Advanced
Echinoderm Fauna of Kosrae, The Federation States of Micronesia
Echinoderm Fauna of Kosrae, The Federation States of Micronesia
Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity. 2013. Jan, 29(1): 1-17
Copyright ©2013, The korean Society of Systematic Zoology
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : July 07, 2012
  • Accepted : January 01, 2013
  • Published : January 31, 2013
Download
PDF
e-PUB
PubReader
PPT
Export by style
Share
Article
Author
Metrics
Cited by
TagCloud
About the Authors
Taekjun Lee
College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea
Sook Shin
Department of Life Science, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742, Korea
shins@syu.ac.kr
Abstract
Micronesia is an island nation located north of Papua New Guinea in the Pacific Ocean. A survey was executed on Kosrae, which is one of the four main islands of Micronesia, during January 23-30, 2011 and January 8-15, 2012. The echinoderms were collected at eight intertidal areas and at 12 SCUBA diving points at depths of 10-50 m in the subtidal zone. They were identified based on morphological characteristics. In total, 50 species from 276 individuals were identified: three crinoids, 11 asteroids, seven ophiuroids, 10 echinoids, and 19 holothuroids. Among them, two crinoids, five asteroids, three ophiuroids, four echinoids and two holothuroids were newly recorded from Kosrae.
Keywords
INTRODUCTION
Kosrae is one of four states in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) that stretch 1,800 miles across the North Pacific Ocean and comprise 607 small islands. Kosrae is called “the sleeping lady” because of it shape. It is one of the most picturesque mountains located about 5° north of the equator and is the most eastern island in the FSM (Edward, 2002). The coral reefs surrounding the island are kept in pristine condition through an extensive mooring buoy system that was installed and is maintained by concerned expat dive operators with the help of the government Marine Resources office. Specific information on the echinoderm fauna of Micronesia is included in the reports of Kerr (1994) and Kerr et al. (2007, 2008). The Yap of Micronesia was surveyed by Kerr et al. (2007), and a total of 66, including 16 unidentified species were collected from 19 different sites five crinoids (four unidentified), 14 asteroids (two unidentified), 14 echinoids (three unidentified), and 33 holothuroids (seven unidentified). Kerr (1994) and Kerr et al. (2007) investigated the echinoderm fauna of Kosrae. Kerr (1994) reported 28 holothuroids collected at nine sites, and Kerr et al. (2007) reported 74 species collected at 21 sites, which included 20 unidentified species: four crinoids (three unidentified), 11 asteroids (two unidentified), 11 ophiuroids (seven unidentified), eight echinoids (three unidentified), and 40 holothuroids (five unidentified). We surveyed eight intertidal sites and 12 SCUBA diving points around Kosrae for echinoderm fauna and assembled a checklist of echinoderms for this island.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We collected samples at 20 Kosrae sites during January 24- 28, 2011 and January 9-13, 2012 ( Fig. 1 ), and the GPS coordinates of each site were recorded ( Table 1 ). Most intertidal zones were coral sand and rocky regions, and six subtidal zones were investigated by SCUBA diving. All collected specimens were preserved in 95% ethyl alcohol and were identified based on their morphological characters. The important morphological characters were photographed by digital camera, stereo- and light-microscopes (Nikon D7000, Nikon SMZ1000, Nikon Eclipse 80i; Nikon Co., Tokyo, Japan specimens were identified based mainly on Clark and Rowe (1971) and Rowe and Doty (1977).
RESULTS
The specimens collected for the Kosrae faunistic study were
PPT Slide
Lager Image
A map showing the Kosrae collection sites.
Geological information for the collection sites around Kosrae
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Geological information for the collection sites around Kosrae
identified as 62 species in 50 genera: three crinoids (sea lily), 11 asteroids (sea star), seven ophiuroids (brittle star), nine echinoids (sea urchin), and 20 holothuroids (sea cucumber). Of these, 16 echinoderms including two crinoids ( Oxycomanthus bennetti and Phanogenia gracilis ), five asteroids ( Archaster typicus , Aquilonastra burtonii , Echinaster luzonicus , Fromia nodosa and Ophidiaster granifer ), three ophiuroids ( Ophiactis savignyi , Ophioconis permixta , and Ophiomastix caryophyllata ), four echinoids ( Diadema savignyi , Echinothrix calamaris , Echinometra mathaei , and Parasalenia gratiosa ) and two holothuroids ( Labidodemas rugosum and Opheodesoma clarki ), which are marked with asterisks (*) in the following list, were newly recorded on Kosrae and were described with brief remarks.
  • Phylum Echinodermata Klein, 1734
  • Subphylum Crinozoa Matsumoto, 1929
  • Class Crinoidea Müller, 1821
  • Order Comatulida A.H. Clark, 1908
  • Family Comasteridae A.H. Clark, 1908
  • Subfamily Comasterinae A.H. Clark, 1909
  • GenusComasterL. Agassiz, 1836
  • 1.Comaster schlegelii(Carpenter, 1881)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Malem diving 1, 24 Jan 2011; 2 specimens, Tafunsak diving 2, 26 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Utwa diving 3, 10 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Palau, Guam, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Bengal Bay.
  • GenusOxycomanthusRowe, Hoggett, Birtles and Vail, 1986
  • *2.Oxycomanthus bennetti(Müller, 1841)
Alecto bennetti Müller, 1841: 187.
Cenolia bennetti HL Clark, 1946: 36.
Oxycomanthus bennetti : Rowe and Gates, 1995: 149; Messing, 2012: 246787.
Material examined. 1 specimen, Malem diving 1, 24 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Utwa diving 3, 10 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Palau, Guam, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Bengal Bay.
Remarks. This species has various body colors (Messing, 2007). Brachials are brown and some terminal parts are white. Pinnules have black basal parts and yellowish tips.
  • Subfamily Phanogeniinae White and Messing, 2001
  • GenusPhanogeniaLovén, 1866
  • *3.Phanogenia gracilis(Hartlaub, 1890)
Actinometra gracilis Hartlaub, 1890: 170; AH Clark, 1908a: 684; 1912: 38.
Comaster gracilis AH Clark, 1908a: 686; 1912: 38; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 6.
Phanogenia gracilis AH Clark, 1908b: 124; 1909: 392; Messing, 2012: 246804.
Phanogenia minima AH Clark, 1909: 392.
Comaster minima AH Clark, 1912: 89; 1921: 706; Rowe and Gates, 1995: 146.
Comaster minimus AH Clark, 1926: 184.
Material examined. 2 specimens, Malem diving 1, 24 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak diving 1, 25 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Utwa diving 3, 10 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern China, Philippines, Palau, Guam, Indo-West Pacific.
Remarks. Messing (2007) described two forms of P. gracilis that occurred at Palau: 1) numerous (up to 120) and short (usually <12 cm) arms, 2) fewer (usually <60) and long (up to 25 cm) arms. Our specimens corresponded to the latter type and the body color is brown.
  • Subphylum Asterozoa von Zittel, 1895
  • Class Asteroidea de Blainville, 1830
  • Order Valvatida Perrier, 1884
  • Family Acanthasteridae Sladen, 1889
  • GenusAcanthasterGervais, 1841
  • 4.Acanthaster planci(Linnaeus, 1758)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Malem diving 1, 24 Jan 2011.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), Guam, Palau, New Zealand (Kermadec Islands), Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Mauritius, Madagascar), Red Sea.
  • Family Archasteridae Viguier, 1878
  • GenusArchasterMüller and Troschel, 1840
  • *5.Archaster typicusMüller and Troschel, 1840 (Fig. 2A)
Archaster typicus Müller and Troschel, 1840: 104; HL Clark, 1946: 79; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 47; Rowe and Gates, 1995: 25; Mah, 2012: 213119.
Material examined. 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Palau, Guam, West Caroline Islands, South Pacific, Hawaii, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Bengal Bay, West Indian Ocean.
Remarks. This is the most known species of the genus Archaster and is widely distributed in tropical regions of West Pacific and Indo-West Pacific (Clark, 1946; Clark and Rowe, 1971). This specimen was slightly burrowed into the coral sand and was collected in the intertidal zone at night.
  • Family Asterinidae Gray, 1840
  • GenusAquilonastraO’Loughlin, 2004
  • *6.Aquilonastra burtonii(Gray, 1840) (Fig. 3A, D, G-I)
Asterina burtonii Gray, 1840: 289; AM Clark, 1952: 207.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Some echinoderms collected around Kosrae. A, Archaster typicus; B, Linckia laevigata; C, L. multifora; D, Ophiactis savignyi; E, Ophiocoma erinaceus; F, O. scolopendrina; G, Echinothrix clamaris; H, Echinothrix diadema; I, Parasalenia gratiosa; J, Echinometra mathaei; K, Tripneustes gratilla; L, Euapta godeffroyi; M, Bohadschia argus; N, Holothuria (Halodeima) atra; O, Stichopus chloronotus.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Aquilonastra burtonii (A, D, G-I), Ophidiaster granifer (B, E, J-L), and Fromia nodosa (C, F, M-O). A-C, Dosal side; D-F, Ventral side; G, H, J, K, M, N, Oral part and ventral side of arm; I, Dorsal side of arm; L, O, Madreporite. Scale bars: A, D=0.5 cm, B, C, E, F=1 cm, G-I, L-O=1 mm, J, K=2 mm.
Asterina burtoni : AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 68.
Asterina wega Perrier, 1869: 102.
Aquilonastra burtoni O’Loughlin and Waters, 2004: 11; Mah, 2012: 459524.
Aquilonastra burtonii O’Loughlin and Rowe, 2006: 268.
Material examined. 2 specimens, Malem diving 1, 24 Jan 2011.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), Philippines, South Pacific, Hawaii, northern Australia, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, eastern Africa, Red Sea, eastern Mediterranean Sea.
Remarks. Body color is quite diverse: greenish gray, pale gray, brown, mottled brown, orange, red, and mottled red (O’Loughlin and Rowe, 2006). The body color of our specimen is greenish gray.
  • Family Ophidiasteridae Verrill, 1870
  • GenusLinckiaNardo, 1834
  • 7.Linckia guildingiGray, 1840
Material examined. 1 specimen, Walung diving, 11 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern China, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, Africa, Caribbean Sea, Central America, Gulf of Mexico.
  • 8.Linckia laevigata(Linnaeus, 1758) (Fig. 2B)
Material examined. 12 specimens, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 1, 25 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012; 6 specimens, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 4, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), Korea (Jeju Island), Japan, southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Guam, Hawaii, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Mauritius, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania), Red Sea.
  • 9.Linckia multifora(Lamarck, 1816) (Fig. 2C)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Utwa diving 4, 11 Jan 2012; 2 specimens, Malem diving 2, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern China, Guam, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Madagascar), Red Sea.
  • GenusOphidiasterL. Agassiz, 1836
*10. Ophidiaster granifer Lütken, 1871 (Fig. 3B, E, J-L)
  • Ophidiaster graniferLütken, 1871: 276; HL Clark, 1921: 81; 1946: 121; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 60; Rowe and Gates, 1995: 91; Mah, 2012: 212302.
Ophidiaster trychnus Fisher, 1913: 215.
Material examined. 1 specimen, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Palau, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Red Sea.
Remarks. This species was collected under a coral rock. Dorsal side body color of is brown with irregular formed dark brown patches. Body size: R=3 cm, r=0.7 cm, R=4.3 r.
  • Family Goniasteridae Forbes, 1841
  • GenusFromiaGray, 1840
  • *11.Fromia nodosaA.M. Clark, 1967 (Fig. 2D,3C, F, M-O)
Fromia nodosa AM Clark, 1967b: 189; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 62; Mah, 2012: 213300.
Material examined. 1 specimen, Utwa diving 4, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), Sri Lanka (Ceylon), West Indian Ocean (Amirante Island, Maldive Island), eastern Africa (Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles).
Remarks. This species was reported at the West Indian Ocean and eastern Africa (Clark, 1967b; Clark and Rowe, 1971) and this is the first reported from the Pacific Ocean. Body color is red, and the ventral part is white. Body size: R=2.6 cm, r=0.7 cm, R=3.7 r.
  • Family Oreasteridae Fisher, 1911
  • GenusChoriasterLütken, 1869
  • 12.Choriaster granulatusLütken, 1869
Material examined. 2 specimens, Malem diving 1, 24 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak diving 2, 26 Jan 2011.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Palau, New Caledonia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa, Red Sea.
  • GenusCulcita(L. Agassiz, 1836)
  • 13.Culcita novaeguineaeMüller and Troschel, 1842
Material examined. 1 specimen, Utwa diving 4, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Palau, Marshall Islands, Hawaii, northern Australia, Bengal Bay, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Madagascar, Mozambique).
  • Order Spinulosida Perrier, 1884
  • Family Echinasteridae Verrill, 1867
  • GenusEchinasterMüller and Troschel, 1840
  • *14.Echinaster luzonicus(Gray, 1840) (Fig. 4A-C)
Othilia luzonicus Gray, 1840: 282.
Echinaster luzonicus Müller and Troschel, 1842: 23; HL Clark, 1921: 98; 1946: 147; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 72; Rowe and Gates, 1995: 59; Mah, 2012: 367951.
Echinaster eridanella Müller and Troschel, 1842: 24; HL Clark, 1916: 62.
Material examined. 2 specimens, Malem diving 1, 24 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Tafunsak diving 2, 26 Jan 2011.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Palau, South Pacific, northern Australia, New Caledonia.
Remarks. This species has five or six arms and rarely seven (Clark and Rowe, 1971). Our specimens have six arms. Body color of disk and basal side of arms is light orange and the terminal part of the arm is red.
  • Class Ophiuroidea Gray, 1840
  • Order Ophiurida Müller and Troschel, 1840
  • Infraorder Gnathophiurina Matsumoto, 1915
  • Family Ophiactidae Matsumoto, 1915
  • GenusOphiactisLütken, 1856
  • *15.Ophiactis savignyi(Müller and Troschel, 1842) (Figs. 2D,4D-F, I)
Ophiolepis savignyi Müller and Troschel, 1842: 95.
Ophiactis krebsii Lütken, 1856: 12; Ljungman, 1867: 323; 1872: 627; Duncan, 1879: 465.
Ophiolepis sexradia Grube, 1857: 343.
Ophiactis reinhardti Lütken, 1859, Pl. 3, fig. 7a, b.
Ophiactis sixradia : Lyman, 1865: 115; Koehler, 1898: 72.Ophiactis sixradia: Lyman, 1865: 115; Koehler, 1898: 72.
Ophiactis savignyi : Ljungman, 1867: 323; HL Clark, 1915: 265; 1921: 108; Koehler, 1922: 164; Mortensen, 1933: 442; AH Clark, 1939: 3; Mortensen, 1940: 70; HL Clark, 1946: 210; AH Clark, 1949: 31; AM Clark, 1967a: 47; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 103; Pawson, 1978: 11; Shin and Rho, 1996: 411; Shin, 2012: 73; Stöhr and O’Hara, 2012: 125122.
Ophiactis maculosa von Martens, 1870: 248.
Ophiactis conferta Koehler, 1905: 25.
Ophiactis quadrispina HL Clark, 1915: 264.
Ophiactis versicolor HL Clark, 1939: 81.
Material examined. 11 specimens, Malem diving 1, 24 Jan 2011; 17 specimens, Tafunsak diving 1, 25 Jan 2011; 9 specimens, Tafunsak diving 2, 26 Jan 2011; 2 specimens, Utwa diving 2, 9 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Walung diving, 11 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Utwa diving 5, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), Korea (Korea Strait, Jeju Island), Japan (Honshu, Kyushu), China, Philippines, Guam, northern Australia, Singapore, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Tanzania, Madagascar), Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean.
Remarks. This is a cosmopolitan species that usually inhabits the inner cavity of sponges. It was collected with sponges by SCUBA diving on Kosrae. Body color is light brown or greenish gray. Arms are usually six and rarely five.
  • Family Ophicomidae Ljungman, 1867
  • GenusOphiocomaL. Agassiz, 1835
  • 16.Ophiocoma erinaceusMüller and Troschel, 1842 (Fig. 2E)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Utwa intertidal, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa, Red Sea.
  • 17.Ophiocoma scolopendrina(Lamarck, 1816) (Fig. 2F)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 10 specimens, Tafunsak intertidal 1, 26 Jan 2011; 7 specimens, Tafunsak diving 2, 26 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 2, 9 Jan 2012; 3 specimens, Utwa intertidal, 11 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012; 2 specimens, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern China, Guam, Saipan, Solomon Islands, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Mauritius, Madagascar), South Africa, Red Sea.
  • GenusOphiomastixMüller and Troschel, 1842
  • *18.Ophiomastix caryophyllataLütken, 1869 (Fig. 4G, H, K, L)
Ophiomastix caryophyllata Lütken, 1869: 43; HL Clark, 1946: 249; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 91; Lane et al., 2000: 482; Stöhr and O’Hara, 2012: 212391.
Material examined. 1 specimen, Tafunsak diving 2, 25 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Utwa diving 2, 9 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Utwa diving 3, 10 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan,
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Echinaster luzonicus (A-C), Ophiactis savignyi (D-F, I), Ophiomastix caryophyllata (G, H, K, L), and Ophioconis pexmixta (J, M-O). A, D, G, J, Dorsal side; B, L, Dorsal side of arm; C, F, K, N, Oral part and ventral side of arm; E, H, M, Radial shields of disk and dorsal side arms; I, O, Arm spines. Scale bars: A, H=1 cm, B, C=2 mm, D, J=5 mm, E, F, I, K-M=1 mm, G=2 cm, N, O=0.5 mm.
southern China, Guam, northeastern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Madagascar), Red Sea.
Remarks. These specimens were collected by SCUBA diving. Body is light cream color and has irregular formed black spots on the dorsal and ventral side of the disk. Arms are banded and are approximately equal width.
  • 19.Ophiomastix mixtaLütken, 1869
Material examined. 2 specimens, Utwa diving 5, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), Korea (Jeju Island), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, South Pacific, Australia, Indonesia (Ambon Island).
Remarks. This species is a common and abundant ophiuroid in the Indo-West Pacific, and at the subtidal zone of Jeju Island, Korea (Shin, 2012). Only two individuals were collected by SCUBA diving in Kosrae.
  • Family Ophiotrichidae Ljungman, 1867
  • GenusOphiothrixMüller and Troschel, 1840
  • 20.Ophiothrix(Acanthophiothrix)purpureavon Martens, 1867
Material examined. 3 specimens, Malem diving 1, 24 Jan 2011.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern China, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Madagascar, Tanzania), Red Sea.
  • Infraorder Ophiodermatina Smith, Paterson and Lafay, 1995
  • Family Ophiodermatidae Ljungman, 1867
  • GenusOphioconisLütken, 1869
  • *21.Ophioconis permixtaKoehler, 1905 (Fig. 4J, M-O)
Ophioconis permixta Koehler, 1905: 14; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 127; Stöhr and O’Hara, 2012: 238160.
Material examined. 2 specimens, Utwa diving 3, 10 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), Indonesia (Wowoni Island, Kai Island), East India Ocean, eastern Africa.
Remarks. Morphological characters of our specimens corresponded to the description of AM Clark and Rowe (1971). Body size: R=5 mm, r=62 mm, R=12.4 r.
  • Subphylum Echinozoa
  • Class Echinoidea Leske, 1778
  • Order Diadematoida Duncan, 1889
  • Family Diadematidae Gray, 1855
  • GenusDiademaGray, 1825
  • *22.Diadema savignyi(Audouin, 1829)
Diadema savignyi : Michelin, 1845: 15; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 153; Rowe and Gates, 1995: 207; Kroh and Mooi, 2012: 213375.
Material examined. 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), south Japan, south China, Philippines, Guam, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, West Indian Ocean, southeastern Arabia, eastern Africa (Kenya, Mauritius, Madagascar, Seychelles).
Remarks. This specimen was collected from the intertidal zone at night. Primary spines are very long and body color is black.
  • 23.Diadema setosum(Leske, 1778)
Material examined. 2 specimens, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak diving 2, 26 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak diving 3, 27 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 2, 9 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), Korea (Jeju Island), Japan (Sagami bay-Bonin Islands), southern China, Taiwan, Indo- West Pacific.
  • GenusEchinothrixPeters, 1853
  • *24.Echinothrix calamaris(Pallas, 1774) (Figs. 2G,5A, D, G-I)
Echinus calamaris Pallas, 1774: 31, Pl. 2.
Echinothrix calamaris A Agassiz, 1873: 413; HL Clark, 1921: 146; Koehler, 1927: 47; HL Clark, 1932: 213; 1946: 300; AM Clark, 1967a: 51; Rowe and Gates, 1995: 208; Kroh and Mooi, 2012: 213377.
Echinothrix desorii A Agassiz, 1873: 451.
Material examined. 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Hawaii, Solomon Islands, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa, Red Sea.
Remarks. The specimen, whose spines were moving smoothly, was collected from a wide horizontal coral rocky area of the intertidal zone at night. The primary spines on the dorsal side are white. Size is rather large and diameter of the test is about 9.7 cm.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Echinothrix calamaris (A, D, G-I), Paraselina gratiosa (B, E, J-M), and Echinometra mathaei (C, F, N-R). A-C, Dorsal side; D-F, Ventral side; G, K, O, Valve of tridentate pedicellaria; H, Q, Valve of tryphyllous pedicellaria; I, M, R, Spicules of tubefeet; J, N, Valves of globiferous pedicellaria; L, P, Valve of ophiocephalous pedicellaria. Scale bars: A, D=4.5 cm, B, C, E, F=2 cm, G, J, K=300 μm, H, L, O=100 μm, I, N, P-R=50 μm, M=10 μm.
  • 25.Echinothrix diadema(Linnaeus, 1758) (Fig. 2H)
Material examined. 2 specimens, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 2, 9 Jan 2012; 2 specimens, Malem intertidal, 10 Jan 2012; 4 specimens, Utwa intertidal, 11 Jan 2012; 2 specimens, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 4, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa, Red Sea.
  • Order Camarodonta Jackson, 1912
  • Family Parasaleniidae Mortensen, 1903
  • GenusParasaleniaA. Agassiz, 1863
  • *26.Parasalenia gratiosaA. Agassiz, 1863 (Figs. 2I,5B, E, J-M)
Parasalenia gratiosa A Agassiz, 1863: 22; HL Clark, 1912: 369; 1925: 141; 1946: 331; Mortensen, 1948: 49; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 157; Kerr et al., 1992: 204; Rowe and Gates, 1995: 233; Kroh and Mooi, 2012: 212438.
Material examined. 1 specimen, Tafunsak diving 2, 26 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Utwa diving 5, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern China, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique), Red Sea.
Remarks. This species was collected at blue holes by SCUBA diving. Body color is nearly black but primary spine has white ring at its base.
  • Family Echinometridae Gray, 1855
  • GenusEchinostrephusA. Agassiz, 1863
  • 27.Echinostrephus aciculatusA. Agassiz, 1863
Material examined. 4 specimens, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 2, 9 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Taiwan, East Australia, Indo-West Pacific.
  • GenusEchinometraGray, 1825
  • *28.Echinometra mathaei(Blainville, 1825) (Figs. 2J,5C, F, N-R)
Echinus mathai Blainville, 1825: 94.
Echinometra mathaei Blainville, 1834: 225; Mortensen, 1903: 128; A Agassiz and HL Clark, 1907: 241; HL Clark, 1908: 303; 1912: 372; Mortensen, 1940: 103; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 157; Rowe and Gates, 1995: 211; Kroh and Mooi, 2012: 213383.
Echinometra heteropora L Agassiz and Desor, 1846: 372.
Echinometra microtuberculata A Agassiz, 1863: 22.
Echinometra picta A Agassiz and HL Clark, 1907: 241; HL Clark, 1912: 373.
Material examined. 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 2, 9 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Malem intertidal, 10 Jan 2012.
Remarks. This species is widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific and South Pacific (Clark and Rowe, 1971; Rowe and Gates, 1995). Specimens of about 4 cm were collected under coral rocks at the intertidal zone. Tubefeet spicules are C-shaped and rarely a tridentate form with hooked tips.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), Korea (Jeju Island), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Solomon Islands, Hawaii, North Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Red Sea, eastern Africa.
  • Family Toxopneustidae Troschel, 1872
  • GenusTripneustesL. Agassiz, 1841
  • 29.Tripneustes gratilla(Linnaeus, 1758) (Fig. 2K)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 4, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), Korea (Jeju Island), Japan (Sagami Bay, Boso Peninsula), southern China, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, southeastern Africa.
  • Order Clypeasteroida L. Agassiz, 1835
  • Family Clypeasteridae L. Agassiz, 1835
  • GenusClypeasterLamarck, 1801
  • 30.Clypeaster reticulatus(Linnaeus, 1758)
Material examined. 3 specimens, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Hawaii, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, West Indian Ocean, eastern Africa.
  • Class Holothuroidea de Blainville, 1834
  • Order Apodida Brandt, 1835
  • Family Synaptidae Burmeister, 1837
  • GenusEuaptaÖstergren, 1898
  • 31.Euapta godeffroyi(Semper, 1868) (Fig. 2L)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 2 specimens, Utwa diving 3, 10 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), Guam, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Mauritius, Madagascar), Red Sea.
  • GenusOpheodesomaFisher, 1907
  • *32.Opheodesoma clarkiHeding, 1928 (Fig. 6D-K)
Opheodesoma clarki : AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 184; Paulay, 2012: 241948.
Material examined. 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), Philippines.
Remarks. Body color of dorsal side is dark reddish brown and ventral side is light brown.
  • GenusSynaptaEschscholtz, 1829
  • 33.Synapta maculata(Chamisso and Eysenhardt, 1821)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 3 specimens, Tafunsak intertidal 2, 9 Jan 2012; 3 specimens, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012; 4 specimens, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012; 3 specimens, Tafunsak intertidal 4, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), Guam, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Kenya, Madagascar), Red Sea.
  • Order Aspidochirotida Grube, 1840
  • Family Holothuriidae Ludwig, 1894
  • GenusActinopygaBronn, 1860
  • 34.Actinopyga mauritiana(Quoy and Gaimard, 1834)
Material examined. 2 specimens, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Mauritius), Red Sea.
  • 35.Actinopyga palauensisPanning, 1944
Material examined. 3 specimens, Utwa intertidal, 11 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), Palau, New Caledonia.
  • GenusBohadschiaJaeger, 1833
  • 36.Bohadschia argusJaeger, 1833 (Fig. 2M)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Tafunsak diving 2, 26 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Walung diving, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indonesia, Bengal Bay.
  • 37.Bohadschia bivittata(Mitsukuri, 1912)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Tafunsak diving 3, 27 Jan 2011; 2 specimens, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), Philippines, Caroline Islands, West Central Pacific.
  • 38.Bohadschia marmorataJaeger, 1833
Material examined. 2 specimens, Tafunsak intertidal 2, 9 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Bengal Bay, eastern Africa, Red Sea.
  • GenusHolothuriaLinnaeus, 1767
  • 39.Holothuria(Halodeima)atraJaeger, 1833 (Fig. 2N)
Material examined. 15 specimens, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 12 specimens, Tafunsak intertidal 1, 26 Jan 2011; 3 specimens, Malem intertidal, 10 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Walung diving, 11 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012; 4 specimens, Tafunsak intertidal 4, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern China, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Kenya, Mauritius, Madagascar, Mozambique), Red Sea.
  • 40.Holothuria(Halodeima)edulisLesson, 1830 (Fig. 6A)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Tafunsak diving 1, 25 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak diving 3, 27 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Walung diving, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indonesia, Indo-West Pacific, Bengal Bay.
  • 41.Holothuria(Mertensiothuria)hillaLesson, 1830
Material examined. 1 specimen, Utwa diving 3, 10 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Walung diving, 11 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), Korea (Korea Strait, Jeju Island), southern Japan, Guam, Hawaii, Australia, Indo-West
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Holothuria (Halodeima) edulis (A), H. (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (B), Stichopus horrens (C), Opheodesoma clarki (D-K), and Labidodemas rugosum (L-Q). A-F, L, Living status; F, Body; G, Tentacles; H, Anchor in body wall; I, Anchor plate in body wall; J, Rod in tentacle; K, Knobbed button in tentacle; M, Dorsal side; N, Ventral side; O, Tables in body wall; P, Lateral view of table in body wall; Q, Buttons in tubefeet. Scale bars: A-C, F, G=2 cm, D=10 cm, E, L=5 cm, H, I, Q=50 μm, J=20 μm, K=10 μm, M, N=5 mm, O=0.5 mm, P=250 μm.
Pacific, Africa (Zanzibar).
  • 42.Holothuria(Mertensiothuria)leucospilota(Brandt, 1835) (Fig. 6B)
Material examined. 2 specimens, Malem intertidal, 10 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Utwa intertidal, 11 Jan 2012; 2 specimens, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012; 2 specimens, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 4, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern China, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, West Indian Ocean, eastern Africa (Madagascar), Red Sea.
  • 43.Holothuria(Stauropora)pervicaxSelenka, 1867
Material examined. 1 specimen, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 2, 9 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Utwa intertidal, 12 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern China, Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo- West Pacific, Indian Ocean, eastern Africa, Red Sea.
  • 44.Holothuria(Thymiosycia)impatiens(Forskål, 1775)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Malem diving 2, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), Guam, Indo-West Pacific, West Indian Ocean, Africa (Kenya, Mauritius, Mozambique, Tanzania), Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Venezuela Sea.
  • GenusLabidodemasSelenka, 1867
  • *45.Labidodemas rugosum(Ludwig, 1875) (Fig. 6L-Q)
Holothuria rugosa Ludwig, 1875: 110; HL Clark, 1946: 435; Domantay, 1954: 348.
Holothuria triremis Sluiter, 1901: 19.
Labidodemas rugosum : Rowe, 1969: 133; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 176; Sloan et al., 1979: 121; Cherbonnier, 1988: 53; Rowe and Gates, 1995: 304; Paulay, 2012: 210775.
Material examined. 1 specimen, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011.
Remarks. This specimen was collected under coral rock. Body color is translucent white. Contracted body length in alcohol is 3 cm which is one-third of living body length.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern China, Philippines, Guam, Malaysia, Indo-West Pacific, Indian Ocean, eastern Africa (Kenya, Madagascar, Somalia).
  • GenusPearsonothuriaLevin in Levin, Kalinin and Stonik, 1984
  • 46.Pearsonothuria graeffei(Semper, 1868)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Malem diving 1, 24 Jan 2011.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern China, Philippines, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, Africa (Comoros, Madagascar), Red Sea.
  • GenusStichopusBrandt, 1835
  • 47.Stichopus chloronotusBrandt, 1835 (Fig. 2O)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 3, 11 Jan 2012; 4 specimens, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern China, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, West Indian Ocean, eastern Africa (Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique), Red Sea.
  • 48.Stichopus herrmanniSemper, 1868
Material examined. 2 specimens, Tafunsak diving 2, 26 Jan 2011.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), southern China, Philippines.
  • 49.Stichopus horrensSelenka, 1867 (Fig. 6C)
Material examined. 1 specimen, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 1 specimen, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Hawaii, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indonesiam Indian Ocean (Maldive Island).
  • Order Dendrochirotida Grube, 1840
  • Family Sclerodactylidae Penning, 1902
  • GenusAfrocucumisDeichmann, 1944
  • 50.Afrocucumis africana(Semper, 1867)
Material examined. 13 specimens, Lelu intertidal, 25 Jan 2011; 2 specimens, Malem intertidal, 10 Jan 2012; 2 specimens, Utwa intertidal, 11 Jan 2012; 2 specimens, Walung intertidal, 12 Jan 2012; 1 specimen, Tafunsak intertidal 4, 13 Jan 2012.
Distribution. Micronesia (Kosrae), Korea (Jeju Island), Japan (Kyushu-Ryukyu Islands), southern China, Guam, northern Australia, Malaysia, Indo-West Pacific, West Indian Ocean, eastern Africa (Madagascar).
DISCUSSION
A faunistic study of echinoderms was performed at eight intertidal and 12 subtidal sites on Kosrae during January 24-28, 2011 and January 9-13, 2012 ( Table 1 , Fig. 1 ). In total, 276 specimens were collected and classified as 62 species: 50 species were identified based on morphological characteristics, and 12 were unidentified. Thirty-two echinoderm species, of which 28 species were identified, were collected in the intertidal zone. Thirty-five species were collected by SCUBA at the subtidal zone, and 27 were identified. The echinoderm fauna of the subtidal zone was more diverse than that of the intertidal zone. Seven echinoderms, including one asteroid ( L. laevigata ), one ophiuroid ( O. savignyi ), three echinoids ( D. setosum , E. mathaei , and T. gratilla ), and two holothuroids [ A. africana and H. (M.) hilla ] are distributed up to the Korea Strait and Jeju Island of Korea due to the warm Kuroshio Current. Holothuroids abundantly inhabited Kosrae, and H. ( H. ) atra, H. ( M. ) leucospilota, A. mauritiana , and S. chloronotus were particularly dominant species. O. scolopendrina was also a dominant ophiuroid and inhabited rock cracks at the wide rocky zone of station 5 (Utwa intertidal) ( Table 1 ).
The echinoderm fauna of Kosrae was first reported by Kerr (1994) with regard to the Holothuroidea. Then, Kerr et al. (2008) surveyed 21 locations during 2 weeks (February 22- March 7, 2008) and reported 74 species including 20 unidentified species. We newly reported 16 echinoderms from Kosrae which were not reported by Kerr (1994) or Kerr et al. (2008). In addition, some unidentified species need to be identified for further verification, including four crinoids ( Comanthus sp., Lamprometra sp., Mariametridae sp.1 and sp.2), two asteroids ( Aquilonastra sp. and Gomophia sp.), four ophiuroids ( Ophiocoma sp., Ophiomastix sp., Ophionereis sp., and Ophiothrix sp.), and two holothuroids ( Holothuria sp.1 and Holothuria sp.2).
Acknowledgements
This study was supported by the Sahmyook University Research Fund, 2012 and a part of the project titled “Development of overseas marine biological resources and their utilization system” funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs, Korea.
References
Agassiz A 1863 List of the echinoderms sent to different institutions in exchange for other specimens, with annotations. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 1 17 - 28
Agassiz A 1873 A revision of the echini. Part. 3. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 3 383 - 628
Agassiz A , Clark HL 1907 Preliminary report on the echini collected, in 1902, among the Hawaiian Islands, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross, in charge of commander Chauncey Thomas, U.S.N., commanding. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 50 231 - 259
Agassiz L , Desor E 1846 Catalogue raisonné des familles des genres et des espéces de la Classe de Echinoderms. Annals Science Naturelles, Zoologie 3 325 - 374
Blainville HM 1825 Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles, dans lequel un traité méthodiquement des différences tetres de la nature, considérés soit en eux-memes, d’après l’état actuel de nos connoissances, soit relativement à l’utilité qu’en peuvent retierer la médicine, l’agriculture, le commerce et les arts. Vol. 37. Levrault Paris 93 - 120
Blainville HM 1834 Manuel d’Actinologie ou de Zoophytologie. F.G. Levrault Paris 1 - 644
Cherbonnier G 1988 Faune de Madagascar. Publiée sous les auspices du Gouvernement de la République Malgache 70 1 - 292
Clark AH 1908a The crinoid genus Comatula Lamarck: with a note on the Encrinus parrae of Guerin. Proceeding of the United States National Museum 33 683 - 688
Clark AH. 1908b The homologies of the arm joints and arm divisions in the recent crinoids of the families of the Comatulida and the Pentacrinitidae. Proceeding of the United States National Museum 35 113 - 131
Clark AH 1909 On a collection of recent crinoids from the Philippine Islands. Proceeding of the United States National Museum 36 391 - 410
Clark AH 1912 The crinoids of the Indian Ocean. Echinoderma of the Indian Museum, Part VII. Indian Museum Calcutta 1 - 325
Clark AH 1921 A monograph of the existing crinoids, Vol. 1. The Comatulids, part 2. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 82 1 - 795
Clark AH 1926 Notes on a collection of echinoderms from the Australian museum. Records of the Australian Museum 15 183 - 192
Clark AH 1939 Echinoderms (other than holothurians) collected on the presidential cruise of 1938. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 98 1 - 18
Clark AH 1949 Ophiuroidea of the Hawaiian Islands. Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum 195 1 - 133
Clark AM 1952 Some echinoderms from southern Africa. Transactions Royal Society of South Africa 33 193 - 221
Clark AM 1967a Echinoderms from the Red Sea, part 2 (crinoids, ophiuroids, echinoids and more asteroids). Israel South Read Sea Expedition 1962 Reports No. 21, 41 26 - 58
Clark AM 1967b Notes on asteroids in the British Museum (Natural History). V. Nardoa and some other ophidiasterids. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 15 169 - 198
Clark AM , Rowe FWE 1971 Monograph of shallow-water Indo-West Pacific echinoderms. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 690 1 - 238
Clark HL 1908 Some Japanese and East Indian echinoderms. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 51 279 - 311
Clark HL 1912 Hawaiian and other Pacific echini. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 34 205 - 383
Clark HL 1915 Catalogue of recent ophiurans. Memoirs of the Museum Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 25 163 - 376
Clark HL 1916 Report on the sea-lilies, starfishes, brittle-stars and sea-urchins obtained by the F.I.S. Endeavour on the coasts of Queensland, New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia, and western Australia. Biological Results of the Fishing experiments carried on by the F.I.S. Endeavour 1909-1914 4 1 - 123
Clark HL 1921 The echinoderm fauna of Torres Strait: its composition and its origin. Papers from the Department of Marine Biology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 10 1 - 218
Clark HL 1925 A catalogue of the recent sea-urchins (Echinoidea) in the collection on the British Museum (Natural History). The British Museum Publication (Natural History), Department of Zoology London 1 - 250
Clark HL 1932 Echinodermata (other than Asteroidea) of the Great Barrier reef expedition 1928-29. Scientific Reports of the Great Barrier Reef Expedition 4 197 - 239
Clark HL 1939 Ophiuroidea. Scientific Reports of the John Murray Expedition 6 29 - 136
Clark HL 1946 The echinoderm fauna of Australia: its composition and its origin. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 566 1 - 567
Domantay JS 1954 Some holothurians from Guam and vicinity. Natural and Applied Science Bulletin, University of Philippines 12 336 - 357
Duncan PM 1879 On some Ophiuroidea from the Korean Seas. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 14 445 - 482
Edward A 2002 Marine biodiversity of the Federated States of Micronesia. Report of the Global Environmental Facility, FSM National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan Project. Department of Economic Affairs Federated States of Micronesia, Palikir 1 - 20
Fisher WK 1913 New starfishes from the Philippine Islands, Celebes, and the Moluccas. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 46 201 - 224
Gray JE 1840 A synopsis of the genera and species of the class Hypostoma (Asterias, Linnaeus). Annals of the Magazine of Natural History 275-290 6 175 - 184
Grube AE 1857 Diagnosen einiger neuer Echinodermen. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 23 340 - 344
Hartlaub C 1890 Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Comatuliden fauna des Indischen Archipels. Nachrichten Von Der Gesellschaft Der Wissenschaften Zu Göttingen, 5 168 - 187
Kerr AM 1994 Shallow-water holothuroids (Echinodermata) of Kosrae, eastern Caroline islands. Pacific Science 48 161 - 174
Kerr AM , Kim SW , Michonneau F 2008 The shallow-water echinoderms of Kosrae. University of Guam Marine Laboratory Technical Report 123 1 - 31
Kerr AM , Netchy KH , Hoffman SM 2007 The shallow-water echinoderms of Yap. University of Guam Marine Laboratory Technical Report 121 1 - 34
Kerr AM , Norris DR , Schupp PJ , Meyer KD , Pitlik TJ , Hooper DR , Chamberlain JD , Meyer LS 1992 Range extensions of echinoderms (Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea) to Guam, Mariana Islands. Micronesica 25 201 - 216
Koehler R 1898 Echinoderms recueillis par l’Investigator dans l’Ocean Indien, II les Opiures littorales. Bulletin Scientifique de la France et de la Belgique 31 55 - 126
Koehler R 1905 Ophiures de l’expédition du Siboga. part 2. Ophiures littorales. Siboga Expeditie 45 1 - 142
Koehler R 1922 Ophiurans of the Philippine Seas and adjacent waters. Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin 100 1 - 486
Koehler R 1927 Echinides du Musée Indien á Calcutta, III: Echinides réguliers. Echinoderma of the Indian Museum 10 1 - 158
Kroh A , Mooi R 2012 World Echinoidea database [Internet]. The world register of marine species (WoRMS) ˂http://www.marinespecies.org/echinoidea˃
Lane DJW , Marsh LM , VandenSpiegel D , Rowe FWE 2000 Echinoderm fauna of the South China Sea: an inventory and analysis of distribution patterns. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 2000 (Supplement No. 8) 459 - 493
Ljungman AV 1867 Ophiuroidea viventia huc usque cognita enumerat. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 24 303 - 336
Ljungman AV 1872 Förteckning öfver uti Vestindien af Dr. A. Goës samt under korvetten Josefinas expedition i Atlantiska Oceanen samlade Ophiurider. Öfversigt af Kungliga Vetenskapsakademiens Förhandlingar 28 615 - 658
Ludwig H 1875 Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Holothurien. Arbeiten aus dem Zoologische Zootomischen Institut Würzburg 2 77 - 120
Lütken CF 1856 Bidrag til kundskab om Slangestjernerne. II. Oversigt over de vestindiske Ophiurer. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Förening i Kjøbenhavn 8 1 - 19
Lütken CF 1859 Additamenta ad historiam Ophiuridarum. Anden Afdelning. Det kongelige danske Videnskabernes Selskaps Skrifter. 5 Raekke, Naturvidenskabelig og mathematisk Afdelning 5 177 - 271
Lütken CF 1869 Additamenta ad historiam Ophiuridarum. Tredie Afdelning. Det kongelige danske Videnskabernes Selskaps Skrifter. 5 Raekke, Naturvidenskabelig og mathematisk Afdelning 8 20 - 109
Lütken CF 1871 Fortsatte kritiske og beskrivende Bidrag til Kundskab om Söstjernerne (Asteriderne). Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 23 227 - 304
Lyman T 1865 Ophiuridae and Astrophytidae. Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard University 1 1 - 200
Mah C 2012 World Asteroidea database [Internet]. The world register of marine species (WoRMS) ˂http://www.marinespecies.org/asteroidea˃
Messing CG 2007 The crinoid fauna (Echinodermata: Crinoidea) of Palau. Pacific Science 61 91 - 111
Messing CG 2012 Oxycomanthus bennetti, Phanogenia gracilis [Internet]. The world register of marine species (WoRMS) ˂http://www.marinespecies.org˃
Michelin H 1845 Zoophytes, Echinodermes et Stellérides de l’Île Maurice. Magasin de Zoologie 1845 1 - 27
Mortensen T 1903 The Danish Ingolf expedition 1895-1896. Vol. 4, No. 2. Echinoidea, part. 1. Bianco Luno Copenhagen 1 - 198
Mortensen T 1933 Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen’s Pacific expedition 1914-16. 66. The echinoderms of St. Helena (other than crinoids). Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk naturhistorisk Forening 93 401 - 473
Mortensen T 1940 Echinoderms from the Iranian Gulf. Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, and Echinoidea. Danish Scientific Investigations in Iran Part, 2 55 - 112
Mortensen T 1948 A monograph of the Echinoidea. IV (2). Clypeasteroida. Clypeasteridae, Arachnoidae, Fibulariidae, Laganidae and Scutellidae. C.A. Reitzel Copenhagen 1 - 471
Müller J 1841 Ueber die Gattungen und Arten der Comatulen. Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin 6 179 - 189
Müller J , Troschel FH 1840 Beobachtungen über die Asteriensammlung des Zoologischen Museums. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1840 100 - 106
Müller J , Troschel FH 1842 System der Asteriden. Papier, Druck und Verlag Braunschweig 1 - 134
O’Loughlin PM , Rowe FWE 2006 A systematic revision of the asterinid genus Aquilonastra O’Loughlin, 2004 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Memoirs of Museum Victoria 63 257 - 287
O’Loughlin PM , Waters JM 2004 A molecular and morphological revision of genera of Asterinidae (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Memoirs of Museum Victoria 61 1 - 40
Pallas PS 1774 Spicilegia Zoologica. Vol. 1. Fasc. 10. G. A. Lange Berlin 1 - 44
Paulay G 2012 Labidodemas lugosum, Opheodesoma clarki [Internet]. The world register of marine species (WoRMS) ˂http://www.marinespecies.org˃
Pawson DL 1978 The echinoderm fauna of Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 2 1 - 30
Perrier E 1869 Recherches sur les pédicellaires et les ambulacres des Astéries et des Oursins. Thèses présentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris pour obtenir le Grade de Docteur ès Sciences Naturelles Victor Masson et fils Paris 1 - 188
Rowe FWE 1969 A review of the family Holothuriidae (Holothurioidea:Aspidochirotida). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology 18 117 - 170
Rowe FWE , Doty JE 1977 The shallow-water holothurians of Guam. Micronesica 13 217 - 250
Rowe FWE , Gates J , Wells A 1995 Echinodermata. In: Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 33 CSIRO Australia Melbourne 1 - 510
Shin S 2012 Brittle stars I: Echinodermata: Asterozoa, Ophiuroidea. In: Invertebrate fauna of Korea, Vol. 32 (Ed., National Institute of Biological Resources). National Institute of Biological Resources Incheon 1 - 143
Shin S , Rho BJ 1996 Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna and flora of the Korea. Vol. 36. Echinodermata. Ministry of Education of Korea Seoul 1 - 780
Sloan NA , Clark AM , Taylor JD 1979 The echinoderms of Aldabra and their habitats. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology 37 81 - 128
Sluiter CP 1901 Die Holothurien der Siboga expedition. Siboga expedite uitkomsten op Zoologische, Botanische, Oceanographische en Geologische gebeid verzameld in Nederland Oost-Indie 1899-1900 aan boord Hm. Siboga onder commano van Lt. ter zee 1e kl. GF. Tydeman uitgeven door Dr. M. Weber. Boekhandel en Drukkerij v. EJ. Brill, Leiden Monograph 44 1 - 142
Stöhr S , O’Hara T 2012 World Ophiuroidea database [Internet]. The world register of marine species (WoRMS) ˂http://www.marinespecies.org/ophiuroidea˃
Von Martens E 1870 Die Ophiuriden des indischen Oceans. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 36 244 - 262