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Nine Species of the Family Lauxaniidae (Diptera, Lauxanioidea) New to Korea
Nine Species of the Family Lauxaniidae (Diptera, Lauxanioidea) New to Korea
Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity. 2015. Oct, 31(4): 266-276
Copyright © 2015, The Korean Society of Systematic Zoology
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : July 07, 2015
  • Accepted : October 10, 2015
  • Published : October 31, 2015
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About the Authors
Hyun-Suk Lee
Biology Faculty, University of Dalat, 01 Phu Dong Thien Vuong St., Dalat City, Vietnam
Ho-Yeon Han
Division of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493, Korea
hyhan@yonsei.ac.kr
Abstract
A total of 36 species and 11 genera of the fly family Lauxanidae have been previously recorded in Korean Peninsula. As a result of our ongoing study of this family, we here report the following nine species new to Korea: Homoneura albomarginata Czerny, 1932 , Minettia filia (Becker), 1895 , Pachycerina alutacea Shatalkin, 1998 , Poecilolycia zherichini Shatalkin, 2000 , Protrigonometopus sexlituris (Shatalkin), 1992 , Salebrifacies czurkini Shatalkin, 1992 , Sapromyza albiceps Fallén, 1820 , Steganopsis dichroa Shatalkin, 1998 , and Trigonometopus eborifacies Shatalkin, 1997 . The genera Poecilolycia Shewell, 1986, Salebrifacies Shatalkin, 1992 , and Steganopsis de Meijere, 1910 are recognized for the first time in this country. Therefore, 45 species in 14 genera are now officially recognized for the Korean lauxaniid fauna. In addition, we provide diagnoses and color photographs of adult external structures including male genitalia to aid their specific identification.
Keywords
INTRODUCTION
The family Lauxaniidae is a large family of acalyptrate flies with about 1,838 described species worldwide as of September 2015 (The Diptera Site). Lauxaniid flies are usually found in moist shady undergrowth, grassland, all forest types, sand dunes, mangrove swamps and even on mountain summits ( Kim, 1994 ). Saprophagous larval stages are found in leaf litter, decaying vegetation and similar habitats ( Kim, 1994 ).
Taxonomic investigation of Korean members of the family Lauxaniidae was initiated by Papp (1984a) , who reported eight Homoneura species including three new species from North Korea. Sasakawa and Kozánek (1995a , 1995b) also recognized 23 North Korean species including eight new to science (32 species and nine genera altogether for North Korean fauna). In South Korea, a total of 14 species and five genera are previously reported by various taxonomic investigations including our recent studies ( Lee and Han, 2009 , 2014a , 2014b ). In total, 36 species and 11 genera are currently known in Korean Peninsula ( Han et al., 2014 ; Lee and Han, 2014c ).
As a result of our ongoing study of Korean Lauxaniidae, we here report the following nine species new to Korea: Homoneura albomarginata Czerny, 1932 , Minettia filia (Becker), 1895 , Pachycerina alutacea Shatalkin, 1998 , Poecilolycia zherichini Shatalkin, 2000 , Protrigonometopus sexlituris (Shatalkin), 1992 , Salebrifacies czurkini Shatalkin, 1992 , Sapromyza albiceps Fallén, 1820 , Steganopsis dichroa Shatalkin, 1998 , and Trigonometopus eborifacies Shatalkin, 1997 . The genera Poecilolycia Shewell, 1986, Salebrifacies Shatalkin, 1992 , and Steganopsis de Meijere, 1910 are recognized for the first time in this country. Therefore, 45 species and 14 genera are now officially recognized for the Korean lauxaniid fauna. In addition, we provide diagnoses and color photographs of adult external structures including male genitalia to aid their specific identification.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Terminology and morphological interpretations follow Merz and Haenni (2000) . For photography, consecutive digital images in different focal planes (usually 20 or more shots per a specimen) were taken with digital cameras and the images were Z-stacked using Helicon Focus software (Helicon Soft, Ltd., Kharkov, Ukraine). Habitus photographs were taken with a Panasonic (Osaka, Japan) DMC FZ50 camera and a Raynox (Yoshida Inc., Tokyo, Japan) DCR-250 macro conversion lens. Genitalic photographs were taken with a Nikon (Tokyo, Japan) D90 camera mounted on an Olympus (Tokyo, Japan) CX41 compound microscope.
All the specimens used in this study are deposited in the Division of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju Campus, Korea (YSUW). The abbreviations of the other institutions mentioned in the text are as follows: HUS, Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; ZISP, Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersbourg, Russia; ZMUM, Zoological Museum of Moscow University, Moscow, Russia.
SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNTS
Order Diptera Linnaeus, 1758
Family Lauxaniidae Latreille, 1804
Genus Homoneura Wulp, 1891
1* 1. Homoneura albomarginata Czerny, 1932 (Figs. 1A-D, 6A)
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A-D, Homoneura albomarginata Czerny: A, Lateral view; B, Dorsal view; C, Dorsal view of head; D, Lateral view of head. E-H, Minettia filia (Becker): E, Lateral view; F, Dorsal view; G, Dorsal view of head; H, Lateral view of head.
Homoneura albomarginata Czerny, 1932 : 11 (type locality: Yakovlevka, Staraya Dewitza, nr Chanka See, Ussuri region, Russia); Sasakawa and Ikeuchi, 1982 : 481 (diagnosis, new to Japan); Papp, 1984b : 194 (in Palaearctic catalog); Sasakawa and Ikeuchi, 1985 : 500 (in Japanese key); Shatalkin, 1996 : 178 (in Palaearctic key); 2000 : 26 (in Palaearctic key); Schacht et al., 2004 : 51 (English translation of Shatalkin, 2000 : 26).
Material examined. Korea: Gyeongsangbuk-do: 1♂, Bonghwa-gun, Myeongho-myeon, Mt. Cheongnyangsan, 13 Jul 2007, Lee HS et al.; Gyeonggi-do: 1♀, Gapyeong-gun, Buk-myeon, Hwaak-ri, 3 Jul 2006, Choi DS et al.; Gangwon-do: 1♀, Hongcheon-gun, Nae-myeon, Changchon-ri, North valley of Mt. Gyebangsan, 5 Aug 2005, Han HY, Lee HS; 1♂, 1♀, ditto, 14 Aug 2005, Han HY et al.; 1♂, 7♀, ditto, 31 Aug 2006, Lee HS, Lim JS; 4♂, 10♀, ditto, 20 Aug 2007, Lee HS, Jung JM.
Diagnosis. Body ( Fig. 1A , B ) yellowish brown in ground color with yellowish brown pruinosity; wing greyish semi-transparent with dark brown pattern covering apical 1/5 of cell r1, most of cell r 2+3 except apex and some portions of cells br, r 4+5 , and dm and m; all setae black; setulae mostly black except for tiny whitish setulae on eyes and golden setulae on labella; body length 3.4-4.1 mm and wing length 3.3-3.6 mm. This species can be distinguished from the congeners by the combination of the following characteristics (modified from Shatalkin, 2000 ): (1) frons yellowish brown with two weak brown longitudinal bands ( Fig. 1C ); (2) occiput with brownish upper half area and pale yellowish brown lower half area; (3) palpus yellowish brown with apical 1/3 dark brown; (4) arista dark brown with long setulae longer than width of flagellomere 1 ( Fig. 1D ); (5) scutum with four brown longitudinal vittae ( Fig. 1B ); and (6) wing with unique pattern as described above ( Fig. 1B ).
Distribution. Korea, Japan, Russian Far East.
Remarks. The specimens collected in South Korea agree well with original description by Czerny (1932) and wing figures by Sasakawa and Ikeuchi (1982) and Shatalkin (2000) .
Genus Minettia Malloch, 1929
2* 2. Minettia filia (Becker, 1895) (Figs. 1E-H, 6B)
Sapromyza filia Becker, 1895 : 237 (type locality: Dalmatien und Polen).
Sapromyza pellucida Becker sensu Remm and Elberg, 1979 : 109.
Minettia filia : Papp, 1984a : 161 (taxonomy); 1984b : 200 (in Palaearctic catalog); Shatalkin, 2000 : 48 (in Palaearctic key); Schacht et al., 2004 : 62 (English translation of Shatalkin, 2000 : 48).
Material examined. Korea: Gangwon-do: 1♂, Hongcheon-gun, Nae-myeon, Changchon-ri, North valley of Mt. Gyebangsan, 23 Jun 2005, Lee HS; 4♀, Hongcheon-gun, Nae-myeon, Mt. Gachilbong from Sambongyaksu, 17 Jun 2005, Choi DS et al.; 6♂, 2♀, ditto, 26 Aug 2005, Lee HS, Suk SW; 2♂, 6♀, ditto, 16 Jun 2007, Lee HS, Lim JS; 2♂, ditto, 7 Jul 2007, Lee HS, Lee YB; 2♂, ditto, 7 Sep 2008, Lee HS et al.; 1♂, 2♀, Pyeongchang-gun, Jinbu-myeon, Mt. Odaesan from Bukdaesa Temple to ticket office, 17 Jun 2006, Lee HS, Lee YR.
Diagnosis. Body ( Fig. 1E , F ) yellowish brown in ground color with yellowish brown pruinosity; wing semitransparent with yellowish brown tinge; setae black; setulae mostly black except for tiny whitish setulae on eyes and golden setulae on labella; body length 3.78-4.50 mm; wing length 4.3-4.85 mm. This species can be distinguished from the congeners by the combination of the following characteristics (modified from Shatalkin, 2000 ): (1) body entirely yellowish brown ( Fig. 1E , F ); (2) arista with short setulae as long as thickness of aristal base ( Fig. 1H ); (3) scutum with 0+1 acrostichal and 0+3 dorsocentral setae ( Fig. 1F ); and (4) presutural scutum with 6 rows of short acrostichal setulae ( Fig. 1F ).
Distribution. Korea, Russian Far East, West Europe.
Remarks. The specimens collected in South Korea agree well with male genitalic figures by Remm and Elberg (1979) and Shatalkin (2000) .
Genus Pachycerina Macquart, 1835
* 3. Pachycerina alutacea Shatalkin, 1998 (Figs. 2A-C, 6C)
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A-C, Pachycerina alutacea Shatalkin: A, Lateral view; B, Dorsal view; C, Lateral view of head. D-G, Poecilolycia zherichini Shatalkin: D, Lateral view; E, Dorsal view; F, Dorsal view of head; G, Dorsal view of abdomen.
Pachycerina alutacea Shatalkin, 1998b : 211 (type locality: Kagamihaga, Kita-Kyushu, Kyushu, Japan, 29 Nov 1981, holotype ♂, HUS); 2000 : 38 (in Palaearctic key); Schacht et al., 2004 : 58 (English translation of Shatalkin, 2000 : 38).
Material examined. Korea: Chungcheongbuk-do: 2♂, 2♀, Jecheon-si, Songhak-myeon, 9 Jun 2007, Han HY et al.; Gangwon-do: 1♂, Jeongseon-gun, Nam-myeon, Mt. Mindungsan from Yupyeong-ri to 1,119 m peak, 10 Jun 2007, Han HY et al.; 2♂, Wonju-si, Heungeop-myeon, Maeji-ri, Yonsei Univ. Campus, 15 Jun 2005, Byun HW, Lee HS; 1♀, ditto, 14 Jul 2005, Lee HS; 1♂, ditto, 10 Apr 2007, Lim JS; 1♀, ditto, 14 Apr 2007, Lim JS; 1♀, ditto, 15 Apr 2007, Lim JS; 1♂, ditto, 11 Aug 2007, Lee HS et al.
Diagnosis. Body ( Fig. 2A , B ) yellowish brown in ground color with some brown to dark brown areas, with yellowish brown to gray pruinosity; wing semitransparent with yellowish brown tinge, with more brownish areas along costal margin; all setae black; setulae mostly black except for tiny whitish setulae on arista and eyes and golden setulae on labella; body length 3.05-4.30 mm and wing length 3.10-3.65 mm. This species can be distinguished from the congeners by the combination of the following characteristics (modified from Shatalkin, 2000 ): (1) flagellomere 1 about 9 times longer than pedicel length ( Fig. 2C ); (2) arista whitish except for basal 1/5 yellowish brown, with short whitish setulae ( Fig. 2C ); (3) postsutural scutum anteriorly with 4 rows of short acrostichal setulae, posteriorly with 2 rows of short acrostichal setulae ( Fig. 2B ); (4) hind trochanter ventrally with small dark brown protrusion (only in male); and (5) haltere with stem yellowish brown and knob brownish.
Distribution. Korea, Japan.
Remarks. The specimens collected in South Korea agree well with the original description by Shatalkin (1998b) .
Genus Poecilolycia Shewell, 1986
1* 4. Poecilolycia zherichini Shatalkin, 2000 (Figs. 2D-G, 6D)
Poecilolycia zherichini Shatalkin, 2000 : 65 (type locality: Roshchino, river Iman, Primorskiy Kray, Russia; holotype ♂, ZMUM); Schacht et al., 2004 : 69 (English translation of Shatalkin, 2000 : 63); Ozerov, 2005 : 133 (types in ZMUM).
Material examined. Korea: Gangwon-do: 2♀, Donghae-si, Samhwa-dong, Mureung valley, 19 May 2009, Lee HS, Suk SW; 1♂, Jeongseon-gun, Jeongseon-eup, Mt. Gariwangsan, 7 Jun 2011, Lee HS et al.; 1♂, Wonju-si, Heungeop-myeon, Maeji-ri, Yonsei Univ. Campus, 21 May 2010, Lee HS.
Diagnosis. Body ( Fig. 2D , E ) yellowish brown to dark brown in ground color with some greyish brown areas, with greyish brown pruinosity; wing semitransparent with pale yellowish brown tinge; all setae black; setulae mostly black except for tiny whitish setulae on eyes and golden setulae on labella; body length 3.15-3.50 mm and wing length 3.35-3.80 mm. This species can be distinguished from the congeners by the combination of the following characteristics (modified from Shatalkin, 2000 ): (1) face dark brown ( Fig. 2F ); (2) gena with dark brown spots; (3) scutum greyish brown with 6 rows of short acrostichal setulae ( Fig. 2E ); (4) presutural scutum with two dark brown median longitudinal vittae and lateral dark brown area ( Fig. 2E ); and (5) abdominal tergites 3-6 dark brown with diffused yellowish brown median vitta ( Fig. 2G ).
Distribution. Korea, Russian Far East.
Remarks. The specimens collected in South Korea agree well with the original description by Shatalkin (2000) .
Genus Protrigonometopus Hendel, 1938
1* 5. Protrigonometopus sexlituris (Shatalkin, 1992) (Figs. 3A-E, 6E)
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A-E, Protrigonometopus sexlituris (Shatalkin): A, Lateral view; B, Dorsal view; C, Dorsal view of head; D, Lateral view of head; E, Dorsal view of abdomen. F-J, Salebrifacies czurkini Shatalkin: F, Lateral view; G, Dorsal view; H, Dorsal view of head; I, Lateral view of head; J, Dorsal view of abdomen.
Sapromyza sexlituris Shatalkin, 1992 : 71 (type locality: Kamenushka, 30 km SE from Ussuriysk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia; holotype ♂, ZMUM); Ozerov, 2005 : 133 (types in ZMUM).
Protrigonometopus sexlituris : Shatalkin, 1997 : 167 (diagnosis and distribution); 2000 : 41 (in Palaearctic key); Schacht et al., 2004 : 59 (English translation of Shatalkin, 2000 : 41); Papp, 2007 : 147, 149 (diagnosis, key to species).
Material examined. We have examined over 270 Korean specimens collected between March and October with highest peak in June: Gangwon-do: 130♂, 146♀; Gyeongsangbuk-do: 1♀; Gyeongsangnam-do: 1♂.
Diagnosis. Body ( Fig. 3A , B ) yellowish brown in ground color with with some dark brown areas, with yellowish brown to greyish brown pruinosity; wing semitransparent with pale yellowish brown tinge; all setae black; setulae mostly black except for tiny whitish setulae on eyes and golden setulae on labella; body length 3.30-4.43 mm and wing length 4.1-4.55 mm. This species can be distinguished from the congeners by the combination of the following characteristics (modified from Shatalkin, 2000 ): (1) head more or less rectangular shape in lateral view ( Fig. 3D ); (2) face with five dark brown round spots at fronto-dorbital plates next to antenna, upper corner of face between antennae, and lateral corners of midface ( Fig. 3C ); (3) flagellomere 1 entirely yellowish brown ( Fig. 3D ); (4) arista with setulae short, weakly developed ( Fig. 3D ); and (5) haltere entirely yellowish brown ( Fig. 3A ).
Distribution. Korea, Japan, Russian Far East.
Remarks. The specimens collected in South Korea agree well with the original description by Shatalkin (1992) .
Genus Salebrifacies Shatalkin, 1992
1* 6. Salebrifacies czurkini Shatalkin, 1992 (Fig. 3F-J)
Salebrifacies czurkini Shatalkin, 1992 : 72 (type locality: Kurile Isls., Kunashir, “Mendeleyeva” Volcano, 17 Jul 1985, (Czurkin), Russia; holotype ♀, ZMUM); 2000 : 41 (diagnosis); Schacht et al., 2004 : 59 (English translation of Shatalkin, 2000 : 41); Ozerov, 2005 : 131 (types in ZMUM); Sasakawa, 2005 : 301 (distribution, remarks).
Material examined. Korea: Gyeongsangnam-do: 1♀, Geochang-gun, Buksang-myeon, Mt. Deogyusan, 3 May 2008, Lee HS et al.; Gangwon-do: 1♀, Jeongseon-gun, Jeongseon-eup, Mt. Gariwangsan, 17 Jun 2007, Lee HS et al.
Diagnosis. Body ( Fig. 3F , G ) yellowish brown in ground color with some yellowish brown to dark brown areas, with greyish brown pruinosity; wing semitransparent with pale yellowish brown tinge, with more brownish area in cell sc; all setae black; setulae mostly black except for tiny whitish setulae on eyes and golden setulae on labella; body length 3.10-3.15 mm and wing length 3.25-3.38 mm. This species can be identified by the combination of the following characteristics (modified from Shatalkin, 2000 ): (1) thorax gray with two dark brown longitudinal vittae ( Fig. 3G ); (2) abdomen dark brown with pairs of yellowish brown lateral spots at anterior margins of tergites 3-6 ( Fig. 3J ); and (3) all tibiae yellowish brown with pair of black rings ( Fig. 3F ).
Distribution. Korea, Japan, Russian Far East.
Remarks. The specimens collected in South Korea agree well with the original description by Shatalkin (1992) .
Genus Sapromyza Fallén, 1810
2* 7. Sapromyza albiceps Fallén, 1820 (Figs. 4A-J, 6F)
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Sapromyza albiceps Fallén: A, Lateral view of male; B, Dorsal view of male; C, Dorsal view of male head; D, Lateral view of male head; E, Dorsal view of male abdomen; F, Lateral view of female; G, Dorsal view of female; H, Dorsal view of female head; I, Lateral view of female head; J, Dorsal view of female abdomen.
Sapromyza albiceps Fallen, 1820 : 33 (type locality: Esperod, Sweden); Collin, 1948 : 232 (in British key, description); Papp, 1979 : 1-59 (in Hungarian key, male head figure); 1984b : 212 (in Palaearctic catalog); Remm and Elberg, 1979 : 104 (male genitalic figure); Shatalkin, 1992 : 66 (distribution); 2000 : 71 (in Palaearctic key); Merz, 2003 : 347 (lectotype ♂ designation, identity); Schacht et al., 2004 : 72 (English translation of Shatalkin, 2000 : 71); Shi et al., 2012 : 186, 190 (in Chinese key, diagnosis, distribution).
Sapromyza albifrons Macquart, 1835 : 399 (type locality: North France).
Sapromyza octopunctata Roser, 1840 : 59 (type locality: Württemberg (Germany).
Sapromyza decaspila Loew, 1857 : 110 (type locality: nr Wernigerode).
Sapromyza brunnescens Becker, 1895 : 225 (type locality: Schlesien [Poland]).
Sapromyza inscita Pandellé, 1902 : 414 (type locality: Tarbes [France]).
Sapromyza octopunctella Hendel, 1908 : 42 (type locality: not given), as new name for Sapromyza octopunctata von Roser, 1840 not Wiedemann, 1830 .
Material examined. Korea: Gangwon-do: 1♂, Hoengseong-gun, Dunnae-myeon, Mt. Cheongtaesan Sapgyo-ri to 1,200 m peak, 6 Jul 2006, Choi DS et al.; 2♀, Hongcheon-gun, Nae-myeon, Changchon-ri, North valley of Mt. Gyebangsan, 22 Jul 2005, Lee HS; 1♂, 2♀, Hongcheon-gun, Nae-myeon, Mt. Gachilbong from Sambongyaksu, 16 Jun 2007, Lee HS, Lim JS; 3♂, 1♀, Jeongseon-gun, Nam-myeon, Mt. Mindungsan from Yupyeong-ri to 1,119 m peak, 20 Jun 2005, Han HY et al.; 1♂, 5♀, ditto, 24 Jun 2005, Han HY et al.; 1♀, Wonju-si, Heungeop-myeon, Maeji-ri, Yonsei Univ. Campus, 26 May 2005, Lee HS; 1♂, ditto, 15 Jun 2005, Byun HW, Lee HS; 1♀, Wonju-si, Panbu-myeon, Segok-ri, Mt. Baegunsan from Yongsu-gol to 1,087.1 m peak, 5 Jun 2005, Han HY, Lee HS; 4♂, 2♀, ditto, 14 Jun 2005, Han HY et al.; 2♂, 3♀, ditto, 21 Jun 2005, Merz B.
Diagnosis. Body ( Fig. 4A , B , F , G ) yellowish brown in ground color with some whitish yellow to dark brown areas, with yellowish brown to greyish brown pruinosity; wing semitransparent with pale yellowish brown tinge; all setae black; setulae mostly black except for tiny whitish setulae on eyes and golden setulae on labella; body length 2.8-4.13 mm and wing length 2.95-3.83 mm. This species can be distinguished from the congeners by the combination of the following characteristics (modified from Shatalkin, 2000 ): (1) male with frons, parafacialia, and face whitish yellow ( Fig. 4C , D ), contrasting with plain yellow brown coloration in female ( Fig. 4F , G ); (2) frons with anterior fronto-orbital seta in female ( Fig. 4H ) but without in male ( Fig. 4C ); and (3) abdominal tergites 5-6 with pairs of dark brown median spots and lateral spots only in female ( Fig. 4J ).
Distribution. Palaearctic.
Remarks. The specimens collected in South Korea agree well with the redescription by Collin (1947), the taxonomic notes by Merz (2003) , and the male genitalic figures by Remm and Elberg (1979) .
Genus Steganopsis de Meijere, 1910
1* 8. Steganopsis dichroa Shatalkin, 1998 (Figs. 5A-E, 6G)
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A-E, Steganopsis dichroa Shatalkin: A, Lateral view; B, Dorsal view; C, Dorsal view of head; D, Lateral view of head; E, Dorsal view of abdomen. F-J, Trigonometopus eborifacies Shatalkin: F, Lateral view; G, Dorsal view of abdomen; H, Dorsal view; I, Dorsal view of head; J, Lateral view of head.
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Male genitalia in lateral and caudal view: A, Homoneura albomarginata; B, Minettia filia; C, Pachycerina alutacea; D, Poecilolycia zherichini; E, Protrigonometopus sexlituris; F, Sapromyza albiceps; G, Steganopsis dichroa; H, Trigonometopus eborifacies. Scale bars=0.1 mm (A, C, D, F-H), 0.5 mm (B), 0.3 mm (E).
Steganopsis dichroa Shatalkin, 1998a : 59 (type locality: Kagamihaga, Kita-Kyushu, Kyushu, Japan, holotype ♂, ZISP); 2000 : 38 (in Palaearctic key); Schacht et al., 2004 : 58 (English translation of Shatalkin, 2000 : 38); Sasakawa, 2005 : 299 (distribution, remarks).
Material examined. Korea: Jeju-do: 1♀, Jeju-si, Haean-dong, 18 Sep 2010, Lee HS et al.; 1♀, Seogwipo-si, Seohong-dong, 24 Aug 2010, Lee HS et al.; 2♂, ditto, 16 Sep 2010, Lee HS et al.
Diagnosis. Body ( Fig. 5A , B ) yellowish brown to dark brown in ground color with yellowish brown pruinosity; wing semitransparent with dark brown tinge, with darker areas along costal margin except for whitish areas in apices of cells r 2+3 and r 4+5 ; all setae black; setulae mostly black except for tiny whitish setulae on eyes and golden setulae on labella; body length 2.95-2.98 mm and wing length 2.58-2.78 mm. This species can be distinguished from the congeners by the combination of the following characteristics (modified from Shatalkin, 2000 ): (1) palpus entirely dark brown; (2) antennal scape about as long as pedicel length ( Fig. 5D ); (3) flagellomere 1 yellowish brown with apical 1/3 dark brown, about 6 times longer than pedicel length ( Fig. 5D ); (4) arista with long setulae, setulae about 2 times as long as width of flagellomere ( Fig. 5D ); (5) thorax entirely black ( Fig. 5B ); (6) scutum with 4 rows of acrostichal setulae ( Fig. 5B ); (7) fore tibia largely black, with basal yellowish brown area; and (8) mid and hind tarsomere 5 dark brown ( Fig. 5A ).
Distribution. Korea, Japan.
Remarks. The specimens collected in South Korea agree well with the original description by Shatalkin (1998a) .
Genus Trigonometopus Macquart, 1835
1* 9. Trigonometopus eborifacies Shatalkin, 1997 (Figs. 5F-J, 6H)
Trigonometopus eborifacies Shatalkin, 1997 : 164 (type locality: Kamenushka, Ussuriysk, Primorskiy Kray, Russia; holotype ♂, ZMUM); 2000 : 39 (in Palaearctic key); Schacht et al., 2004 : 59 (English translation of Shatalkin, 2000 : 39); Ozerov, 2005 : 131 (types in ZMUM); Papp, 2007 : 167 (key to species).
Material examined. Korea: Jeju-do: 1♂, Jeju-si, grasslands in and around Jeolmul recreation forest, 26 Aug 2003, Han HY et al.; 1♂, Namjeju-gun, Pyoseon-myeon, near 1118 road Namjoro swimteo, 19 Oct 2005, Han HY et al.; 56♂, 32♀, Seogwipo-si, Seohong-dong, 24 Aug 2010, Lee HS et al.; 4♂, 6♀, ditto, 16 Sep 2010, Lee HS et al.
Diagnosis. Body ( Fig. 6F , H ) yellowish brown in ground color with some brown areas, with yellowish brown pruinosity; wing semitransparent with pale yellowish brown tinge; all setae black; setulae mostly black except for tiny whitish setulae on eyes and golden setulae on labella; body length 3.38-4.23 mm and wing length 3.35-3.65 mm. This species can be distinguished from the congeners by the combination of the following characteristics (modified from Shatalkin, 2000 ): (1) ocellar triangle yellowish brown with weak ocellar setae; (2) frons with two brown longitudinal vittae ( Fig. 5I ); (3) arista whitish except for basal 1/5 yellowish brown; (4) parafacialia with single dark brown spot anterior to eye margin ( Fig. 5J ); (5) face with whitish longitudinal stripe ( Fig. 5I ); (6) vein r-m and dm-cu without any spots ( Fig. 5F , H ); and (7) abdomen yellowish brown without dark spots or bands ( Fig. 5G ).
Distribution. Korea, China, Russian Far East.
Remarks. The specimens collected in South Korea agree well with the original description by Shatalkin (1997) .
숲꼬마큰날개파리 (신칭)
맵시노랑큰날개파리 (신칭)
볼록얼굴큰날개파리 (신칭)
검정뺨큰날개파리 (신칭)
닷점큰날개파리 (신칭)
긴뺨큰날개파리 (신칭)
흰머리큰날개파리 (신칭)
검정굽은큰날개파리 (신칭)
흰얼굴뾰족머리큰날개파리 (신칭)
Acknowledgements
This study was supported by a grant from National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment of (MOE) of the Republic of Korea. We are grateful to Bernhard Merz for providing some critical references as well as many European lauxaniid specimens for comparison. We also thank Kyung-Eui Ro, Bernhard Merz, Deuk-Soo Choi, Hye-Woo Byun, O-Young Lim, Sang-Wook Suk, Jong-Su Lim, Yong-Bong Lee, Dong-Jun Cha, Seulmaro Hwang, Jong-Mee Jung, Hak-Seon Lee, Dong-Han Kim and Han-Saem Lee for their help in collecting and curating Korean lauxaniid specimens. Hyun-Suk Lee is indebted to the members of Biology Faculty, University of Dalat, for providing an intellectually inspiring environment for the study of lauxaniid taxonomy.
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