Advanced
New Records of the Genus Exochus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Metopiinae) from Korea, China and Mongolia
New Records of the Genus Exochus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Metopiinae) from Korea, China and Mongolia
Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity. 2014. Jul, 30(3): 225-229
Copyright © 2014, The Korean Society of Systematic Zoology
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : February 02, 2014
  • Accepted : March 03, 2014
  • Published : July 30, 2014
Download
PDF
e-PUB
PubReader
PPT
Export by style
Share
Article
Author
Metrics
Cited by
TagCloud
About the Authors
Jin-Kyung Choi
Su-Bin Lee
Jong-Wook Lee
jwlee1@ynu.ac.kr
Abstract
We report two new records of Korean fauna of genus Exochus , as well as two newly recorded species from China and Mongolia each. Specifically Exochus suborbitalis Schmiedeknecht, 1924 and Exochus thomsoni Schmiedeknecht, 1924 from Korea, Exochus kusigematii Tolkanitz, 2007 and Exochus suborbitalis Schmiedeknecht, 1924 from Mongolia and Exochus semilividus Vollenhoven, 1875 and Exochus thomsoni Schmiedeknecht, 1924 from China are reviewed. The genus Exochus have been reported 19 species from China and 21 species from Mongolia. Diagnosis of the four unrecorded species, host information, distributions and illustrations of external characters are provided.
Keywords
INTRODUCTION
The subfamily Metopiinae is a medium sized ichneumonid composed of 26 genera and 836 species worldwide (Yu et al., 2012) . The Korean Metopiinae fauna reports were made by Uchida (1930 , 1955) , Kim (1955) , Townes et al. (1961 , 1965) , Momoi (1966) , Lee and Cha (2000) , Cha and Lee (2000) , Cha et al. (2000) and Tolkanitz (2007b) . New records of the genus Exochus included new species is in process (Choi et al. unpublished). The species of the subfamily Metopiinae are koinobiont endoparasitoids in lepidopterous larvae, and the usual hosts are among the pyraloids and tortricoids. The parasites emerge from the host pupa (Baltazar, 1964) .
The genus Exochus is the largest group of Metopiinae. A study conducted by Choi et al. (unpublished), revealed 16 species of Exochus from Korea. And the genus Exochus have been reported 19 species from China (Uchida, 1932 , 1942 , 1952 ; He and Ma, 1983 ; He et al., 1992 , 1996 , 2004 , etc.) and 21 species from Mongolia (Sedivy, 1971 ; Kusigemati, 1984 ; Tolkanitz, 1993 , 2001 , 2007a , 2007b) .
In this study, we report two newly recorded species, Exochus suborbitalis Schmiedeknecht, 1924 and Exochus thomsoni Schmiedeknecht, 1924 , from Korea, as well as two newly recorded species each from China and Mongolia. We provide diagnosis of the four species, host information, distributions and digital images of external characters.
Materials used in this study were collected by sweep and malaise traps, after which they were deposited in the animal systematic laboratory of Yeungnam University (YNU, Gyeongsan, Korea). Specimens were examined using an AxioCam MRc5 camera attached to a stereo microscope (Zeiss SteREO Discovery. V20; Carl Zeiss, Göttingen, Germany), processed with the AxioVision SE64 software (Carl Zeiss), and optimized with a Delta imaging system (i-solution; IMT i-Solution Inc., Vancouver, Canada).
Abbreviations are as follows. TD, type depository; TS, type species; HU, Hokkaido University, Faculty of Agriculture, Entomological Institute, Sapporo, Japan; ZI, Zoologiska Institutionen, Helgonavägen 3, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden; GG, Gyeonggi-do; GW, Gangwon-do; GB, Gyeongsangbuk-do; GN, Gyeongsangnam-do; CB, Chungcheongbuk-do; JB, Jeollabuk-do.
SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNTS
  • Order Hymenoptera
  • Family IchneumonidaeLatreille, 1802
  • Subfamily MetopiinaeFörster, 1869
  • 1*GenusExochusGravenhorst, 1829
  • ExochusGravenhorst, 1829: 328. TS:Ichneumon gravipesGravenhorst.
  • AmesolytusFörster, 1869: 161. TS:Amesolytus ferrugineusAshmead.
  • MimaDavis, 1897: 206. TS: Mima washingtonensis Davis.
  • XanthexochusMorley, 1913: 292. TS:Xanthexochus scutellatusMorley.
  • 2*Exochus thomsoniSchmiedeknecht, 1924(Fig. 1A,E,F)
  • Exochus crassicornisThomson, 1894: 2080-2137. Type: lost.
  • Exochus thomsoniSchmiedeknecht, 1924: 103-112. Type: unknown; TD: unknown.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
A-D, General habitus in lateral view; A, Exochus thomsoni; B,E. suborbitalis; C, E. kusigematii; D, E. semilividus; E-I, Head in frontal view; E, E. thomsoni (male); F, E. thomsoni (female); G, E. suborbitalis; H, E. kusigematii; I, E. semilividus. Scale bars: A-D=1 mm, E-I=0.2 mm.
Material examined. Korea: 1 female, GW: Hongcheon-gun, Bukbang, Gwangwon Prov. Environment Research Park, 15 −29 Jun 2009, Jang SJ; 1 female, GB: Cheongdo-gun, Gakbuk- myeon, Namsan3-ri, 35°41'N, 128°35'E, 29 Jun-6 Jul 2008, Lee JW; 1 female, ditto, 28 Apr-27 May 2013; 1 male, ditto, 20 Jun 2007; 1 male, ditto, 29 Jun-6 Jul 2008; 1 female, GB: Gyeongsan-si, Dae-dong, Yeungnam Univ., 17-24 Apr 2009, Lee JW; 1 female, ditto, 12 May 2010; 1 female, Gunwi- gun, Goro-myeon, Geumyang, 14 May 2003; 1 female, CB: Jecheon-si, Hansu-myeon, Songgye-ri, Woraksan National Park, 20 May-3 Jun 2006, Jeong JC; China: 2 females, Gillimseong, Yeongilsi, Hanamga, Yeongioro, Sinpung, 2dae Yeonbyeonteugsanyeonguso, 42°54'24''N, 129°30'41''E, 17 −30 Jul 2008, Lee JW; 1 male, ditto, 1 female, ditto, 11-19 Aug 2008; 1 male, ditto.
Diagnosis. Male: Body length 7.0-8.0 mm; flagella with 36-39 segments. Head convex and black, upper face with large yellow long projection and recurved; between antennal sockets with vertical ridge; dorsal margin of eyes with triangular yellow spots, not connected to the margin of the between antennal socket and eye. Malar space yellow. Pronotum strong sunken and glabrous. Anterior half of scutellum black, posterior half yellow and postscutellum yellow. Propodeum without areola; anterior externa area with hair; dentiparal area without hair; spiracle of propodeum ellipse; metapleurum polished, center glabrous. Nervellus intercepted at the lower 0.3, with discoidella. 1st tergum with broad dorsal longitudinal longitudinal carina, reaching the central area of 1st tergum, upcurved in basal area; median longitudinal area of 1st and 2nd terga without hair. 3rd tergum with semicircular epipleuron.
Female: Body length 6.0-7.0 mm; flagella with 33-35 segments. Face black, only margin of projection on upper face yellow. Malar space blackish brown to black.
Host. Unknown.
Distribution. Korea (new record), China (new record), Finland, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, Turkey and Ukraine.
  • 3*Exochus suborbitalisSchmiedeknecht, 1924(Fig. 1B,G)
  • Exochus suborbitalisSchmiedeknecht, 1924: 103-112. Type: unknown; TD: unknown.
Material examined. Korea: 1 male, GW: Chuncheon-si, Sang-dong, Gwangwon Prov. Arboretum, alt. 81 m, 37°55' 23.7''N, 127°43'31.7''E, 14-27 Jun 2012, Lee GY; 2 males, GB: Gunwi-gun, Goro-myeon, Geumyang-ri, 14 May 2003; 1 female, Gyeongsan-si, Dae-dong, Yeungnam Univ., 16-25 Sep 2006, Lee JW; 1 female, ditto, 29 Apr-7 May 2008; 1 female, ditto, 12 Jul-2 Aug 2011; 1 female, GB: Cheongdogun, Gakbuk-myeon, Namsan3-ri, 7 Jun-12 Jul 2009, Lee JW; 1 female, H., 1 Apr-9 May 1991; Mongolia: 3 males, Ulan Bator by Chinggis Khaan International Airport, 47°51' 23.25''N, 106°45'45.84''E, 1 Jun-18 Jul 2009, Lee JW; 1 female, Hustai National Park, alt. 1,392 m, 47°41'21.7''N, 105°53'32.3''E, 5 Aug 2009, Lee JW; 1 female, Mongolia National Univ. research forest, 47°92'N, 106°92'E, 3 Aug 2012, Lee JW.
Diagnosis. Body length 5.0-8.0 mm; flagella with 35-39 segments. Head convex, upper face with short projection and recurved; between antennal sockets with vertical ridge; dorsal margin of eyes with triangular yellow spots, not connected to the margin of the between antennal socket and eye. Malar space black. Pronotum strong sunken. Scutellum and postscutellum yellow and black partly. Propodeum without areola; anterior externa area with hairs; dentiparal area with hairs partly; spiracle of propodeum ellipse; metapleurum polished. Nervellus intercepted at lower 0.25, without discoidella. 1st tergum with broad dorsal longitudinal carina, reaching the central area of 1st tergum; median longitudinal area of 1st tergum without hair. 3rd tergum with semicircular epipleuron.
Host. Unknown.
Distribution. Korea (new record), Mongolia (new record), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine.
  • 1*Exochus kusigematiiTolkanitz, 2007(Fig. 1C,H)
  • Exochus kusigematiiTolkanitz, 2007a: 348.
  • Exochus erythropusKusigematii, 1971: 279. Type: female; TD: HU.
Material examined. Korea: 1 female, GB: Gyeongsan-si, Yeungnam Univ., 1 Jul 1986, Lee JW; 1 female, GN: Jinjusi, Gajoa-dong, 8 Jul 1980, Kim JK; 1 female, Ulju-gun, Sangbuk-myeon, 28 Jun 1989, Kim JK; Mongolia: 2 males, Bornuur region, 48°27'50.72''N, 106°15'08.25''E, 1 Jun-6 Jul 2009, Lee JW.
Diagnosis. Body length 4.5-5.0 mm; flagella with 26-30 segments. Head strongly convex, upper face with long projection and recurved; between antennal sockets without vertical ridge; dorsal margin of eyes with small triangular yellow spots. Malar space black. Pronotum sunken. Notaulus very short but distinct as pit. Scutellum and postscutellum black. Propodeum without areola, anterior transverse carina incomplete; anterior externa area with hairs; dentiparal area with sparse hairs; spiracle of propodeum small and oval, not connected pleural carina; metapleurum glabrous. Nervellus intercepted at lower 0.1, with trace of discoidella. 1st tergum with short dorsal longitudinal carina, reaching the central area of 1st tergum, upcurved in basal area; between dorsal longitudinal carinae without hairs. Median area of 1st and 2nd terga glabrous. 3rd tergum with semicircular epipleuron.
Host. Unknown.
Distribution. Mongolia (new record), Korea, Japan and Russia.
  • 2*Exochus semilividusVollenhoven, 1875(Fig. 1D,E)
  • Exochus longicornisThomson 1887: 193-218. Type: female; TD: ZI.
  • Exochus semilividusVollenhoven, 1875: 68.
Material examined. Korea: 3 females, GG: Mt. Cheonggyesan, 4 Jul 1989, Kim JK; 1 female, GW: Soraksan Heungryeongsungsen, 18 Aug 1987, Kim JK; 1 female, Donghaesi, Samhwa-dong, Mureung Valley (M.T.), 37°27'52''N, 129° 01'26''E, 27 Sep-5 Oct 2007; 1 female, GB: Ulreung, Naribunji, 17 Oct 2001, Jeong JC; 1 female, JB: Jeongeup-si, Yongsan-dong, 35°30'N, 126°51'E, 19 May 2004, Lee JW; China: 1 male, Jirin-seong, Helong-si, Xicheng-jin, Mingyanchon, 42°32'48''N, 129°00'38''E, 10-17 Aug 2009, Lee JW. Diagnosis. Body length 5.0 mm; flagella with 32 segments. Head convex, upper face with short projection and recurved; between antennal sockets with vertical ridge but indistinct; dorsal margin of eyes with triangular yellow spots, connected to the margin between antennal socket and eye. Malar space yellow. Pronotum weak sunken. Scutellum and postscutellum yellow. Propodeum without areola; anterior externa area with hairs; dentiparal area with hairs partly; spiracle of propodeum ellipse; metapleurum glabrous. Nervellus intercepted at lower 0.25, without discoidella. 1st tergum with broad dorsal longitudinal carina, reaching the central area of 1st tergum, upcurved in basal area; median longitudinal area of 1st and 2nd terga without hairs. 3rd tergum with semicircular epipleuron.
Host. [Lepidoptera]: Tortricidae; Argyrotaenia ljungiana (Dzhanelidze, 1969) .
Distribution. China (new record), Korea, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and Ukraine.
Korean name: 볼록뭉툭맵시벌속(신칭)
Korean name: 톰슨볼록뭉툭맵시벌(신칭)
Korean name: 금양볼록뭉툭맵시벌(신칭)
Korean name: 영남볼록뭉툭맵시벌(신칭)
Korean name: 설악볼록뭉툭맵시벌(신칭)
Acknowledgements
We thank Prof. Yanko Kolarov of the Faculty of Pedagogie, University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria for providing useful comments. This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR No. 2013-02-004) and (NIBR No. 2014-02-001).
References
Baltazar CR 1964 The genera of parasitic Hymenoptera in the Philippines, Part 2 Pacific Insects 6 15 - 67
Cha JY , Kim JG , Lee JW 2000 New records of the genera Hypsicera Latreille and Acerataspis Uchida (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Metopiinae) from Korea Insecta Koreana 17 277 - 285
Cha JY , Lee JW 2000 A taxonomic review of the genus Colpotrochia Holmgren (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Metopiinae) in Korea Insecta Koreana 17 221 - 228
Davis GC 1897 A review of the Ichneumonid subfamily Tryphoninae Transactions of the American Entomological Society 24 193 - 348
Dzhanelidze BM 1969 Data on the relationship between Ichneumonflies (Hym., Ichneumonidae) and their hosts Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR 55 445 - 448
Förster A 1869 Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Ichneumonen Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens 25 135 - 221
Gravenhorst JLC 1829 Ichneumonologia Europaea. Pars II Vratislaviae 1 - 989
He JH , Chen XX , Fan JJ , Li Q , Liu CM , Lou XM , Ma Y , Wang SF , Wu YR , Xu ZH , Xu WA , Yao J 2004 Hymenopteran insect fauna of Zhejiang Science Press Beijing 1 - 1373
He JH , Chen XX , Ma Y 1996 Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae. Economic Insect Fauna of China Science Press Beijing 1 - 697
He JH , Ma Y 1983 New host records of Ichneumonidae from China (IV) Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Zhejiangensis 9 1 - 54
He JH , Tang YQ , Chen XX , Ma Y , Tong XW , Peng JW , Liu YQ 1992 Ichneumonidae;Iconography of forest insects in Hunan, China Hunan Science Publisher Hunan 1211 - 1249
Kim CW 1955 A study on the Ichneumon-flies in Korea. Commemoration These 15th Anniv. Korea Univ 423 - 498
Kusigemati K 1971 Taxonomic studies on the subfamiliy Metopiinae of Japan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University 8 205 - 298
Kusigemati K 1984 Metopiinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Mongolia Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 76 245 - 263
Latreille PA 1802 Histoire naturélle, générale et particulière, des Crustacés et des Insectes Tome Troisième Paris 1 - 468
Lee JW , Cha JY 2000 Illustrated catalogue of Ichneumonidae in Korea. (1. Anomalinae, Eucerotinae, Mesochorinae, Metopiinae, Ophioninae, Paxylommatinae, Tryphoninae);Insects of Korea Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology & Center for Insect Systematics Chuncheon 1 - 261
Momoi S 1966 The Ichneumon-flies of the genus Colpotrochia occurring in Japan and adjacent areas (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) Mushi 40 13 - 27
Morley C 1913 The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma, Hymenoptera, Vol.3. Ichneumonidae British Museum London 1 - 531
Schmiedeknecht O 1924 A short summary of the section Tryphonides prosopi (Ichneumonidae) Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 60 103 - 112
Sedivy J 1971 Ergebnisse der mongolisch-tschechoslowakischen entomologisch-botanischen Expeditionen in der Mongolei: 24. Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae Acta Faunistica Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 14 73 - 91
Thomson CG 1887 Hymenopterologische Beiträge Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 31 193 - 218
Thomson CG 1894 LI. Anmärkningar öfver Ichneumoner särskildt med hänsyn till nägra af A.E. Holmgrens typer Opuscula Entomologica Lund 19 2080 - 2137
Tolkanitz VI 1993 New Palearctic species of the genus Exochus (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Metopiinae) Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 72 92 - 105
Tolkanitz VI 2001 New species of the genus Exochus (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Metopinae) from Russia and Mongolia Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 80 1404 - 1408
Tolkanitz VI 2007 Ichneumon flies of the genus Exochus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Metopiinae) of the fauna of Palaearctic region Russian Entomological Journal 16 339 - 358
Tolkanitz VI , Lelej AS 2007 Key to the insects of Russia Far East. Vol. IV. Neuropteroidea, Mecoptera, Hymenoptera Dalnauka Vladivostok Metopiinae 1 - 1052
Townes H , Momoi S , Townes M 1965 A catalogue and reclassification of the eastern Palearctic Ichneumonidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, No. 5 American Entomological Institute Ann Arbor, MI 1 - 661
Townes HK , Townes M , Gupta VK 1961 A catalogue and reclassification of the Indo-Australian Ichneumonidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute. No.1 American Entomological Institute Ann Arbor, MI 1 - 522
Uchida T 1930 Vierter Beitrag zur Ichneumoniden-Fauna Japans Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido Imperial University 25 243 - 298
Uchida T 1932 H. Sauter’s Formosa-Ausbeute. Ichneumonidae (Hym.) Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido Imperial University 33 133 - 222
Uchida T 1942 Ichneumoniden Mandschukuos aus dem entomologischen Museum der kaiserlichen Hokkaido Universitaet Insecta Matsumurana 16 107 - 146
Uchida T 1952 Ichneumonologische Ergebnisse der japanischen wissenschaftlichen Shansi-Provinz, China-Expedition im Jahre Mushi 24 39 - 58
Uchida T 1955 Die von Dr.K. Tsuneki in Korea gesammelten Ichneumoniden Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University 50 95 - 133
Van Vollenhoven SCS 1875 Pinacographia. Illustrations of more than 1000 species of northwest European Ichneumonidae sensu Linnaeano S'Gravenhage 1 - 68
Yu DS , Van Achterberg C , Horstmann K 2012 Taxapad 2012, Ichneumonoidea 2011. Database on flash-drive [Internet] Dicky Sick Ki Yu Ottawa www.taxapad.com