Advanced
Taxonomic Study of the Subfamily Lycorininae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Korea
Taxonomic Study of the Subfamily Lycorininae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Korea
Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity. 2014. Jan, 30(1): 49-54
Copyright © 2014, The Korean Society of Systematic Zoology
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : October 10, 2013
  • Accepted : December 12, 2013
  • Published : January 31, 2014
Download
PDF
e-PUB
PubReader
PPT
Export by style
Share
Article
Author
Metrics
Cited by
TagCloud
About the Authors
Jin-Kyung Choi
Department of Life Sciences, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea
Jin-Yeol Cha
Korea National Park Service, Seoul 121-717, Korea
Jong-Wook Lee
Department of Life Sciences, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea
jwlee1@ynu.ac.kr
Abstract
Korean species of the subfamily Lycorininae Cushman & Rohwer are reviewed. This subfamily along with three species, Lycorina triangulifera Holmgren, 1859, L. spilonotae Chao, 1980, and L. ruficornis Kasparyan, 2007, are reported for the first time from Korea. In this genus, five species have been reported from the Eastern Palaearctic region, six species from China and two species from Japan. Some species of this subfamily is known as parasitoids of Crambidae and Tortricidae. We report three newly recorded species from Korea, Lycorina triangulifera , L. spilonotae , and L. ruficornis , and provide diagnoses with photographs of lycorinine species and a key to the Korean species.
Keywords
INTRODUCTION
The subfamily Lycorininae Cushman & Rohwer, 1920 is a small group with a single genus, Lycorina. It is a cosmopolitan genus with 30 described species ( Yu et al., 2012 ). In this genus, five species have been reported from the Eastern Palaearctic region, six species from China, two species from Japan. This subfamily is easily distinguished from other ichneumonid families based on tergites with a triangular area by deep impressions ( Fig. 1G , I ); pronotum with anterior margin reflexed; and hypopygium of female large triangular in lateral view ( Fig. 2C ). The focal host range appears to be weakly concealed larva of micro-lepidopteran species. Some species have been reared from Crambidae in leaf-rolls or webs ( Doerksen and Neunzig, 1974 ; Finlayson, 1976 ) and Tortricidae ( Chao, 1980 ; Shaw, 2004 ).
In this study, we add three newly recorded species, Lycorina triangulifera Holmgren, L. spilonotae Chao, and L. ruficornis Kasparyan, to Korean ichneumonoids fauna and provide descriptions, a key to the Korean species, and photographs.
Materials used in this work were collected by sweeping and Malaise trap, after which they were deposited in the animal systematic laboratory of the Yeungnam University(YNU, Gyeongsan, Korea). Specimens were examined by a AxioCam MRc5 camera attached to a stereo microscope (Zeiss SteREO Discovery. V20; Carl Zeiss, Göttingen, Germany), processed using AxioVision SE64 software (Carl Zeiss), and optimized with a Delta imaging system (i-solution; IMT i-Solution Inc., Vancouver, Canada).
Abbreviations are as follows: TD, type depository; TS, type species; ZI, Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences, Russia; NR, Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Sektionen für Entomologi, Stockholm, Sweden; UZM, Universitets Zoologiske Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark; USN, Dipartimento di Zoologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli, Via Mezzocannone 8, Napoli, Italy; FAFU, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Institute of Beneficial Insects, Fuzhou, Fujian, China; GW, Gangwon-do; GG, Gyeonggi-do; GN, Gyeongsangnam-do; JJ, Jeju-do.
SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNTS
  • Order Hymenoptera
  • Family Ichneumonidae Latreille, 1802
  • Subfamily Lycorininae Cushman & Rohwer, 1920
  • Genus Lycorina Holmgren, 1859
  • LycorinaHolmgren, 1859: 126. TS:Lycorina trianguliferaHolmgren.
  • AmyxSchiødte, 1839: 309. TS:Amyx flavilabrisSchiødte
  • ToxophoroidesCresson, 1874: 406. TS:Lycorina? ApicalisCresson.
  • ChlorolycorinaCushman, 1920: 7. TS:Glypta scitulaCushman.
  • GonioglyphusSeyrig, 1932: 183. TS:Lycorina ficiSeyrig.
- Key to the species of the subfamily Lycorininae from Korea
  • 1. Face almost yellow (Fig. 1E); posterior part of propodeum yellow; fore and mid coxa yellow, base of coxa slight brown; nervellus of hind wing intercepted on a little lower third of it (Fig. 2D); metasomal segments with yellow line to apex (Fig. 1H) ……………………Lycorina spilonotaeC. - Face almost black or with small yellow spots (Fig. 1D,F); propodeum black; fore and mid coxa black; nervellus of hind wing intercepted on lower fourth of it (Fig. 2E); metasomal segments black (Fig. 1G,I) …………………………2
  • 2. Margin of clypeus almost round or weakly concave (Fig. 1D,E); fore femur straight (Fig. 2A); hind femur reddish ………………………………………Lycorina trianguliferaH.- Margin of clypeus strongly emergence (Fig. 1F); fore femur very strongly curved (Fig. 2B); hind femur yellow ……………………………………………………Lycorina ruficornisK.
- 1*Lycorina trianguliferaHolmgren, 1859
  • Lycorina trianguliferaHolmgren, 1859: 126. Type: female, TD: NR.
  • Amyx flavilabris(Schiødte, 1839): 309. Type: female, TD: UZM.
  • Glypta lycorinoides(Costa, 1886a): 40. Type: unknown, TD: USN.
  • Glypta sardoa(Costa, 1886b): 51. Type: unknown, TD: USN.
Material examined. Korea: 1 female, GG, Namyangju-si, Joan-myeon, Songchon-ri, Ungilsan, 37° 34′43.2′′N, 127° 18′ 37.5′′E, 26 Jun-16 Jul 2009, Lim JO; 2 females, GG, Anyangsi, Manan-gu, Kwanag Arb., alt. 219 m, 37° 18′5.3′′N, 127° 19′1.5′′E, 5-19 Jul 2007, Lim JO; 1 male, GN, Milyang-si, Sajapyeong, 22 Jun 1993, Lee JW; 1 female, Daegu-si, Dalsegu, Daegok-dong, Daegu Arb., alt. 88 m, 35° 47′48.6′′N, 128° 31′33.5′′E, 20 Jun-4 Jul 2012, Kang SG.
Diagnosis. Female. Fore wing 6.4-6.6 mm, body 7.0-7.2 mm, ovipositor 3.0-3.2 mm long.
Color: Body black. Face with pairs yellow spots and behind margins of eyes with yellow line. Clypeus, palpi, central part of mandible, malar space, fore and mid legs except coxa, tegula, scutellum from behind and postscutellum yellow. Antennal flagellum ventrally and ovipositor brown. Hind trochantellus to femur reddish brown. Hind tibia except apically and ovipositor sheath except apically dark brown.
Head: Face moderately dense punctured, the distance between points longer than their diameter, 1.3 times as wide as high, central part of face convex laterally. Frons with longitudinal carina, concave above base of antennae, raised laterally. Clypeus moderately flat, with round apical edge, separated from face by transverse groove; clypeus and temple finely shagreened between points. Malar space 1.0 times as long as basal width of mandible. Flagellum with 27-29 segments, first segment 4.5 times as long as wide, apical segments square. Scape swollen, 1.7 times as wide as width of first flagellomere.
Mesosoma: Epomia present, strong, with upper end arcuate produced. Pronotum mediodorsally without deep transverse furrow that is crossed by a longitudinal ‘bridge’. Middle lobe of mesoscutum in front vertically descending down. Pronotum loosely punctated. Notaulus shallow. Mesoscutum slightly longer than wide, 1.3 times as long as wide. Scutellum carinated and convex. Mesoscutum and scutellum sparsely punctured more than head. Subalar prominence convex, speculum separated and glabrous, with pit strong, epicnemial carina incomplete. Propodeum very short, anterior transverse carina present, propodeal spiracle small, oval, closer to lateral longitudinal carina than to pleural, basal area glabrous. Nervellus intercepted on lower fourth, discoidella vestigial. Hind wing with 10-11 distal hamuli. Leg slender, correlation between length of hind tarsal segments as 50 : 16 : 11 : 7 : 13. Tarsal claws pectinate.
Metasoma: Depressed. Raised central triangular areas large and strongly transverse ( Fig. 1G ), terga quite closely and coarsely punctate. Ovipositor sheath 1.6 times as long as hind tibia.
Host. [Lepidoptera]: Gelechiidae, Anacampsis timidella ( Capek, 1955 ), Tortricidae, Archips rosana ( Sedivy, 1986 ; Jonaitis, 1992 ), Epiblema foenella ( Uffeln, 1940 ), Epiblema sticticana ( Aubert, 1978 ), Yponomeutidae, Yponomeuta malinella ( Meyer, 1934 ), Yponometuta padella ( Friese, 1963 ). [Coleoptera]: Cerambycidae, Saperda populnea ( Kleine, 1909 ; Scheidter, 1917 ; Postner, 1954 ; Fulmek, 1968 ; Uhthoff-Kaufmann, 1991 ).
Distribution. Korea (new record), Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Korean Lycorininae. A-C, Habitus in dorsal view; A, Lycorina triangulifera; B, L. spilonotae; C, L. ruficornis; D-F, Head in frontal view; D, L. triangulifera; E, L. spilonotae; F, L. ruficornis; G-I, Metasoma in dorsal view; G, L. triangulifera; H, L. spilonotae; I, L. ruficornis. Scale bars: A−C=2 mm, D−F=0.2 mm, G, H=1 mm, I=0.5 mm.
- 1*Lycorina spilonotaeChao, 1980
Lycorina spilonotae Chao, 1980 : 165. Type: female, TD: FAFU.
Material examined. Korea: 1 female, JJ, Jeju-si, Donggyemyeon, near Jeolmul, 25 Aug-2 Sep 2005, Sin CH.
Diagnosis. Female. Fore wing 5.8 mm, body 6.9 mm, ovipositor 2.8 mm long.
Color: Body black. Face, clypeus, malar space, fore and mid coxa to trochantellus, tegula, scutellum, postscutellum and tergites apex lines apically yellow. Margin of eyes vertex in temple, mandible except apical teeth, palpi, fore and mid legs except base, half of pronotum yellow. Antennal flagellomeres dark brown but brown ventrally. Hind coxa dark brown. Hind leg brown except apex of tibia and tarsus dark brown. Ovipositor brown.
Head: Face and clypeus very sparsely punctuated, 1.1 times as wide as high, central part of face weakly convex laterally. Frons with longitudinal carina, concave above base of antennae, weakly raised laterally. Clypeus moderately flat, separated from face by transverse groove. Malar space 0.8 times as long as basal width of mandible. Ocelli area convex. Flagellum with 28 segments, first segment 3.4 times as long as wide, apical segments square. Scape swollen, 1.6 times as wide as width of first flagellomere.
Mesosoma: Epomia present, with upper end arcuate produced. Pronotum mediodorsally without deep transverse furrow that is crossed by a longitudinal ‘bridge’. Pronotum with furrow and wrinkle, central part glabrous. Notaulus shallow. Mesoscutum slightly longer than wide, 1.3 times as long as wide. Scutellum carinated and convex. Mesoscutum closely punctated, scutellum sparsely punctured. Subalar prominence weakly concave, speculum convex and glabrous, with pit weak, epicnemial carina incomplete. Mesopleuron coarsely punctured except below of speculum finely shagreened. Propodeum very short, with scattered punctures, anterior transverse carina incomplete, posterior transverse carina distinct. Propodeal spiracle small, rounded, closer to pleural carina than to lateral longitudinal. Nervellus intercepted on a little lower third of it, discoidella vestigial. Hind wing with nine distal hamuli. Legs slender, correlation between length of hind tarsal segments as 36 : 15 : 10 : 6 : 11. Tarsal claws pectinate.
Metasoma: Depressed. Raised central triangular areas large and strongly transverse ( Fig. 1H ), terga very closely and coarsely punctate. Ovipositor sheath 1.1 times as long as hind tibia.
Host. [Lepidoptera]: Tortricidae, Adoxophyes orana ( He et al., 1996 ), Spilonota lechriaspis ( Chao, 1980 ; He et al., 1996 ).
Distribution . Korea (new record), China.
- 1*Lycorina ruficornisKasparyan, 2007
Lycorina ruficornis Kasparyan, 2007: 429 . Type: female, TD: ZI.
Material examined. Korea: 1 female, GW, Yanggu-gun, Gachilbong, 31 May 1992, Lee JW.
Diagnosis. Female. Fore wing 5.5 mm, body 6.5 mm, ovipositor 2.8 mm long.
Color: Body black. Clypeus, palpi, mandible apically and tegula yellow. Fore and mid legs except coxa and trochanters, hind femur and tibia except apical yellow, coxa and trochanters black, hind tarsus dark brown. Ovipositor brown, ovipositor sheath except apically dark brown.
Head: Face sparsely punctuated, 1.2 times as wide as high, central part of face weakly convex laterally. Frons with longitudinal carina, concave above base of antennae, weakly raised laterally. Clypeus emarginated, weakly convex, separated from face by transverse carina. Malar space 0.9 times as long as basal width of mandible. Ocellar area convex. Flagellum with 26 segments, first segment 3.8 times as long as wide, apical segments square. Scape swollen, 1.8 times as wide as width of first flagellomere.
Mesosoma: Epomia present, with upper end arcuate produced. Pronotum mediodorsally without deep transverse furrow that is crossed by a longitudinal ‘bridge’. Pronotum loosely punctated. Notaulus shallow. Mesoscutum slightly shorter than wide, 0.9 times as long as wide. Scutellum carinated. Mesoscutum closely punctated, scutellum with scattered punctures. Subalar prominence convex, speculum convex and glabrous, with strong pit, epicnemial carina incomplete. Mesopleuron sparsely punctured except below weakly rugosely punctured. Propodeum very short, with coarsely punctures, anterior transverse carina absent, posterior transverse carina distinct. Propodeal spiracle small, rounded, located middle of lateral area. Nervellus intercepted on a lower fourth, discoidella vestigial. Hind wing with nine distal hamuli. Leg slender but fore femur very strongly curved, correlation between length of hind tarsal segments as 10 : 4 : 3 : 2 : 4. Tarsal claws pectinate.
Metasoma: Depressed. Raised central triangular areas large and strongly transverse ( Fig. 1I ), terga coarsely punctuate, first and second central triangular area very sparsely punctuated. Ovipositor sheath 1.3 times as long as hind tibia.
Host. Unknown.
Distribution. Korea (new record), Russia.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
A, B, Fore femur in lateral view; A, Lycorina triangulifera; B, L. ruficornis; C, Hypopygium and ovipositor sheath of L. spilonotae; D, E, Wings; D, L. spilonotae; E, L. triangulifera. Scale bars: A, C=0.5 mm, B=0.2 mm, D, E=1 mm.
Korean name: 삼각배무늬맵시벌(신칭)
Acknowledgements
We thank Prof. Yanko Kolarov of the Faculty of Pedagogie, University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria for providing useful comments. This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR No. 2013-02-001).
References
Aubert JF 1978 Les Ichneumonides ouest-palearctiques et leurs hotes 2. Banchinae et Suppl. aux Pimplinae. Laboratoire d’Evolution des Etres Organises Paris & EDIFAT-OPIDA Echauffour 1 - 318
Capek M 1955 [Einige Bemerkungen uber die Parasitation der Raupen der Motte Tachyptilia disquei Meess.] Zoologicke Listy Folia Zoologica 4 29 - 32
Chao HF 1980 [Description of Lycorina spilonotae Chao, sp. nov., with notes on its final-instar larvae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Lycorinae)] Entomotaxonomia 2 165 - 168
Costa A 1886 Notizie ed osservazioni sulla geo-fauna Sarda. Memoria sesta. Risultamento delle ricerche fatte in Sardegna nella state del 1885. Atti della R Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche et Matematiche 2 1 - 40
Costa A 1886 Notizie ed osservazioni sulla geo-fauna Sarda. Memoria sesta. Ricerche fatte ne’ mesi di luglio ed agosto 1885 Rendiconto dell’Accademia della Scienze Fisiche et Matematiche 25 51 - 53
Cresson ET 1874 Descriptions of Mexican Ichneumonidae Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1873 374 - 413
Cushman RA 1920 The North American Ichneumon-flies of the tribes Lycorini, Polysphinctini, and Theroniini Proceedings of the United States National Museum http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.58-2326.7 58 7 - 48
Cushman RA , Rohwer SA 1920 Holarctic tribes of the Ichneumon- flies of the subfamily Ichneumoninae (Pimplinae) Proceedings of the United States National Museum http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.57-2315.379 57 379 - 396
Doerksen GP , Neunzig HH 1974 The biology of the appleleaf skeletonizer, Psorosina hammondi, on Crateaegus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae) Annals of the Entomological Society of America 67 146 - 147
Finlayson T 1976 Cephalic structures and spiracles of finalinstar larvae of the genus Toxophoroides (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Lycorininae) Canadian Entomologist http://dx.doi.org/10.4039/Ent108981-9 108 981 - 984
Friese G 1963 Die Parasiten der paläarktischen Yponomeutidae (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera) Beiträge zur Entomologie 13 311 - 326
Fulmek L 1968 Parasitinsekten der Insektengallen Europas Beiträge zur Entomologie 18 719 - 952
He JH , Chen XX , Ma Y 1996 Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae. Economic insect fauna of China Science Press Beijing 1 - 697
Holmgren AE 1859 Conspectus generum Pimplariarum Sueciae Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 16 121 - 132
Jonaitis VP 1992 New and rare for Lithuania insect species: records and descriptions of 1992 Institute of Ecology Vilnius 7 new and 1 rare for Lithuania Ichneumonid species (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) found in 1967-1987 1 - 115
Kasparyan DR , Khalaim AI , Lelej AS 2007 Key to the insects of russia Far Ease. Vol. IV. Neuropteroidea, Mecoptera, Hymenoptera Dalnauka Vladivostock Pimplinae, Tryphoninae, Eucerotinae, Xoridinae, Agriotypinae, Lycorininae, Neorhacodinae, Ctenopelmatinae, Phrudinae, Ophioninae, Acaenitinae, Collyriinae, Mesochorinae 1 - 1052
Kleine R 1909 Die Schmarotzer der Cerambyciden und Buprestiden Entomologische Blätter 5 177 - 179, 207-212
Meyer NF 1934 Schlupfwespen die in Russland in den letzten Jahren aus Schädlingen gezogen sind Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 20 611 - 618
Postner M 1954 Zur Biologie und Bekämpfung des kleinen Pappelbockes Saperda populnea L. (Cerambycidae) Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 36 156 - 177
Scheidter F 1917 Über die Eiablage von Saperda populnea L Naturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für Land- und Forstwirtschaft 15 113 - 138
Schiødte JC 1839 Beretning om Resultaterne af en i Sommeren 1838 foretagen entomologisk Undersøgelse af det sydlige Sjaelland, en Deel af Laaland, og Bornholm Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift 2 309 - 394
Sedivy J 1986 The hosts of Ichneumon flies in Europe (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 83 10 - 23
Seyrig A 1932 Les Ichneumonides de Madagascar. I Ichneumonidae Pimplinae. Mémoires de l’Académie Malgache. Fascicule 11 L’Academie Malgache Tananarive 1 - 183
Shaw MR 2004 Notes on the biology of Lycorina triangulifera Holmgren (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Lycorininae) Journal of Hymenoptera Research 13 302 - 308
Uffeln K 1940 In Westfalen gefangene und aus anderen Insekten erzogene Schlupfwespen. Abh. Landesmus Naturkunde Province Westfalen Münster 11 56 - 66
Uhthoff-Kaufmann RR 1991 The distribution and occurrence of the genus Saperda F. (Col.: Lamiidae) in Great Britain Entomologist’s Record 103 129 - 134
Yu DS , Van Achterberg C , Horstmann K 2012 Taxapad 2012, Ichneumonoidea 2011. Database on flash-drive [Internet] Dicky Sick Ki Yu Ottawa, ON