Advanced
Two New and Three Newly Recorded Species of Chironomidae (Diptera) from Korea
Two New and Three Newly Recorded Species of Chironomidae (Diptera) from Korea
Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity. 2013. Jul, 29(3): 217-226
Copyright ©2013, The korean Society of Systematic Zoology
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : February 02, 2013
  • Accepted : July 07, 2013
  • Published : July 31, 2013
Download
PDF
e-PUB
PubReader
PPT
Export by style
Share
Article
Author
Metrics
Cited by
TagCloud
About the Authors
Han-Il Ree
para@yuhs.ac
Abstract
Chironomid adults were collected by light traps at night, sweeping on grasses, during daytime hours, sweeping of swarming males with an insect net, and aspiration of light-attracted adults using a sucking tube. The collected specimens were slide-mounted and examined. I identified two species new to science, namely Orthocladius manhaei n. sp. and Ablabesmyia jeongi n. sp., and three species for the first time in Korea: Paratrichocladius tamaator Sasa, 1981, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus (Edwards, 1929) and Hayesomyia tripunctata (Goetghebuer, 1922). This is the first report of the genera Rheocricotopus and Hayesomyia in Korea. The genus Hayesomyia in the tribe Pentaneurini of Tanypodinae has a Holarctic distribution with only one species recorded from each of the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions.
Keywords
INTRODUCTION
It has been estimated that there are as many as 15,000 species of chironomids worldwide, many of which remain undescribed or undiscovered. Such estimates need to be treated with caution, but there is good evidence to support an estimate in excess of 10,000 species (Cranston, 1995). Sasa and Kikuchi (1995) reported a total of 810 species of chironomids in Japan during the period 1936-1995, and 176 species were added 3 years thereafter to the fauna of chironomids in Japan (Sasa, 1998). In Korea, 32 species of chironomidae including four new species were reported for the first time (Ree and Kim, 1981). Since then, 14 new and 27 unreported species were reported in 11 scientic papers during the period of 1982-2009. In the past three years (2010-2012), 32 new and 47 unreported species were reported (Na, 2004; Ree and Jeong, 2010; Ree et al., 2010, 2011, 2012; Kang, 2012; Ree, 2012). In this report, the fauna of Korean Chironomidae is extended 157 species (including 50 new species), 57 genera, and five subfamilies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Chironomid adults were collected by sweeping grasses around breeding sites with an insect net during the daytime. Swarming males were collected by sweeping with an insect net in the evenings. At night, a light trap was operated, and light-attracted adults resting on the walls and windows of stores, restaurants and official buildings were aspirated using a sucking tube. The collected specimens were preserved in 75% ethanol. The antennae, head, wings, abdomen, and hypopygium of each specimen were dissected using two fine dissecting needles under a stereomicroscope, and mounted using either phenol balsam or Hoyer’s solution. When Hoyer’s mounting media was used, the cover glasses were ringed with lacquer. Terminology follows Saether (1980).
Measurements of the slide-mounted specimens were obtained from observing the specimens under a compound microscope equipped with a micrometer. Values were transformed to mm or μm using the scale of the micrometer. Abbreviations used are as follows: wing length (WL), antennal ratio (AR), fore leg ratio (LR), radius-medial cross vein (RM), medius-cubital cross-vein (MC), and forked Cu (fCu).
Type specimens were deposited in the collection of Arthro-pods
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Orthocladius manhaei n. sp. (male). A, Wing; B, Tip of antenna; C, Hypopygium; D, Gonocoxal inner lobe (left dorsal, right ventral). Scale bars: A=1.0 mm, B-D=0.05 mm.
of Medical Importance Resource Bank, Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Yonsei University.
SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNTS
  • Order Diptera
  • Family Chironomidae Holiday
  • Subfamily Orthocladiinae Edwards
  • GenusOrthocladiusv.d. Wulp
  • 1*Ortholadius manhaein. sp. (Fig. 1)
Material examined. Holotype: ♂ (RCH-3460), Korea, Gangwon-do, Inje-gun, Manhae village, 11 Nov 2005, Ree HI. Paratypes: 10♂♂, same as holotype.
Diagnosis. Dark brown, medium to large species (WL 3.0 mm). Eye bare. Wing membrane bare. All veins bare, except R. Costa slightly extended. Squama densely fringed. Anal point relatively short (48 μm long), slightly tapered distally, with 4-5 lateral setae. Gonocoxal inner lobe double. AR 1.72. LR 0.85.
Description (male). Head: Eye bare, not produced dorsomedially. Antenna dark brown, 13 segmented, with 5 subapical sensory setae ( Fig. 1 B). AR 1.72. Palp dark brown, with 5 segments: 25, 79, 139, 137, 203 μm(1 : 3.2 : 5.6 : 5.5 : 8.1). Clypeus with 23 setae. Thorax: Yellowish brown in ground color. Antepronotum brown, well developed, with 9 setae ventrally. Scutum dark brown, vittae inconspicuous, 7-10 dorsocentrals arising from large pale pit, 6 prealars. Scutellum dark brown, with 18 setae. Postnotum dark brown. Wing (Fig. 1A): WL 3.0 mm. Membrane bare. All veins bare, except R. R 2+3 ending at 2/5 between R1 and R 4+5 . Costa slightly extended from R 4+5 . FCu slightly distal to RM. M 3+4 ending under end of R 4+5 . Cu 1 almost straight. An far distal to FCu. Anal lobe well developed. Squama fringed. Arculus and brachiolum dark brown, bare. Legs: All segments uniformly dark brown. Fore tibia with a long narrow spur apically; mid tibia, mid tarsus I, mid tarsus II with 2 short apical spurs, respectively. Pulvillus absent. LR 0.85. Abdomen: All segments dark brown, with irregularly arranged numerous setae. Hypopygium (Fig. 1C): Anal tergite bilobed distally, with 5 short median setae, anal tergal band absent. Anal point relatively short (48 μm long, 20 μm wide at base), slightly tapered distally, with 4-5 lateral setae and round tip. Gonocoxite rather long; gonocoxal inner lobe double: dorsal lobe ( Fig. 1 D) semi-square with 1 apical, 2 inner lateral, and 4-5 ventral setae, ventral lobe slightly larger, triangular, covered with microtrichia. Gonostylus roughly parallel-sided, with developed crista dorsalis and megaseta.
Female. Unknown.
Etymology. This species is named after late Manhae, who is a famous poet in Korea. The specimens were collected at Manhae village.
Distribution. Korea.
Remarks. This species is somewhat similar to Orthocladius suspensus (Tokunaga, 1939) in general. However, this new species has an anal point with the round tip, which is one of the diagnostic characters of the subgenus Euorthocladius. Or. suspensus has an anal point with a pointed tip, which is one of the characters of the subgenus Orthocladius .
  • GenusParatrichocladiusSantos Abreu
  • 1*Paratrichocladius tamaatorSasa, 1981 (Fig. 2)
Paratrichocladius tamaator Sasa, 1981: 20 (type locality: Japan, Toyama-ken, Tama river); Sasa, 1983: 70; 1988: 35; Sasa and Okazawa, 1991: 57.
Material examined. 2♂♂: Korea, Gyeonggi-do, Munsan, 20 May 2003, Ree HI; 6♂♂: Jeju-do, Seoguipo-si, 2 Sep 1988, Ree HI.
Diagnosis. Brownish, small to medium species (WL 1.4 mm). Eye hairy. Costa extended from R 4+5 . Cu 1 almost straight. Squama with setae. Anal point absent. Anal tergite band absent. Gonocoxal inner lobe triangular, notched dorsally on middle, with rounded tip. AR 1.13. LR 0.59.
Description (Male). Head: Eye hairy, shortly extended dorsomedially. Antenna pale dark brown, 13 segmented, with 7-9 subapical sensory setae. AR 1.13. Palp pale dark brown, with 5 segments: 36, 43, 89, 102, 189 μm(1 : 1.2 : 2.5 : 2.8 : 5.3). Clypeus brown, with 10 setae. Thorax: Brown in ground color. Antepronotum brown, sharply narrowed dorsally, bare. Scutum brown, vittae inconspicuous; 7 small, decumbent acrosticals; 13-14 dorsocentrals, arising from pale pit; 4-5 prealars. Scutellum dark brown, with 8-10 setae. Postnotum brown. Wing (Fig. 2A): WL 1.4 mm. Membrane bare. Costa slightly produced from R 4+5 . R 2+3 ending middle of R 1 and R 4+5 . R 4+5 distal to M 3+4 . FCu slightly distal to RM. Cu 1 almost straight. Anal lobe moderately developed. Squama with setae. Legs: Femur brown, lighter basally. Tibia and tarsi I-V light brown. Fore tibia with a narrow, long spur; mid tibia with a very short spur; hind tibia with a long spur and 12-14 comb spurs. Pulvillus absent. LR 0.59. Abdomen: All segments brown; 3-5 lateral setae on tergites III-IV ( Fig. 2 B). Hypopygium (Fig. 2C): Anal tergite roundly produced distally, with 8 median setae, anal tergal band absent. Gonocoxal inner lobe triangular, notched dorsally on middle, with round tip, with 7-9 inner-lateral setae and 2 small dorsal setae. Gonostylus expanded distally with pale megaseta.
Distribution. Japan, Korea.
Remarks. Paratrichcladius tamaator is very similar to Pa. rufiventris (Meigen). The gonocoxal inner lobe of tamaator has a distinct notch dorsally, and a smaller body size than rufiventris (WL 1.5-1.7 mm in tamaator vs. 2.2-2.6 mm in rufiventris ). The lateral setae of abdominal tergites III-IV are also different (3-5 setae in tamaater vs. 9-11 setae in rufiventris ).
  • 2*GenusRheocricotopusThienemannn and Harnisch
  • 3*Rheocricotopus chalybeatus(Edwards, 1929) (Fig. 3)
Spamiotoma (Trichocladius) chalybeatus Edwards, 1929: 331 (type locality: England, Yorks); Tokunaga, 1938: 319.
Rheocricotopus chalybeatus : Brundin, 1956: 118; Sasa and Kawai, 1987: 43; Sasa and Hasegawa, 1988: 239; Sasa, Kawai and Ueno, 1988: 30; Sasa and Suzuki, 1993: 114; Langton and Pinder, 2007: 138.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Paratricocladius tamaator Sasa, 1981 (male). A, Wing; B, 4th tergite of abdomen; C, Hypopygium. Scale bars: A, B=0.2 mm, C=0.05 mm.
Material examined. 5♂♂ (RCH 4040, 4041, 4050, 4106, 4122), Korea, Jeju-do, Seoguipo-si, 2 Sep 1988, Ree HI.
Diagnosis. Small to medium sized, dark brown species (WL 1.4 mm). Eye hairy, reniform. Scutum with large, oval humeral pit. Costa not produced. Anal point triangular, with round tip and several lateral setae. Gonocoxite with two inner lobes. Gonostylus parallel-sided, abruptly bent inward at tip, with distinct crista dorsalis. AR 1.15. LR 0.63.
Description (male). Head (Fig. 3B): Eye reniform, hairy. Antenna brown, with 13 segments. AR 1.15. Palp brown, with 5 segments: 29, 54, 93, 107, 171 μm(1 : 1.9 : 3.2 : 3.7 : 5.9). Clypeus brown, with 13-15 setae. Thorax: Brown in ground color. Antepronotum dark brown, well developed, with 1-3 ventral setae. Scutum brown, vittae dark brown, with large oval humeral pit ( Fig. 3 C): Acrosticals minute (not able to count); 15 erect dorsocentrals, arising from distinct pale pit; 3-4 prealars. Scutellum dark brown, with 8 setae. Postnotum dark brown. Haltere yellowish brown, elliptic. Wing (Fig. 3A): WL 1.4 mm. Membrane bare. Costa not produced from R 4+5 . R 2+3 ending on middle of R1 and
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Rheocricotopus chalybeatus (Edwards, 1929) (male). A, Wing; B, Head (frontal); C, Thorax (lateral); D, 3rd tergum of abdomen; E, Hypopygium; F, Gonocoxal inner lob (ventral). Scale bars: A=0.3 mm, B, D=0.2 mm, C=0.5 mm, E, F=0.05 mm.
R 4+5 . R 4+5 distal to M 1+2 . Cu1 slightly bent in middle. An reaching FCu. FCu slightly distal to RM. Anal lobe moderately developed. Squama with setae. Legs: All segments brown, Tarsi I-V of mid and hind legs slightly lighter (brownish yellow). Fore tibia with a long, narrow apical spur; mid tibia with 2 short spurs; hind tibia with 1 short, 1 long and 10-12 comb spurs. Pulvillus moderately developed. LR 0.63. Abdomen: All tergites dark brown; all sternites brownish yellow. Tergal setae arise as shown in Fig. 3 D. Hypopygium (Fig. 3E): Anal tergite with large, triangular bilobes distally, without any setae. Anal point wide at base, tapered apically, with round tip and several lateral setae. Gonocoxite rather long, slightly narrowed distally, with 2 gonocoxal inner lobes: dorsal lobe triangular with round tip, bare; ventral lobe wider with many setae and microtrichia. Gonostylus parallel-sided, abruptly bent inward at tip, with distince cristatdorsalis and megaseta.
Distribution. Europe, Japan, Mongolia, Korea.
Remarks. The morphological key characters of the Korean specimens are consistent with those described for European and Japanese specimens (Edwards, 1929; Lehmann, 1969; Sasa and Kawai, 1987). This species showed a wide range of the geographical variation in body size, i.e. the WL of England specimen was 2.5mm(Edward, 1929), that of Germany’s 1.6-2.0 mm (Lehmann, 1969), that of Japanese’s 1.3 mm (Sasa and Kawai, 1987), and that of Korean’s 1.4 mm. In China, nine species of Rheocricotopus have been reported, but not chalybeatus (Wang and Zheng, 1992). In eastern Siberia, Russia, only one species, Rh. effuses , has been recorded (Kravtsova, 2000). Rh. chalybeatus was reported in Mongolia (Shcherbina and Zelentsov, 2008).
  • Subfamily Tanypodinae Thienemann and Zavrel
  • GenusAblabesmyiaJohannsen
  • 1*Ablabesmyia jeongin. sp. (Fig. 4)
Material examined. Holotype: ♂ (RCH-5876), Korea, Gangweon-do, Chuncheon-si, Wudu-dong, 1 May 2009, Jeong KY. Paratypes: 3♂♂ (RCH-5881, 5888, 5891), same as holotype.
Diagnosis. Yellowish brown, medium-sized species (WL 2.9 mm). Wing membrane covered with macrotrichia, 3 cloudy patches on anterior and middle of cell r 4+5 , RM, and FCu. MC distal to FCu and proximal to RM. Gonocoxite large; gonocoxal basal lobe complicated in structure, basal blade and dorsal blade directed outward. AR 1.90.
Description (Male). Head: Eye bare, dorsomedially produced. Antenna dark brown, 14 segmented, 14th segment short with an apical seta. AR 1.90. Palp dark brown, with 5 segments: 65, 137, 209, 144, 335 μm(1 : 2.1 : 3.2 : 2.2 : 5.2). Clypeus dark brown, roughly square, with 35 setae. Thorax: Yellowish brown in ground color. Antepronotum yellowish brown. Scutum brown, with inconspicuous dark brown vittae; 30-34 short dorsocentrals and 28-30 prealars. Scutellum yellowish brown, with 29 short setae. Postnotum dark brown. Wing (Fig. 4A): WL 2.9 mm. Membrane with macrotrichia, faint cloudy patches on anterior part and middle of r 4+5 , on middle of m 1+2 , on anterior end of Cu 1 , on middle of an, and on RM and FCu. MC distal to FCu and proximal to RM. R 4+5 distal to M 1+2 and proximal to M 3+4 . Anal lobe moderately developed. Squama fringed. Legs: Femur pale yellow with a subapical dark ring. Tibia pale yellow with subbasal, middle and apical dark rings ( Fig. 4 B). Tarsus I pale with middle and apical dark rings, tarsi II-III pale with an apical dark ring, tarsi IV-V brownish yellow. Pulvillus absent. Abdomen (Fig. 4C): Tergites I-V pale with faint shade on middle; tergites VI-VII yellowish brown. Hypopygium (Fig. 4D): Anal tergite extremely small. Gonocoxite large; basal lobe of gonocoxite complicated in structure: basal blade and dorsal blade directed outward, lateral filaments long, branched in number. Gonostylus narrow, long, with several teeth and an apical filament.
Female. Unknown.
Etymology. This species is named after Dr. K.Y. Jeong, who collected the type specimens.
Distribution. Korea.
Remarks. This new species has a gonocoxal basal lobe with very unique structures, particularly the outward direction of the long dorsal blade and the short basal blade, which have not previously been observed in other congeners.
  • 2*GenusHayesomyiaMurray and Fittkau
  • 3*Hayesomyia tripunctata(Goetghebuer, 1922) (Fig. 5)
Ablabesmyia tripunctata Goetghebuer, 1922: 59 (type locality: Allemagne); 1937: 37.
Hayesomyia tripunctata (Goetghebuer): Langton and Pinder, 2007: 46.
Material examined. 1♂ 2♀♀, Korea, Jeollanam-do, Gureeub, 2 Oct 1977, Ree HI.
Diagnosis. Reddish pale yellow, medium sized species (WL 2.1 mm). Eye bare. Scutum with 4 pairs of dark spots. Wing membrane thickly covered with hairs, 3 dark spots on R 2+3 , RM, and humeral cross-vein. R 2+3 present. Gonocoxal basal lobe large, belobed (inner branch narrow and outer branch broad). Gonostylus abruptly narrowed at tip. AR 1.96. LR 1.14.
Description (male). Head: Eye bare, with narrow dorsomedial extension. Antenna pale dark brown, with 14 segments. AR 1.96. Palp pale yellow, with 4 segments: 82, 168, 193, 250 μm(1 : 2.1 : 2.4 : 3.1). Clypeus brownish yellow, with 28 setae. Thorax (Fig. 5B): Reddish yellow in ground color. Antepronotum yellow, notched medially. Scutum brownish yellow with 4 pairs of dark spots: 1 pair on anterior margin of central vittae, 1 pair on posterior margin of central vittae, 1 pair on anterior margin of lateral vittae, and 1 pair on posterior margin of lateral vittae. One dark spot on anterior anepisternum II. 19 long, erect acrosticals; 17 dorsocentrals; 9 prealars. Scutellum yellowish brown with 17 setae. Postnotum dark brown. Wing (Fig. 5A): WL 2.1 mm. Membrane thickly covered with macrotrichia. 3 dark spots on R 2+3 , RM, and humeral cross-vein. Costa not produced. R 4+5 slightly beyond M 3+4 . R 2+3 present. MCu slightly distal to FCu. An well beyond FCu. Anal lobe developed. Squama fringed.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Ablabesmyia jeongi n. sp. (male). A, Wing; B, Femur and tibia (lateral); C, Abdomen; D, Hypopygium. Scale bars: A=0.5 mm, B, C=0.01 mm, D=0.01 mm.
Arculus dark. Legs (Fig. 5B): All segments pale yellow, with dark spots on apical end of femur and on basal end of tibia. Apical spur of fore tibia with 2 lateral teeth each side; 2 subequal spurs of mid tibia with several lateral teeth, respectively; hind tibia with 1 long spur with 1-2 lateral teeth, 1 short spur with several lateral teeth, and 7-8 comb spines. Tarsus III of mid leg without prominently developed apical setae. Pulvillus absent. LR 1.14. Abdomen (Fig. 5C): Tergites I, II, VIII pale; tergites III-VI pale with basal dark markings; tergite VII brown (distal 1/3 yellowish brown). Hypopygium (Fig. 5D): Anal tergite small, roundly produced distally, with 12 setae; phallapodeme pale, broad ante-riorly, .
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Hayesomyia tripunctata (Goetghebuer, 1922) (male). A, Wing; B, Thorax and femurs (lateral); C, Abdomen; D, Hypopygium; E, Antenna (female). Scale bars: A-C=0.5 mm, D=0.05 mm, E=0.2 mm.
hooked at tip, deeply forked posteriorly. Gonocoxite relatively short (164 μm long×129 μm wide); gonocoxal basal lobe large, bilobed, inner branch narrow and outer branch broad, covered with small setae distally and with microtrichia. Gonostylus parallel-sided, slightly bent inward, abruptly narrowed at tip, with several subapical setae ventrally
Female. General morphology same as in male, except for usual sexual differences. Antenna with 11 segments ( Fig. 5 E).
Distribution. Europe, Korea.
Remarks. The genus Hayesomyia belongs to the tribe Pentaneurini. Adult males of this genus resemble those of Thienemannimyia and Rheopelopia . The genus has a Holarctic distribution with only one species recorded from each of the Palaearctic (Europe) and Nearctic regions (Langton and Pinder, 2007). It is easily identifiable by the three dark spots on the wing membrane and by the bifurcate gonocoxal basal lobe.
Korean name: 1*만해깃깔따구 (신칭)
Korean name: 1*타마깃깔따구 (신칭), 2*유아기깔따구속 (신칭), 3*삼각유아기깔따구 (신칭)
Korean name: 1*정알락깔따구 (신칭), 2*집게깔따구속 (신칭), 3*열점집게깔따구 (신칭)
Acknowledgements
This survey of Korean Indigenous Species was supported by the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), Ministry of Environment of Korea.
References
Brundin L 1956 Zur systematic der Orthocladiinae (Diptera, Chironomidae). Report of Institute for Freshwater Research Drottningholm 37 5 - 185
Cranston PS 1995 Introduction to the Chironomidae. In: The Chironomidae: biology and ecology of non-biting midges (Eds., Armitage PD, Cranston PS, Pinder LCV). Chapman and Hall London 1 - 7
Edwards FW 1929 British non-biting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae). Transition of Entomological Society of London 77 279 - 430
Goetghebuer M 1922 Nouveaux materiaux pour l’etude de lafaune des Chironomids Belgique. Annals Biologiques Lacustre 11 38 - 62
Goetghebuer M 1937 Tendipedidae (Chironomidae). A) SubfamilyPelopiinae (Tanypodinae). In: Die Fliegen der PalaearktischenRegion (Ed., Lindner E). Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Stuttgart 1 - 81
Kang HJ , MSc. thesis 2012 Taxonomy of the Korean Orthocaldiinae (Diptera:Chironomidae). Korea University Seoul, Korea MSc. thesis 1 - 69
Kravtsova LS 2000 List of Chironomidae (Diptera) of Southpart of the eastern Siberia. Far Eastern Entomologist 93 1 - 28
Langton PH , Pinder LCV 2007 Keys to the adult male Chironomidaeof Britain and Ireland. Vol. 1. Freshwater Biological Association, Scientific Publication Ambleside 1 - 239
Lehmann J 1969 Die eurepaeischen Arten der Gattung RheocricotopusThienemann et Harnisch und drei neue Artvertreterdiser Gattung aus der Orientalis. Archiv für Hydrobiology 66 348 - 381
Na KB , MSc. thesis 2004 Taxonomy of the Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta)in Seoul-Gyeonggi Area, Korea. Seoul Women’s University Seoul, Korea MSc. thesis 1 - 81
Ree HI 2012 Eight new and four unrecorded species of Chironomidae(Insecta: Diptera) from Korea. Animal Syste Evolution and Diversity 28 241 - 260
Ree HI , Jeong KY 2010 Fauna of non-biting midges (Diptera,Chironomidae) from Soyang river in Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, Korea. Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology 26 115 - 140
Ree HI , Jeong KY , Nam SH 2011 Six new and four unrecordedspecies of Tanytarsini (Diptera, Chironomidae, Chironominae)found in Korea. Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology 27 246 - 261
Ree HI , Jeong KY , Nam SH , Yong TS 2010 Nine Polypedilumspecies (Diptera, Chironomidae) new to Korea collected neaNamdae-stream, Muju. Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology 26 203 - 216
Ree HI , Kim HS 1981 Studies on Chironomidae (Diptera) inKorea. 1. Taxonomical study on adults of Chironomidae. Proceedings of the College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University 6 123 - 226
Ree HI , Nam SH , Jeong KY 2012 Two new and four unrecordedspecies of Chironomidae (Diptera) in Korea. Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity 28 2 - 11
Saether OA 1980 Glossary of chironomid morphology andterminology (Diptera: Chironomidae). Entomologica Scandinavica, Supplement 14 1 - 51
Sasa M 1981 Studies on chironomid midges of the Tama River.Part 3. Species of the subfamily Orthocladiinae recorded atthe summer survey and their distribution in relation to thepollution with sewage waters. Research Report from the National Institute for Environmental Studies 29 1 - 77
Sasa M 1983 Studies on chironomid midges of the Tama River.Part 6. Description of species of the subfamily Orthocladiinaerecovered from the main stream in the June survey. Research Report from the National Institute for Environmental Studies 43 69 - 99
Sasa M 1988 Studies on chironomid midges collected fromlakes and streams in the southern region of Hokkaido, Japan. Research Report from the National Institute for Environmental Studies 121 8 - 76
Sasa M 1998 Chironomidae of Japan 1998. List of speciesrecorded, and supplemental keys for identification. Research Report of Institute of Environmental and Welfare Studies Kurobe-shi 1 - 156
Sasa M , Hasegawa H 1988 Additional records of the chironomidmidges from the Ryukyu Islands, Southern Japan. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 39 229 - 256
Sasa M , Kawai K 1987 Studies on the chironomid midges ofLake Biwa (Diptera, Chironomidae). Lake Biwa Study Monograph 3 1 - 119
Sasa M , Kawai K , Ueno R 1988 Studies on the chironomidmidges of Oyabe River, Toyama. Research Report from Toyama Prefectural Environmental Pollution Research Center 1988 26 - 85
Sasa M , Kikuchi M 1995 Chironomidae (Diptera) of Japan. University of Tokyo Press Tokyo 1 - 333
Sasa M , Okazawa T 1991 The chironomids of the JoganjiRiver and other places. Part Studies on the chironomids ofthe Joganji River. Toyama Research Report from Toyama Prefectural Environmental Pollution Research Center 52 - 67
Sasa M , Suzuki H 1993 Additional records of the chironomidmidges from AmamiIsland; southern Japan. Research Report from Toyama Prefectural Environmental Pollution Research Center 1993 110 - 124
Scherbina GK , Zelentsov NI 2008 Chironomids fauna (Diptera,Chironomidae) in some waterbodies and watercourses of Mongolia. Inland Water Biology 1 19 - 24
Tokunaga M 1938 Chironomidae from Japan. X. New or littleknown midges, with descriptions of the metamorphoses ofseveral species. Philippine Journal of Science 68 381 - 383
Tokunaga M 1939 Chironomidae from japan. XI. New or littleknown midges with special references to the metamorphosesof torrential species. Philippine Journal of Science 69 297 - 345
Wang X , Zheng L 1992 Checklist of Chironomidae recordsfrom China. Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology 26 247 - 255