A New Species of the Genus Hippospongia (Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida) from Korea
A New Species of the Genus Hippospongia (Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida) from Korea
Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity. 2011. Mar, 27(1): 93-96
Copyright ©2011, The korean Society of Systematic Zoology
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License( permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • Received : January 01, 2010
  • Accepted : March 03, 2011
  • Published : March 31, 2011
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About the Authors
Kyung Jin Lee
Wildlife Genetic Resources Center, National Institute of Biological Resources, Environmental Research Complex, Incheon 404-708, Korea
Chung Ja Sim
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Nano Technology, Hannam University, Daejeon 305-811, Korea
Sponges of the family Spongiidae are poorly known in Korean waters. This paper describes Hippospongia bergquistia n. sp. of the family Spongiidae (Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida) collected from Moselpo, Jejudo Island, Korea in 2007. This new species has a cavernous construction, rare pseudo-tertiary fibre, and rare primary fibres.
The family Spongiidae consists of six valid genera; Spongia , including three subgenera, S. (Spongia), S. (Australospongia) , and S. (Heterofibria), Hippospongia, Coscinoderma, Hyatella, Leiosella , and Rhppaloeides . Important characteristics used to distinguish genera include surface armouring, skeletal morphology, and internal lacunae (Hooper and van Soest, 2002). The genus Hippospongia is characterized by the presence of a cavernous construction and rare primary fibres (Poléjaeff, 1884). There are only three valid species of Hippospongia worldwide: H. communis (Lamarck, 1814) and H. gossypina (Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1864) from Europe and H. lachne (de Laubenfels, 1936) from the West Indies (Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1864; Dendy, 1905, de Laubenfels, 1936; van Soest, 1978; Bergquist, 1980). Generic assignment of species, except for three valid species of Hippospongia , remains undetermined (Cook and Bergquist, 2001; Hooper and van Soest, 2002).
Hippospongia from Korean waters is reported for the first time. Sponge specimens were collected by SCUBA diving at a depth of 20-30 m at Moselpo, Jejudo Island, Korea. They were fixed in 95% methyl alcohol or absolute ethyl alcohol, and stored separately. The sponge surface and conules were observed under a stereomicroscope. The skeletal arrangement was studied under a light microscope and scanning electron microscope (S-3000N; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). The type specimens have been deposited at the Natural History Museum, Hannam University (HUNHM).
  • Phylum Porifera Grant, 1836
  • Class Demospongiae Sollas, 1885
  • Order Dictyoceratida Minchin, 1900
  • Family Spongiidae Gray, 1867
1* Hippospongia berquistia n. sp. (Figs. 1, 2)
- Type specimen.
Holotype (Por. 105), Moselpo (Unjin Harbor), Jejudo Island, 28 Sep 2007, Mun SE, by SCUBA diving at 20-30 m in depth (HUNHM). Paratype (Por. 105-1), collected with Holotype (HUNHM).
- Description.
Upright with sub-cylindrical cavernous body. Size up to 8×13 cm high and 2-5 mm thick. Surface smooth and covered with thin transparent membrane pierced by numerous large and small pores. Top of body narrower than lower part. Numerous pores of variable diameter arranged in groups of 8-15. Texture, elastic but easily torn. Colour, ivory and pale purple in life. Large lacunae well developed through whole body.
- Skeleton.
Cored primary fibres, 30-60 ㎛ in diameter, near surface but very simple and rare. Uncored secondary fibres, 20-60 ㎛ in diameter, mainly forming polygonal mesh, 160-520 ㎛ in diameter, just under sponge surface. Inside choanosome, irregular skeletal mesh. Pseudo-tertiary fibres, 8-12 ㎛ in diameter, restricted to sponge base near primary fibres.
- Etymology.
This species is named for the late Dr. Patricia Bergquist, former professor at the University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
- Remarks.
This new species is distinguished from other hippospongian species by pseudo-tertiary fibres in the sponge
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Hippospongia bergquistia n. sp. A Specimen; B Surface of the specimen; C Dermal membrane (arrowhead); D Lacunae in the specimen; E Dermal membrane (arrowhead). Scale bars: A=40 mm C E=5 mm D=15 mm.
base part. Hippospongia communis is extremely tough, as durable as leather, and has extremely rare primary fibres, 80 ㎛ in diameter, and very thin fibres, 9-17 ㎛ in diameter (Lamarck, 1814; de Laubenfels, 1954). H. gossypina has thicker primary fibres, 50-100 ㎛ in diameter, and secondary fibres, 10-45 ㎛ in diameter, compared with fibres of the
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Hippospongia bergquistia n. sp. A Primary fibre near the base (arrowhead); B C Secondary fibres; D E The end of the secondary fibres (arrowheads); F G Pseudo-tertiary fibres near the base part. Scale bars: A G=300 ㎛ B C=500 ㎛ D-F=100 ㎛.
new species (Duchassaing de Fonbressin and Michelotti, 1864; van Soest, 1978). Fibres of H. lachne are approximately equal in diameter, around 30 ㎛ (de Laubenfels, 1936, 1948).
Korean name: 1*버키스트히포스폰지해면 (신칭)
This research was supported by a grant from the Marine Biotechnology Programme funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs of the Korean Government. We thank Dr. G.J. Bakus, Department of Biological Science, University of Southern California, for his review of the manuscript.
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