*Ablabesmyia longistylaFittkau, 1962(Fig. 3)
  • Ablabesmyia longistylaFittkau, 1962: 430;Kobayashi and Kubota, 2002: 317;Hayford, 2005: 196;Sergleva and Makarchenko, 2006: 252;Langton and Pinder, 2007: 42;Shcherbina and Zelentsov, 2008: 20.
Material examined. 3♂♂, Korea: Seoul, Ichon-dong, 26 Apr 1978, Ree HI; 1♂, Jeju-do, Seogwipo-si, 8 Apr 1979, Ree HI; 1♂, Chungcheongnam-do, Asan-gun, Seonjangmyeon, 30 Sep 1984, Ree HI; 5♂♂, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Gimcheon-si, 15 Oct 1996, Ree HI; 2♂♂, Gyeonggi-do, Yeoju, 31 Jul 2009, Lee SM; 21♂♂, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon- si, 1 May 2009, Jeong KY; 2♂♂, Jeollabuk-do, Muju, 28 Aug 2009, Nam SH; 3♂♂, Gyeonggi-do, Hanam-si, 1 May 2010, Ree HI; 1♂, Chungcheongnam-do, Nonsan-si, 15 May 2010, Ree HI.
Diagnosis. Large-sized, yellowish pale species (WL 2.53 mm). Wing membrane covered with macrotrichia and faint clouds. All femurs brownish yellow, with sub-terminal dark ring. Transverse sternapodeme short, lateral sternapodeme tapered distally. Gonocoxal basal structure with sharply pointed aedeagal blade, bent outward, and broad (sausagelike), longitudinal lobe. AR 1.75. LR 0.77.
Description (male). HEAD: Eye bare, dorsomedially produced. Antenna pale dark brown, with 14 segments; last segment short, dark brown. AR 1.75. Palp light brown, with 5 segments: 72, 119, 205, 155, 331 μm (1 : 1.7 : 2.8 : 2.2 : 4.6). Clypeus yellowish brown, with 34 setae. THORAX: Yellowish in ground colour. Scutum yellowish, vittae brown. Scutellum yellowish with 38 setae. Postnotum brown. WING ( Fig. 3 A): WL 2.53 mm. Membrane covered with macrotri chia and faint clouds elsewhere. RM, H, R 2 , tip of R 3 , FCu dark brown. MCu just distal to FCu. R 4+5 distal to M 3+4 . Cu 1 bent. Anal lobe normally developed. Squama with setae. Arculus black, brachiolum pale with 2 setae. LEGS: Femur brownish yellow with sub-terminal dark ring. Tibia yellowish with sub-basal, mid and apical dark rings. Tarsus I yellowish with mid and apical dark rings, tarsi II-IV yellowish with distal half darker, tarsus V yellowish. LR 0.77. ABDOMEN: Tergite I-III pale, tergite IV-V yellowish, tergite VI-VIII deep yellow. HYPOPYGIUM ( Fig. 3 B): Anal tergite rather small, rectangular, transverse sternapodeme very short, lateral sternapodeme tapered apically, bent at tip. Gonocoxite large, yellowish with outer-basal area darker. Anal point nipple in shape. Gonocoxal basal structure rather complicate: aedeagal blade tapered, slightly bent inward, with sharply pointed tip; dorsal lobe broad at base with apical filament; lateral lobe developed. Gonostylus long, tapered apically, slightly bent inward, with teethed megaseta and narrow, long sensory organs.
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Ablabesmyia longistyla Fittkau, 1962. A, Wing; B, Hypopygium. Scale bars: A=0.5 mm, B=0.1 mm.
Distribution. Europe, Russia (Sakhalin Island), Japan, Mongolia, Korea.
Remarks. Ablabesmyia longistyla was reported for the first time in Korea by Ree (2009) , with a single specimen collected in Asan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do. The careful reexamination of this specimen revealed that it was not A. longistyla , but A. prorasha . Therefore, this report is the first record of A. longistyla in Korea.
- 1*Ablabesmyia microlongistylan. sp. (Fig. 4)
Material examined. Holotype: ♂ (RCH-988), Korea: Jeollanam- do, Hanam-gun, Daehung temple; 10 Sep 1978; Ree HI. Paratypes: 2♂♂ (RCH-978, 979), collection data same as holotype.
Diagnosis. Pale yellow, comparatively small species (WL 1.65 mm). Eye with heavily pigmented cornea. Anal point absent. Gonocoxite large, rather slender with long, stout setae. Aedeagal blade of gonocoxal basal structure sharply pointed, slightly bent inward with short lobe at basal end. AR 1.66.
Description (male). HEAD: Yellowish brown. Eye bare, dorsomedially extended, cornea unique in shape ( Fig. 4 A). Antenna brownish yellow, with 14 segments (last one short). AR 1.66. Palp pale brownish yellow, with 5 segments: 47, 101, 144, 104, and 277 μm (1 : 2.1 : 3.1 : 2.2 : 5.9). Clypeus brownish yellow, roughly square-shape, with 30 setae. THORAX: Reddish yellow in ground colour. Antepronotum yellowish, normally developed. Scutum reddish yellow, vittae inconspicuous. Scutellum pale yellow, with 22 setae. Postnotum reddish yellow. WING ( Fig. 4 B): WL 1.65 mm. Membrane covered with macrotrichia and very faint 7-8 clouds. R 2 short, slightly darker. R 4+5 distal to M 3+4 . MCu weak, distal to FCu. Cu 1 bent at tip. An reaching beyond FCu. Anal lobe normal. Squama fringed. Arculus dark, brachiolum pale. LEGS: Femur brownish yellow with subapical dark ring. Tibia pale with sub-basal, mid and apical dark rings. Tarsus I pale with mid and apical dark rings. Tarsi II-III pale with apical dark ring. Tarsus IV pale, distal half slightly darker. Tarsus V pale. ABDOMEN: All segments pale. HYPOPYGIUM ( Fig. 4 C): Anal tergite pale, small. Anal point absent. Gonocoxite large, expanded at base, with long, stout setae sub-laterally. Gonocoxal basal structure with sharply pointed aedeagal blade, slightly bent inward, dorsal lob rather short with weak setae. Gonostylus pale, long, distal half narrow, with darkened, teethed megaseta at tip and 2 sub-apical setae.
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Ablabesmyia microlongistyla n. sp. A, Dorsomedially extended part of eye (corneas); B, Wing; C, Hypopygium. Scale bars: A, C=0.05 mm, B=0.5 mm.
Remarks. This new species is the smallest in body size among the eight Ablabesmyia species found in Korea. The other seven species are approximately similar in size. The corneas of the eye are heavily pigmented, and the aedeagal blade slightly bent inward with sharp point tip. The aedeagal blade is similar to that of A. longistyla , but the tip is bent inward (not outward).
- 1*Ablabesmyia monilis(Linnaeus, 1758)(Fig. 5)
  • Tipula monilisLinnaeus, 1758: 587.
  • Ablabesmyia monilis:Johannsen, 1905: 398;Kieffer, 1906: 342;Goetghebuer, 1937: 31;Roback, 1959: 114;Fittkau, 1962: 437;Roback, 1971: 375;Sasa and Kawai, 1987: 55;Sasa, Kawai and Ueno, 1988: 31;Sasa, 1993: 81;Langton and Pinder, 2007: 42.
  • Pentaneura monilis:Edwards, 1929: 289;Johannsen, 1937: 12.
  • Pentaneura(Ablabesmyia)monilis:Dendy and Sublette, 1959: 508;Roback, 1959: 114;Wang and Zheng, 1992: 248;Kobayashi and Kubota, 2002: 317;Sergleva and Makarchenko, 2006: 252.
Material examined. 1♂, Korea: Seoul, Yongsan-gu, Ichon-dong, 14 May 1978, Ree HI; 4♂♂, Seoul, Ichon-dong, 21 Oct 1978, Ree HI; 2♂♂, Chengcheongbuk-do, Chungjusi, 28 Jul 1979, Ree HI; 1♂, Gyeonggi-do, Yangju-gun, 24 Aug 1980, Ree HI; 1♂, Chungcheongnam-do, Asan-gun, Sinchang, 1 Oct 1984, Ree HI; 2♂♂, Jeollanam-do, Jindo, 24 Jul 1994, Ree HI; 3♂♂, Chungcheongnam-do, Seosan-myon, Jinyong, 22 Apr 1998, Ree HI; 1♂, Jeollanam-do, Namhae, 29 Jun 1998, Ree HI; 16♂♂, Gyeonggi-do, Munsan, 20 May 2003, Ree HI; 1♂, Jeollanam-do, Jinhae-gu, 13 Aug 2006, Ree HI; 2♂♂, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon-si, 1 Aug 2008, Jeong KY; 1♂, Jeollabuk-do, Muju, Ree HI; 1♂, Jeollanam-do, Jangseong, 17 Apr 2009, Jeong KY; 1♂, Chungcheongbuk-do, Chungju-si, 20 Jun 2014, Kim CH; 2♂♂, Chungcheongnam-do, Asan-si, 26 Sep 2014, Kim CH.
Diagnosis. Rather large, brownish yellow species (WL 2.57 mm). Scutum yellowish brown, vittae brown (not clearly defined). Postnotum dark brown. Gonocoxal basal structure with 2 aedeagal blades: main apical blade long, narrowed distally, tip round, and basal blade short, tip sharply pointed. AR 1.91. LR 0.83.
Description (male). HEAD: Yellowish brown. Eye dark, bare, dorsomedially extended. 35-40 postoculars each side. Antenna pale dark brown, with 14 segments (last one short). AR 1.91. Palp brownish yellow, with 5 segments: 46, 111, 161, 116, 305 μm (1 : 2.4 : 3.5 : 2.5 : 6.6). Clypeus brownish yellow, with 39 setae. THORAX: Yellowish brown in ground colour. Antepronotum yellowish brown, normally developed. Scutum yellowish brown, vittae brown (not clearly defined); about 80 acrosticals, 38-41 dorsocentrals and 24-26 prealars each side. Scutellum yellowish brown, with 59 setae. Postnotum dark brown. WING ( Fig. 5 A): WL 2.57 mm. Membrane covered with macrotrichia and 7 faint clouds. RM, H, FCu, R 2 , R 3 , and tip of R 4+5 dark. R 4+5 distal to M 3+4 . Cu 1 bent at end. An reaching far distal to FCu. Anal lobe normally developed. Squama with setae. Brachiolum pale, arculus dark. LEGS: Femur pale with semi-apical dark ring. Tibia pale with semi-basal, mid and apical dark rings. Tarsus I pale with mid and apical dark rings, tarsi Ⅱ-Ⅳ pale with distal half darker, tarsus Ⅴ brownish pale. Pulvillus absent. LR 0.83. ABDOMEN: Tergite I-V pale, tergite VI-VIII slightly darker. HYPOPYGIUM ( Fig. 5 B): Anal tergite narrow, not clearly defined. Gonocoxite large broadened at base, covered with setae. Gonocoxal basal structure with 2 aedeagal blades: main blade long, narrowed distally, tip round, and basal blade short, tip sharply pointed; dorsal lobe almost as long as basal blade, lateral lobe longer than main blade, with many filaments at tip. Gonostylus slender, long, tapered distally, tip slightly expanded, round, serrated.
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Ablabesmyia monilis (Linnaeus, 1758). A, Wing; B, Hypopygium. Scale bars: A=0.5 mm, B=0.1 mm.
Distribution. Europe, North America, China, Japan, Korea.
Remarks. Ablabesmyia monilis was reported for the first time from Korea with a description by Ree and Kim (1981) . In the present study, it was revealed that this species was misidentified and was A. prorasha , not A. monilis . Therefore, the A. monilis fully described here, with illustrations is the first record from the Korean fauna.
- 1*Ablabesmyia paralongistylan. sp. (Fig. 6)
Material examined. Holotype: 1♂ (RCH-5579), Korea: Gyeonggi-do, Yeoju-gun, Gumsa-myeon, 31 Jul 2009, Lee SM. Paratypes: 19♂♂, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon-si, Wudu-dong, 1 May 2009, Jeong KY; 2♂♂, Jeollabuk-do, Muju, 15 Sep 2008, Nam SH.
Diagnosis. Medium-sized, brownish yellow species (WL 2.15 mm). Wing membrane covered with macrotrichia and very weak faint clouds. Gonocoxal basal structure with aedeagal blade, sharply pointed, deeply bent inward. AR 1.80. LR 0.73.
Description (male). HEAD: Eye bare, dorsomedially extended. Antenna pale with 14 segments (last segment short, brown). AR 1.80. Palp yellowish brown with 5 segments: 54, 108, 176, 137, 342 μm (1 : 2.0 : 3.3 : 2.5 : 6.3). Clypeus brownish yellow, with 46 setae. THORAX: Brownish yellow in ground colour. Scutum yellowish brown, vittae brown; 27-29 dorsocentrals and 21-23 prealars each side. Scutellum yellowish, with 45 setae ( Fig. 6 A). Postnotum brown. WING ( Fig. 6 B): WL 2.15 mm. Membrane with macrotrichia and faint clouds elsewhere. RM, R 2+3 , tip of R 2 , FCu dark. R 2+3 present. MCu present, just distal to FCu. R 4+5 distal to M 3+4 . Cu 1 bent at apical end. An far distal to FCu. Anal lobe moderately developed. Squama with numerous setae. Arculus dark brown, brachiolum pale with 3 setae. LEGS: Femur pale yellow with sub-apical dark ring. Tibia pale with subbasal, mid, and apical rings. Tarsi II-IV pale with distal half dark, tarsus V pale yellow. Pulvillus absent. LR 0.73. ABDOMEN: Tergite I-III pale yellow, tergite IV, V and VIII yellowish, tergite VI-VII yellowish with brownish middle area. HYPOPYGIUM ( Fig. 6 C): Anal tergite yellowish, rectangular; lateral sternapodeme pale, narrowed apically, bent at tip; transverse sternapodeme pale, rather short. Gonocoxite large with numerous dorsal setae. Gonocoxal basal structure complicate: aedeagal blade tapered apically, bent outward at tip, bent inward at base, tip pointed. Dorsal lobe slightly bent outward with apical filaments. Lateral lobe as long as aedeagal blade with long filaments. Gonostylus pale, broadened at base, smoothly bent inwards, with teethed megaseta and sensory organ.
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Ablabesmyia paralongistyla n. sp. A, Scutellum; B, Wing; C, Hypopygium. Scale bars: A, C=0.1 mm, B=0.5 mm.
Etymology. This new species name came from the morphologically similar species, A. longistyla .
Remarks. This species is similar to A. longistyla in morphology. The differences are that the aedeagal blade is deeply bent inward in the former, whereas the aedeagal blade is slightly bent outward, and a broad, longitudinal blade is present in the later.
- 1*Ablabesmyia prorashaKobayashi and Kubota, 2002(Fig. 7)
  • Ablabesmyia prorashaKobayashi and Kubota, 2002; 323;Sergleva and Makarchenko, 2006: 252.
Material examined. 3♂♂, Korea: Seoul, Yongsan-gu, Ichon-dong, 20 Sep 1977, Ree HI; 3♂♂, Gyeonggi-do, Dongducheon-eub, 12 Oct 1977, Ree HI; 1♂, Jeollanam-do, Gure, 2 Oct 1977, Ree HI; 1♂, Jeollanam-do, Yeocheon, 3 Aug 1978, Ree HI; 36♂♂, Seoul, Yongsan-gu, Ichon-dong, 29 Apr 1979, Ree HI; 1♂, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon-si, 1 Aug 2008, Jeong KY; 9♂♂, Chungcheongbuk-do, Jecheon-si, 25 Aug 2008, Jeog KY; 10♂♂, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon-si, 14 Sep 2008, Jeong KY; 8♂♂, Gyeonggi-do, Yeoju-gun, Gumsa, 31 Jul 2009, Lee SM; 1♂, Jeju-do, Seogwipo-si, 15 Oct 2012, Jeong KY.
Diagnosis. Medium-sized, brownish pale species (WL 2.18 mm). Wing membrane with macrotrichia and 9 faint clouds. Legs pale with dark rings. Transverse sternapodeme pale, short, broad. Gonocoxal basal structure, with short, dorsal lobe with filaments at tip, and aedeagal blade broad, parallel-sided with round tip. AR 1.91. LR 0.82.
Description (male). HEAD: Eye black, bare, dorsomedially produced. Antenna pale with 14 segments (last segment short, pale, brown). AR 1.91. Palp pale dark brown with 5 segments: 40, 112, 162, 122, 295 μm (1 : 2.8 : 4.1 : 3.1 : 7.4). Clypeus pale dark brown, with 44 setae. THORAX: Pale yellow in ground colour. Antepronotum pale yellow, ventral area brown, with 16 setae ventrally. Scutum yellowish brown, vittae brown. Scutellum pale yellow with numerous setae, irregularly arranged ( Fig. 7 B). Postnotum brown. WING ( Fig. 7 A): WL 2.18 mm. Membrane with macrotrichia and faint clouds. R 2+3 present. MCu just distal to FCu. Cu 1 bent at tip. Anal lobe developed. Squama with many setae. Arculus dark, brachiolum pale with 3 setae. LEGS ( Fig. 7 C): Fore and mid femur light brown with apical and sub-apical dark rings; hind femur pale with sub-apical dark ring. All tibia pale with sub-basal, mid and apical dark rings. Tarsus I pale with mid and apical dark rings; tarsi II-IV-Ⅳ pale (apical 1/3 darker); tarsus Ⅴ pale. Pulvillus absent. LR 0.82. ABDOMEN: All segments pale (segments VI-VIII slightly darker at middle). HYPOPYGIUM ( Fig. 7 D): Anal tergite pale, small, rectangular, without setae; transverse sternapodeme pale, short, broad. Gonocoxite relatively large, broad at base. Anal point short, round at tip. Gonocoxal basal structure complicate: aedeagal blade broad, parallel-sided, with round tip, dorsal lobe narrowed apically with apical filaments. Gonostylus long, narrowed distally, with teethed megaseta and sensory organ.
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Ablabesmyia prorasha Kobayashi and Kubota, 2002. A, Wing; B, Scutellum; C, Legs (fore, mid, and hind, from right); D, Hypopygium. Scale bars: A=0.5 mm, B=0.2 mm, C=1.0 mm, D=0.1 mm.
Distribution. Far East Russia, Japan, Korea.
Remarks. Ablabesmyia prorasha was reported as a new species in Japan in 2002 (Kobayashi and Kubota, 2002) . In Korea, this species was collected in 1981, but was misidentified as another species. The present study revealed that A. prorasha is the most dominant species among the eight Ablabesmyia species.
- 1*Ablabesmyia yongiRee, 2013(Fig. 8)
  • Ablabesmyia yongiRee, 2013a: 167.
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Gonocoxal basal structure of Ablabesmyia yongi Ree, 2013. Scale bar=0.05 mm.
Material examined. 4♂♂ (RCH-5855, 5930, 5937, 6153), Korea: Gangwon-do, Chuncheon-si, Wudu-dong, 1 May 2009, Jeong KY.
Diagnosis. Yellowish brown, middle-sized species (WL 2.63 mm). Wing membrane heavily covered with macrotrichia, without dark patches. Cu 1 deeply bent. Tibia pale yellow with 3 dark rings. Anal tergite extremely small. Gonocoxite large, slightly tapered distally, covered with many setae. Gonocoxal basal structure with 1 lateral blade and complicated dorsal lobe with numerous setae and filaments. AR 1.79. LR 0.57.
- Key to the species of genusAblabesmyiafound in Korea (males)
  • 1. Gonocoxal basal structure with aedeagal blade ············· 2
  • - Gonocoxal basal structure without aedeagal blade ········ 7
  • 2. Aedeagal blade vertical ·················································· 3
  • - Aedeagal blade longitudinal (apical main blade longer than basal blade) ·····················································jeongi
  • 3. Aedeagal blade double (main blade long, with round tip and basal blade short with sharp-pointed tip) ·······monilis
  • - Aedeagal blade single ····················································· 4
  • 4. Aedeagal blade with round tip ···························prorasha
  • - Aedeagal blade with sharp-pointed tip ··························· 5
  • 5. Aedeagal blade deeply bent inward ····························································································paralongistylan. sp.
  • - Aedeagal blade almost straight (slightly bent outward at tip) ·················································································· 6
  • 6. Large species (WL 2.53 mm). Gonocoxal basal structure with longitudinal rod-shaped lobe. Nipple-shaped anal point present ·····················································longistyla
  • - Smaller species (WL 1.65 mm). Gonocoxal basal structure without longitudinal rod-shape robe. Aedeagal blade with small lobe at basal tip. Cornea of eye surrounded by dark pigments ·········································microlongistylan. sp.
  • 7. Gonocoxal basal structure with pale, sausage-like lobe (broad with round tip), directed outward, and with scleroid dorsal lobe ·····················································hanean. sp.
  • - Gonocoxal basal structure without sausage-like lobe, and dorsal lobe not scleroid ···········································yongi
1*한알락깔따구
1*정알락깔따구
2*긴꼬리알락깔따구
1*작은긴꼬리알락깔따구
1*목걸이알락깔따구
1*옆긴꼬리알락깔따구
1*뭉툭알락깔따구
1*용알락깔따구
DISCUSSION
The genus Ablabesmyia belongs to a relatively small group, with four species reported in Japan (Kobayashi and Kubota, 2002) , three species in England (Langton and Pinder, 2007) , sixteen species in America (Roback, 1971) , and four species in Far East Russia (Sergleva and Makarchenko, 2006) . In Korea, of the 12,100 slide-mounted adult specimens of Chironomidae that were collected throughout the country from February 1977 to March 2016, 271 specimens (2.2%) belonged to the genus Ablabesmyia . Since the morphological identification of females is not possible, 70 female specimens were excluded from the present study. A total of 201 males were re-examined and eight species were identified, including three new species. The dominant species were A. prorasha (37.8%), followed by A. longistyla (28.9%), and A. monilis (20.4%) ( Table 1 ).
Number and percentage (%) of the eight species of genus Ablabesmyia collected in Korea
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Number and percentage (%) of the eight species of genus Ablabesmyia collected in Korea
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIER 201601203).
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